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Chronology, History, Geography, Languages, Systematic 
Tables, Poetry, Prose, and Arithmetic. 









Illustrated by Engravings. 


Constat memorinm halere quiddam artificii et non omnem d 
natura proficisci, Cic, 

%tm^on : 


M.Keene and J. Cumming, Dublin; Bell and Bradfute, Edinburgh ; 
and Brash and Held, Ulaigow. 


'[^terta at €)t3tiojur0'=i^atC] 

J, Fawcett, Printer, 
Newcastle Street, Loudon. 




TO THE -^Q^ 


As the art which forms the subject of 
this volume is sufficiently discoursed on, 
in the introductory matter prefixed to the 
system contained in the present work, 
it remains only to give an account of the 
origin of this publication. 

The system, here presented to the pub- 
lic, is that taught by M. Von Fein- 
aigle; who, by the public exhibitions 
which he has given of the proficiency of 
some of his pupils, has excited a very ge- 
neral interest and curiosity as to the mne- 
monic art. The following pages contain, 
amidst various other matter, the sub- 
stance of fifteen of the Professor's lec- 
tures, on the application of the art to 
Chronology, Geography, History, Lan- 
guage, Systematic Tables, and Poetry and 
Prose; being the whole of one course, 
with the exception of one lecture on 
Arithmetic and Algebra. This was omit- 
ted because the subject to which it relates, 
is so complicated in itself, as to render it 


impossible to give an intelligible account 
of it within the compass necessarily pre- 
scribed to this publication ; and because 
the subject was not of such general in- 
terest or utility, as those which are here 
treated of. 

The Editor is not aware that any apo- 
logy is due to the Professor on account of 
this publication. The principal peculia- 
rities of his system had found their way 
into pretty general circulation, by oral 
communication, before this work was con- 
templated : and the accounts which were 
thus circulated, like most traditions, were 
by no means calculated to give satisfac- 
tory or creditable notions on the subject. 

The Editor attended one course of 
lectures, and, after the example of several 
of his friends, took very copious notes. 
Finding, however, that the materials 
which he had thus collected, were so 
confused and disorderly, as to be nearly, 
if not wholly, useless ; and being unwil- 
ling that the time he had bestowed on the 
subject should become entirely without 
profit, he applied himself to draw up 
these lectures in a more intelligible form, 
for his oivn vse ; supplying, at length, the 
analogies and other illustrations to which 
the lecturer had very cursorily and dis- 
tantly alluded. In this attempt, parum 
Claris dare lucent., the matter swelled it- 


self nearly to the contents of the followmg 

Several of his friends who had attend- 
ed the Lectures, were pleased to think 
that the subject had profited much in 
his hands ; and that the science, thus il- 
lustrated and explained, was much moret 
intelligible than it was in its original state 
of communication. They accordingly 
urged him to publish this improved ac- 
count of the system, as well for the be- 
ne fit of those persons who had actually at- 
tended courses of Lectures, as of those 
who wonld be satisfied with such an ac- 
count of it as is herein contained. With 
this request he has complied, whether 
rightly or erroneously, it is not, perhaps, 
for him to determine. On this subject 
he only wishes to add, that, however se- 
condari) and derivative tiiis undertaking 
may, at first sight, appear to those who 
have not attended the Lectures, — they 
who have attended them, will be able, (the 
Editor is confident,) to give him ample 
credit for oriqiuaUly . 

No expense has been spared in sup- 
plying this volume with appropriate en- 
gravings, together with the diagrams ne- 
cessary to illustrate the work, and which 
have been chiefly furnished to him by tlm 
kindness of his friends. 
A 3 


In order to render this work as com- 
plete as possible, an account has been 
inserted of the Principal Systems of Ar- 
tificial Mevnory : and, accordingly, the 
public and private repositories of curious 
literature have been diligently searched 
for- scarce books on this subject. 

Some instances of the extraordinary 
powers oi Natural Memory conclude the 
volume: they have been inserted from 
a persuasion that they will be new to 
many persons, and agreeable to all. In 
short, nothing has been omitted, which 
was thought capable of illustrating or 
giving interest to the subject; and it is 
hoped, nothing has been inserted, which 
the curious reader would wish to be sup- 

Under these circumstances, the Editor 
takes leave of his readers, in full conli- 
dence, that w hatever may be the success 
of his publication, he has at least deserv- 
ed well of them, in his intentions and en- 
deavours to promote their advancement 
in useful knowledge. 


August, 1812. 



If the sale of a book b6 any criterion of 
its merit, the present work must stand 
high in the opinion of the public, as a 
large impression fms been disposed of, in 
the short space o^four months. The ge- 
neral utility, indeed, of this * New Art of 
Memory,' needed only to be known to 
be properly estimated and successfully 

The appearance of such a system 
as this, has produced (as miglit na- 
tuVally be expected) many imitators. 
The merit of having improved upon the 
original plan of M. Feinaigle, does not, 
however, appear to belong to any of these 
persons; for the editor is enabled to state, 
without fear of refutation, that either an 
attendance upon M. Feinaigle's lectures, 
or indeed the former edition of this book. 


has furnished more than the outlines of 
those systems which were so recently 
taught in the metropolis. The diagrams, 
indeed, distributed to the pupils who 
attended these lectures were, evidently, 
copied from those of M. Feinaigle. The 
hieroglyphics, it is true, were exchanged 
for others of a different nature, but the 
principles and the practice of the art were 
precisely the same. 

The chief peculiarities which distin- 
guish this edition from that which pre- 
ceded it, are the following : — 

1. The editor has adopted a more con- 
venient and connected disposition of his 
materials, and has given an introduction 
to mnemonics partly new, together with 
several additions and illustrations calcu- 
lated to extend the knowledge of this art, 
and to accelerate the progress of the stu- 
dent. Among the additions may be named 
tlie application of the art to Arithmetic, 
which was not inserted in the former 
edition, for the reasons stated in another 
part of this volum e. 

2. Some new and interesting notices 
of hooks have been inserted in the ac- 


count of the Principal Systems of Artifi- 
cial Memory. This sketch contains no- 
tices of more than sixty* works on the 
subject, including copious extracts from 
many books of great curiosity and value. 
A small portion of extraneous matter has 
also been omitted, and the whole of 
LiQwe's Mnemonics has been introduced. 
This change was made for two reasons ; 
(1.) on account of the extreme scarcity of 
Lowe's original tract, and (2.) because 
some persons, perhaps, may be inclined 
to practise this system, and yet be un- 
willing to purchase the last edition of 
Grey for this purpose. 

3. To the account of instances of the 
extraordinary powers of natural memory, 
is appended an interesting narrative of 
Zerah Colbium, the young American who 
is so well known for his wonderful pow- 
ers in extemporary calculation. This 
extraordinary youth seems, indeed, to ri- 

• It is, perhaps, worthy of remark, that oue of the most cele- 
brated bibliographers of the present day, Brunet, — in his 
Manuel du Libraire, {Paris 1810,) notices one work only on Ar- 
tiBcial Memory, viz. that oH Grataroli translated by Hope — tiie 
same solitary book inserted by De Bure, in his Bibliogra- 
pliie Jnsttuctive. 


of common life, it would be endless and 
useless to specify; the editor will, there- 
fore, conclude in the words oi GrataroU^ 
an eminent writer on mnemonics: — 

' It sufliceth therefore, that we have 
expressed a methode or compendious 
waye, the whiche whosoever foloweth 
shall easel ye (^o tijjat CjCCrd,BC ht tlOt !acft^ 
pngc) get and attayne the certeine and 
sure remembraunce, of manye and sun- 
drye thinges, as due occasion shall re- 
quire : imt ai3f for tf|e ^luggi^l) miti gstik, 
\tt tljcin ^luggc aitti ^itti^t ^till, to tDjjome 
an t^iitgc^ arc ijiisfjrtca^mg/ 

January, 1813. 




CHAP. I. Principles 31 

II. Chronology 55 

III. Geography 63 

Sect. 1. Principles 63 

2. General Geography 68 

S. Particular Geography 76 

4. Statistics 81 

IV. History 88 

V. Language 98 

Sect 1. On learning Languages 98 

2. Sketch of the origin of Language . . 10^ 

3. Account of sonic attempts towarJs 

a universal cliaracter or alphabet 109 
4.Proposed philosophical arrangement 
of the alphabet as applied to lan- 
guages in general 12? 

5. The derivation of French from La- 

tin, shown to consiit, principally, 
in the change of certain letters 
according to established rules. . . . 1S3 

6. Mode of learning the conjugations 

and declcn.xions of a language, ex- 
emplified in the Latin 146 

7. Particular directions for tlie acqui- 

sition of a language 151 



CHAP. VI. Systematic Ta^bles PageI53 

VII. Poetry and Prose 162 

VIII. Arithmetic 173 



Thomas Bradwardin 182 

Matheolus Perusinus 183 

Jacobus Publicius ib. 

John Priis 184 

Baldwin of Savoy 185 

Peter of Ravenna ib. 

Jacobus Colinseus 1 85 

Nicholas Chappusius ib, 

John Romberch 187 

Lodovico Doici 188 

William Grataroli •.... 189 

William Fulwod ib. 

Stephen Cope 206 

John Spangenberg 208 

Cosmus Rosselius ib, 

Jordano Bnmo 208, 2 1 1 

Thomas Watson 20.9 

John Michael Albert • ib. 

Philip Gesvaldi ib. 

John Baptist Porta 212 

F. H.Marafioti 213 

Lambert Schenckel 214 

Anon. ib. 

Joh.Paep. (ialbaicus 214 

Arnold Backhusy 215 

Martin Sommcr 217 

Seinpronius Lancioni 227 

Jolui Henry Alsted • ••• »b. 


AdaraBrux Page 227 

Fr. Mart. Ravellin • -V. •• - 234 

Robert Fludd ..V..?. 236 

Apsines (Graec. Rhet.) 237 

Adam Naulius ib. 

John Willis • 238 

Anon 281 

Joaun. Velasquez >b. 

Hugo Car'Jbnnell 282 

RaymundLully 282,283 

Andrew Valieri 282 

Adrian le Cuirot ib. 

Joh. Conrade Dannliawcr 283 

Meyssonerus • ib. 

Hejiry Herdson 286 

John Belot 307 

Anon. ib. 

Athanasius Kirchcr ib. 

Johannes Austriacus 308 

John Shaw 309 

Simon Wastell ib. 

Anon. 328 

Jo. Brancaccio 239 

Marius D'Assigny ' 330 

Thomas Erhardt 338 

Claude de Buffier ib. 

Richard Grey 340 

Solomon Lowe 363 

Dan. Geo. Morhof 404 

Fr. B. J. Feyjoo -405 

Anacardina, Aguilera, Epiphanius de Moirans, 
Conti, Mesji'^orus A. Ferreya de Vera 406 



Hortensius Page 407 

Seneca 408 

Aviceima ib. 

Joseph Scaliger 409 

Bishop Jewell ib. 

Lipsius 410 

Muret ^ 411 

Famianus Strada 412 

Thomas Fuller 413 

Humphry Burton 414 

Dr. Wallis 415 

Antonio Magliabechi , , 4l6 

William Lyon 419 

Jedediah Buxton 420 

Zerah Colburn 437 

Directions respecting the Plates. 

Portrait to face the Title. 
Plate I p. 38 

II 53 

III 64 

IV 69 

V ibid. 

%• Before the reader uses Plates II. III. IV, and V. it will be 
mdvisable to fake them out 0/ the volume and paste them on stiff 
paper. If the white paper be cut aunty, it will fold up, so as accu- 
rately to represent the floor, four walls, and deling of a room. 

Mti of i$temor». 


]\t EMORY, in the sense in which it is to be 
understood in the present work, (for it is not 
employed always in the same precise sense) can- 
not, perhaps, be better defined than in the words 
of Mr. DuGALD Stewart, " It is that fa- 
culty which enables us to treasure up, and pre- 
serve for future use, the knowledge we acquire ; 
a faculty (he adds) which is obviously the great 
foundation of all intellectual improvement, and 
without which, no advantage could be derived 
from the most enlarged experience." 

With the various metaphysical theories con- 
cerning Memory which have been advanced by 
different philosophers, we shall not pretend to 
meddle; as such an investigation would not 
much assist our present purposes. Whatever 
may be the relation in which the Memory stands 
to the other principles of our constitution, it is 


beyond all controversy, a most necessary and ex- 
cellent faculty : so much so, that, as Dr. 
Watts observes, " all other abilities of the 
mind borrow from hence their beauty and per- 
fection ; for other capacities of the soul are al- 
most useless without this. To what purpose (as 
the same eminent author inquires) are all our 
labours in knowledge and wisdom, if we want 
Memory to preserve and use what we have ac- 
quired ? What signify all other intellectual or 
spiritual improvements, if they are lost as soon 
as they are obtained ? It is Memory alone that 
enriches the mind, by preserving what our labour 
and industry daily collect. In a word, there can 
be neither knowledge, nor arts, nor sciences, 
without memory ; nor can there be any improve- 
ment of mankind in virtue or morals, or the 
practice of religion, without the assistance and 
influence of this power. Without memory, the 
soul of man would be but a poor, destitute, 
naked being, with an everlasting blank spread 
over it, except the fleeting ideas of the present 

This faculty exists, however, in very difi^erent 
degrees, indiff'erent men. Some persons possess 
astonishing vigour of memory,* while others are 

* For many remarkable instances of the extraordinary 
powers of natural memory, the reader is referred to the 
conclusion of this volume. 


deplorably deficient in this faculty; or, as Mr. 
Locke has beautifully expressed the same idea, 
** in some persons, the mind retains the charac- 
ters drawn on it like marble, in others like free- 
stone, and in others, little better than sand."* 
Theniistocles, the Athenian, indeed, is saidf to 
have been oppressed by the strength and tenacity 
of his memory, and to have wished for the pos- 
session of the faculty of oblivion, rather than an 
increase of the powers of remembrance ; but it is 

* IMr. Locke, speaking of the continual decay of our 
ideas, says, " The ideas, as well as cliildren, of our youth, 
often die before us : and our minds represent those tombs, 
to which we are approaching; wiiere though the brass 
and marble remain, yet the inscriptions are effaced 
by time, and thp imagery moiiUI/^rs awoy. The pictures 
drawn in our minds are laid in fading colours, and if 
not sometimes refreshed, vanish and disappear. How 
much the constitution of our bodies, and the make of our 
animal spirits are concerned in this, and whether the tem- 
per of the brain makes this dift'erence, that in some it re- 
tains the characlers drawn on it like marble, in others like free- 
stone, and in others, little belter than sand ; I shall not here 
inquire : though it may seem probable, that the constitu- 
tion of the body does sometimes influence the memory j 
since we oftentimes find a disease quite strip the mind of 
all its ideas, and the flames of a fever in a few days calcine 
all those images to dust and confusion, which seemed to 
be as lasting as*if graved in marble." IVorks, vol. i. p. 76. 
ed. 4to. 1777. 

t Plutarch Apophtl). 


more than probable that, in this respect, if the 
anecdote be true, he stands an exception from 
all the re.n of mankind. Plenus rimanim sum, 
may be truly, and without reproach, said by al- 
most every man, with regard to his memory : 
and that not only concerning matters difficult to 
be retained, but even concerning the most ordi- 
nary occurrences of life. 

To remedy this inconvenience, and provide as 
effectually as possible against the mischiefs of 
forgetful ness, various artifices have, at different 
times, been resorted to. Of these, the topical 
memory of the antients stands first, both in point 
of date and of celebrity ; and as its principles 
are very analogous to those of the present system, 
we shall give some account of the origin and 
general plan of that invention. And, as PRO- 
FESSOR Barron, has Jilread trodden this 
path, ho apology will be offered to the reader 
for presenting to him, that author's very excellent 
account of the subject, prefaced by some of the 
ingenious remarks with which he has introduced 

'" The recollection* which ordinary memo- 
ries possess, appears to be resolvable into two 
principal sources, the vivacity of the impression 
and association. ***** 

* Barron's Lect. on Belles Lettres and Logic, v. 1. p. 609. 


" But the principal expedient for assisting the 
memory is derived from association. For in- 
stance, when I see a house, I naturally recollect 
the inhabitants, their manner of life, and the in- 
tercourse I have had with them. The sight of a 
book prompts the memory of its contents, and 
the pleasure, or profit, I have received from the 
perusal of it. A view of the sea may suggest the 
idea of a storm, and the painful recollection of 
the loss of property, or of the life of a friend, 
by shipwreck. The act, then, of aiding recol- 
lection by association, is to connect thoughts re- 
mote, or abstract, with others more obvious and 
familiar, that the recurrence of the latter may 
bring along with it the memory of the former. 
Thus the sight of my ring, which I cannot miss 
to observe, reminds me of the action, to suggest 
the remembrance of which I moved it from one 
finger to another. The ringing of the bell, or 
the sounding of the clock, prompts the recollec- 
tion of the business [ had resolved to perform 
at these times. A glimpse of the first words of 
a paragraph, or a page, introduces the recollec- 
tion of the whole. In a word, we must connect 
the things we wish to remember with the imme- 
diate objects of our senses, tiiat offer themselves 
daily to our attention, but particularly with the 
objects of our sight, the most vigorous and lively 
of all our senses, and of which the objects are, 
B 3 


perhaps, more numerous than those of all our 
other senses put together. 

" This theory is the foundation of all contri- 
vances which have been, or, perhaps, can be, 
employed to help recollection. It is the ground- 
work of the famous artificial memory of Simo- 
NiDES, a lyric poet, of the island of Ceos, one 
of the Cyclades, who flourished in the sixty-first 
olympiad, about five hundred and thirty-five 
years before the birth of Christ, and [who] is ce- 
lebrated by Cicero and Qu ;NCTi LI AN. Both 
these authors relate the folkvving mythological 
incident, on the occasion which suggested the. 
invention. Simonides was employed by Scopas, 
a rich Thessalian, to compose a panegyric on 
him for a ce; iu; sum of money ; was invited to 
a festival, given by Scopas to his fi lends, in 
order to rehearse it, but was sordidly refused 
more than iialf the stipulated compensation, — be- 
cause puzzled; perhaps, with the sterilify of the 
principal subject, he had introduced a long epi- 
sode, amounting to half the poem, in praise of 
Castor and Pollux. Simonides so'»n found an 
avenger of the insult. He was immediately sum- 
moned froMi the company by two young men on 
horseback, supposed to be Castor and Polhix in 
disguise, who appeared to protect their favourite 
poet ; and who, as soon as they had saved Simo- 
nides, made the roof fall on Scopas and his 


company, bruising them so to death that not a 
lineament of them could be known. Simonides, 
by recollecting the manner in which they sat at 
table, was enabled to distinguish them, and to 
deliver them to their friends for burial. The aid 
which the recollection of the poet received, on 
this occasion, is said to have suggested the idea 
of an artificial memory. 

" The principle of the scheme of Simonides, 
is to transfer a train of ideas, the archetypes of 
which are not the objects of sense, and are, 
therefore, of difficult recollection, to another 
train which we cannot miss to recollect, because 
the archetypes are not only objects of sense, but 
objects of sight, with which archetypes we are 
perfectly familiar; or which may be placed ac- 
tually before our eyes. Suppose then Simo- 
nides were to commit to memory a discourse, 
consisting of speculations concerning govern- 
ment, finance:!, naval affairs, or wisdom, none 
of the archetypes of which could be made objects 
of sense, at least, at the time of delivery ; and 
to assist his recollection, he were to connect the 
series of ideas, in that discourse, with a series of 
objects, which he could either place in sight, or 
with which he was so familiar, that he could not 
fail to recollect them ; he would proceed in the 
following manner. He would take a house, for 
instance, either the one in which he might deli- 
ver the discourse, or another ; with every part of 


which he was perfectly acquamted. He would 
begin at some fixed point of that house, suppose 
the right side of the door, and he would proceed 
round it in a circular line, till he arrived at the 
point from which he set out. He would divide 
the circumference of the house into as many 
parts as there were different topics, or para- 
graphs, in the discourse. He would distinguish 
each paragraph by some symbol of the subject it 
contained ; that on government, by the symbol 
of a crown, or a sceptre ; that on finances, by 
the symbol of some current coin ; that on naval 
affairs, by tiie figure of a ship ; that on wisdom, 
by the figure of the goddess who presided over 
it. He would either actually transfer, or sup- 
pose transferred, these symbols to the different 
compartments of the house, and then all he had 
to do, in order to recollect the subject of any 
paragraph, was, either to cast his eye on the 
symbol during delivery, or to remember upon 
what division the symbol was placed. The 
memory, by this contrivance, easily recalled the 
discourse. The orator eidier saw, or could not 
fail to remember the compartments, because he 
was perfectly familiar with them. Neither could 
he forget the symbols of each paragraph, because 
they were no more than hieroglyphical paintings 
of the sense. 

"In the place of a house, we may assume, 
according to Quinctilian, a public building, the 


walls of a city, a well known road, or a picture, 
to divisions of which we may refer our symbols. 
Metrodorns assumed the circle of the zodiac, 
which he divided into 360 compartments, equal 
to the number of degrees of which it consists, 
making a compartment of each degree. 

" Some people carried this art so far as to 
comprehend the words of a discourse, by con- 
structing symbols for each of them, and refer- 
ring, in like manner, these symbols to compart- 
ments. This seems to have constituted nearly 
what we call short-hand writing, except that our 
short-hand writers oblige themselves to commit 
to memory the meaning of their symbols, and 
pretend not to refer these to any more familiar 
objects. Quinctilian accordingly observes, that 
this pretended improvement terminated in confu- 
sion, and embarrassed, much more than it assisted, 
recollection. However much, therefore, he might 
prize the scheme of Simonides, he rejected this 
supplement as nugatory, or detrimental." 

This system of Mnemonics was a favourite 
pursuit with the Greeks ; — and was cultivated 
with success by the Romans, among whom Cras- 
sus, Julius Cagsar, and Seneca, are said to have 
particularly excelled in this art 

Such were the origin and principles of tiie cele- 
brated topical memori/ of the antients : from 
which source are derived all the various modern 
systems of local and symbolical memory, that 


have been promulgated from the thirteenth to the 
eighteenth century. We shall here briefly reca- 
pitulate the names of the principal zcriters on the 
subject, referring our readers lO another part of 
this volume for an acj^count of the different sys- 

That luminary of science, Haymund Lully, 
born in 1236, seems to have been the first mo- 
dern who brought the art of memory into notice, 
after it had lain dormant for so many ages. This 
art was termed transcendental, aiid distinguished 
by his name. 

In the Jifteenth century mnemonics seem to 
have occupied the attention oi PnhliciuSy Priis, 
Peter of Cologne, and Peter of Ravenna, who 
successively published systems of local and sym- 
bolical memory. 

In the year 15S3, Romberch published his 
Congcstorium Artijiciosct Memorici, which con- 
tains a very complete view of his predecessors' 
labours, with many important additions. Gra~ 
taro/i, an Italian physician, was the next writer 
on this subject, who in 1555, put forth a trea- 
tise, * de memoria reparanda etc.* This was 
translated into English by William Fulwod, 
under the title of ' the Castel of Memorie ;' and 
afterwards rendered into French by Stephen Cope. 
The treatise of Grataroli contains nuich curious 

The works of Spangenberg, Rosselius, Bruno, 


Albert, Porta, Marajioti, and others, appear- 
ed about the close of the sixteenth century, but 
they contained nothing very materially new on 
the mnemonic art. 

The seventeenth century was remarkable for 
the number and variety of mnemonistic works 
which issued from the presses of the continent. 
England also had her share in this honour, anil 
produced one or two books worthy of examina- 
tion. The system of Schenckel occupied the 
greatest share of attention in France and Ger- 
many. Schenckel was followed by Alsted, Brux, 
RaveUin, and Nau/uis. Brux also wrote an 
essay upon the * art of forgetfulness,' and gave 
numerous rules for acquiring perfection in this 
useful science. 

The principal work published in Englayid, on 
the subject of the local memory, appeared in 
16 18, under the title oiMnenionica; shears 
Meminiscendi, etc. by John Willis ; and was trans-^ 
lated in I66I, by one Sowersby, a bookseller. 
This curious and rare volume is replete with in- 
formation respecting- mnemonics, and discourses 
at large concerning every particular which re- 
quires the attention of the student. 

In the year l651, Henri/ Herdson, who styles 
himself a Professor by Public x\uthority in the 
University of Cambridge, published his Ars 
MnemonicOfSive Herdsonus Bnixiatus, etc. in 


Latl» and Euglish. It is merely a republication 
of part of Brux's Simonides Redivivus. 

The mnemonical essays published on the con- 
tinent from 1620 to 1702, were principally by 
Azevedo, Carbonel, Cuirot, Dannhazver, Belotf 
and Brancaccio : — several anonymous systems 
were put forth also during this period. Er- 
hardt's Ars Memoriae, appeared in 1715, and 
Morhof^wdi Father Feyjoo, have, both, disserta- 
tions expressly upon the subject ; the one in his 
Polyhistor, and the other in his Cartas Eruditas 
y Curiosas. 

From the time of Feyjoo (1781) to I8O6, 
(if we except a German translation of Schenckel 
by Kliiber) the local and symbolical memory 
seems to have lain completely dormant. In the 
Philosophical Magazine for December, I8O6, 
there is the following notice : — 

" A new branch of science is begun to be stu- 
died in Germany. It is the science called by the 
antients mnemonica, or the art of memory. We 
find in Herodotus, that it was carefully taught 
and practised in Egypt, whence it was trans- 
planted into Greece. This historian attributes 
the invention of it to Simonides ; but this opi- 
nion is refuted in a dissertation published by M, 
Morgenstern, of Dorpat, upon mnemonica. He 
there asserts, that this science is more intimately 
connected with the Egyptian hieroglyphics than 


is generally thought, and that this connection 
may help to explain them. However the case 
may be, this singular art, so long neglected, has 
reappeared in Germany with some eclat. M. 
Aretin, who may be accounted the restorer of it, 
has recently had M. Kaestner, a clergyman, as 
his pupil, whom he has permitted to teach his 
new doctrine at Leipzic ; at the same time exact- 
ing a promise from him not to suffer his pupils 
to write down his lectures. M. Kaestner travels 
about like Dr. Gall. 

" According to a book written, it is said, by 
a child of twelve years of age, and mentioned in 
the Leipzic catalogue for the last September 
fair, mnemonica is a true science, and may be 
taught by means of seventeen different rules, and 
which will give a memory to individuals of every 

In March 1807, M. Gregor Von Fein- 
AiGLE, a native of Baden, visited Paris, and 
delivered Lectures on his ' New System of 
Mnemonics and Methodics.' In the PhilosO' 
phical Magazine for June, 1807,* there is the 
following extract from a letter written by M. 
FiCHTEL, at Paris, to a friend in London, 
giving some account of M. Von Feinaigle's 
exhibitions there. 

* Vol. xxviii. p. 92. 


" Paris, 2d March, l807. 
" During my residence in this metropolis I 
heard a great deal of a new method of mnemo- 
nique, or of a method to assist and fix our me- 
mory, invented by Gregor de Feinaigle. Not- 
withstanding the simplicity with which he an- 
nounced his lectures in the papers, I could not 
determine myself to become a pupil of his, as I 
thought to find a quack or mountebank, and to 
be laughed at by my friends for having thrown 
away my cash in such a foolish manner. Per- 
haps I should hesitate to this moment about the 
utility of this new invented method to assist our 
natural memory, had I not had the pleasure of 
dining at his excellency's the Count of !RIetter- 
nich, the Austrian ambassador, who followed, 
with all his secretaries, the whole course of lec- 
tures : they all spoke very advantageously of it, 
likewise several other persons of the first rank I 
met there: in consequence of this I was inserted 
into the list of pupils, and I follow, at this mo- 
ment, the lectures. All I can tell you about 
this method is : it is a very simple one, and easy 
to be learned, adapted to all ages and sexes : all 
difficulties in such sciences as requiie an extraor- 
dinary good memory, for instance, the names 
and epochs in history, are at once overcome and 
obviated. There is not one branch of science to 
which this method cannot be applied. It is easy 

Introduction. 15 

to be perceived that such an invention cannot 
pass without some critique, and even sarcasms, 
in the public prints : some of them were very 
injurious, and plausible enough to mislead the 
public, who, knowing nothing of the method, 
are always more ready to condemn than to assist. 
Mr. Feinaigle, to answer all these critics at 
once, adopted a method not less public for Paris 
than the public papers, but less public for the 
rest of Europe : he gave, the 22d of last month, 
a public exhibition to about 2000 spectators, in . 
which he did not appear at all, only about 12 
\)r \5 of his pupils : each of them made such an 
t!pplication of the method as his situation in life 
required. The principal parts were the follow- 
ing : history about names and years ; geography, 
with respect to longitude, latitude, number of 
inhabitants, square miles, &c. &c.; grammar 
in various languages, about different editions of 
the same work ; pandects, their division, and 
title of each book, title, &.c. ; different systems 
of botany, poetry, arithmetic, &c. &c. At lait 
one desired the company to give him one thou- 
sand words, without any connection whatsoever, 
and without numeric order ; for instance, the 
word astronomer, for No. 6*2 ; zvood, for No. 
188; loveli/, for No. 370; dj/nasti/, for No. 
23 ; David, for No. 90, &c. Sec. till all the 


numbers were filled : and he repeated the whole 
(notwithstanding he heard these words, without 
order, and but once,) in the numerical order ; 
or he told you what word was given against any 
one number, or what number any one word 
bore. It is still more striking, but certainly, 
likewise, more difficult, to retain as many num- 
bers however great they may be. For words 
and numbers I could venture myself, with the 
greatest safety, as far as one hundred of each ; 
and I am sure, after having fixed them once, 
which is done in less than ten minutes, I could 
repeat tliem to you at any period, without ever 
thinking any more of them. 

*' M. Feinaigle is about to visit England." 

To the testimony of M. Fichtel may be added 
that of the celebrated French astronomer, M. 
Lalande, who says, " I have witnessed the 
extraordinary effects produced on the memory, 
by the method of M. de Feinaigle : one of his 
pupils is able to repeat, in any order, without 
the least mistake, a table of fifty cities in all 
parts of the world, with the degrees of longitude 
and latitude in which they are situated ; the same 
is the case with chronology : in the Annuaire, I 
have inserted 240 dates from antient and modern 
history, and M. de Feinaigle's Scholars repeat 


them all — an astonishing aid in the study of geo- 
graphy and history !" 

In the Monthly Magazine for September, 
1 807,* there is a letter under the signature of 
Common Sense, which, though somewhat illi- 
beral in its remarks, displays considerable know- 
ledge of tha principles of the * local and symbo- 
lical Memory.' 

" Any person (says this writer) who wishes to 
try an experiment on the powerof association, need 
only make use of the succession of rooms, closets, 
stair-cases, landing-places, and other remarkable 
spots or divisions, of his own house, with all the 
parts of which he may be supposed to be very fa- 
miliar. Let him apply any word or any idea to the 
sevorul parts of the house, in any. determined order 
of their succession, and he will find it almost 
impossible, in recalling the same order of the 
parts of the house, not to associate the idea or 
word which he had previously annexed to each 
part. Thus, for' example, a person may learn 
the succession of the Kuigs of England in ten 
minutes, by annexing the names of each suc- 
ceeding monarch to the successive rooms, clo- 
sets, and principal parts of his own house, 
beginning at the upper story, and regularly de- 

* Vol. xxiv. p. lOj. 
€ 3 


scending ; or, at the lower story, and regularly 

" Any other permanent and familiar class of ob- 
jects will, in general, answer the purpose better 
than the rooms of a house. I was myself edu- 
cated in the vicinity of Oxford-street, and the 
streets running out of that street south and north 
(beginning at Charles-street, Soho-square, and 
proceeding to Dean-street, Chapel- street, and 
so on to Park-lane, and down on the other side 
to Rathbone-place and Hanway-yard) are the 
permanent and familiar set of objects, which I 
make use of for my own purpose of successive 
association. Tiie counties in England, the king- 
doms and the countries throughout the world, 
the villages, and other objects on a great road, 
or the streets of a city, are all well suited to this 
business of association ; and either of them may 
be taken indiflferently by various persons, accord- 
ing to their acquaintance with them. The greater 
the variety of ideas connected with this set of 
objects, which may be called the associating 
key, the more easy, and the more certain is -the 
power of recollection. 

" If I do not hazard a charge of egotism, I 
shall mention, as illustrative facts, that by this 
new art I once committed to memory, in a sin- 
gle murning, the whole of the propositions con- 
tained in the three first books of Euclid, and 


with such perfection, that I could for years after- 
wards specify the number of the book on hearing 
the proposition named, and could recite the 
proposition on hearing the number and the book; 
and I have frequently, in mixed companies, re- 
peated backwards and forwards from fifty to au 
hundred unconnected words, which have been 
but once called over to me. 1 may also add, to 
prove the simplicity of the plan, that I taught 
two of my own children to repeat fifty uncon- 
nected words in a first lesson, of not more than 
half an hour's continuance." 

M. VoN Feinaigle visited England some 
time in the early part of 181 1. In order to exhi- 
bit a detail of his progresses in this country, we 
have made some extracts from the Periodical 
Works and Public Papers which gave an account 
of his various experiments. 

" On the22d of June, 181 1, M.VouFeinaigle* 
gave at the Royal Imtitulion, a public experi- 
ment of the efficacy of his Method of facili- 
tating and ai>sisting Memory. The Managers 
of lite Institution, in consequence of the appli- 
cation of the Committee of Literature and Sci- 
ence, granted permission for this public display 
of the art, without, however, making themselves 
in any way responsible as to Us character. The 

* Gent. Mag. vol. Ixxxi. part 1. p. .281. 


exhibition took place before an assembly of se- 
veral hundred Ladies and Gentlemen, who were 
astonished and delighted with the result of the 
experiment. Four children, two boys and two 
girls, all under 14 years of age, had been put 
under Mr. Feinaigle's care but two or three 
days before : he had one of the girls but an hour 
and a half; and the longest tuition that any of 
them had received was but four hours and a 
half. — One of them repeated Goldsmith's Her- 
mit backward and forward, and stated the stanza, 
the line, and the order of any remarkable word 
required of him. — One liille girl answered to 
questions in t!ie chronology of tlie Roman Em- 
perors ; and another multiplied, without slate or 
paper, two sums of eight rig,ures by eight, and 
declared that she had not previously been taught 
arithmetic. — A boy determined the geographical 
situation by degrees and minutes, of 50 different 
cities; and on a planisphere chalked out on a 
board, marked down the true situation of places 
named to him. — Mr. Fincher, of the Institution, 
also recited the Mineialogical Tables of Ilauy, 
tiie second part of which he had taught himself 
on Mr. Feinaigle's system, together with the fust 
part of Brisson's Ornithologic System ; and he 
declared, from his own experience, that the 
principles of Mr. Feinaigle's art were equally 
calculated to give facility in the acquisition, and 


certainty in the retention, of the tables of any 
other science — a fact which was confirmed by 
several Gentlemen present, who have attended 
the private courses of the Professor. — ^The exa- 
minations were carried on by Mr. Disney, Chair- 
man of the Literary and Scientific Committee ; 
and for a great part of the time, Mr. Feinaigle 
retired from the Lecture-room. Nothing could 
be more satisfactory than the result of the expe- 
riments ; and the company returned Mr. Fein- 
aigle their thanks. — The Professor, Aug. 26, 
repeated the experiment at Liverpool, where the 
Rev. Jonathan Brookes, at the request of the 
Mayor, selected from the diflferent charity- 
schools of the town, children upon whom the 
experiment might be made. The exhibition took 
place before a very numerous assembly. Four 
children had been put under Mr. Feinaigle's tui- 
tion but three days before, two boys and two 
girls, and none of them had received more than 
two hours' instruction; neither of the girls could 
make or read a figure when first presented to 
him. The examinations (which were carried on 
by the Rev. Jonathan Brookes) were precisely 
of the same nature as those at the Royal Insti- 
tution ; and the results were equally satisfac- 

" On the 6th of April, 1812, the effects of M. 
Von Feinaigle's system were exemplified at 


the Surry Institution, before a numerous as- 
sembly of Proprietors and Subscribers, by the 
examination of five young persons, who had 
previously been committed to the care of M. 
Von Feinaigle.* 

" 1. Master H. S. (13 years of age) deter- 
mined the geographical situation oi Jifty princi- 
pal towns in different parts of the globe, assign- 
ing to each its longitude and latitude in degrees 
and minutes, and named the country in which it 
is found. He also marked on a blank plani- 
sphere the true situation of the towns named to 

2. Miss P. K. (11 years of age) repeated 
fifty stanzas of four lines each, from the second 
part of Mrs. More's ' Sir Eldred of the Bower.' 
These she repeated consecutively, and in any 
order desired. On any remarkable word being 
mentioned, she determined the stanza, the line, 
and the place of the line, in which it was to be 
found ; and also how many times the same word 
occured in the Poem. 

" 3. Miss M. A. K. (15 years of age) an- 
SM'ered to all the decleiisions, as well of sub- 
stances as of adjectives, of the Latin Language ; 
and gave a full account of all the conjugations. 

• Tlie whole of this report is 1,iken from the Mvrnin^- 
Post of April 18th, 1812. 


both active and passive, witliout any previous 
knowledge of that language. 

** 4. Miss S. S. (of the same age with the 
preceding pupil) answered to the declensions and 
conjugations of tlie Greek Language, and de- 
clined and conjugated several regular nouns and 
verbs proposed to her. This pupil had never 
seen a Greek character till put under the care of 
the Professor, 

" The whole instruction received hij th^ 
above pupils consisted oj" Jive lessons only, of 
one hour each. 

" Master S. H. explained the physical, ma- 
thematical, and chemical characters of minerals, 
after Hauy's system, assigning the systematical 
order of any character v.hatever proposed to him, 
and showing in what manner any mineral ought 
to be examined and tried, to ascertain its nature. 
This pupil received only two hours' instruction 
from M. Feinaigle. 

" Master S. H. afterwards requested the audi- 
ence to give twenty words, or names, without 
any order or connection whatever. These words 
were written on a board, and numbered from one 
to twenty as follows : — 

1. Tower. 5. Chapel. 

2. Gate. G. Institution. 

3. Steeple. 7. Crotch. 

4. Church. 8. Grey. 


9. Regent. 15. Hill. 

10. Feinaigle. 16. Nelson. 

11. Syracuse. 17. Archimedes. 

12. Wellington, 18. Palestine. 

13. Graham. 19. Button. 

14. Ten. 20. Reform. 

" After inspecting the number and words for 
a space of time, not exceeding three minutes, 
the pupil named every word in the series, both 
forward and backwards : to any number that m as 
proposed to him, he assigned the proper word, 
and vice versa. 

" A series of twenty-eight figures, named pro- 
miscuously by the audience, was then written 
down, as, 8. 5. 1. 0. 5. 0. 2. 9- 6. 8cc. &c. &c. 
These the pupil surveyed attentively, for about 
five minutes, and then repeated them forwards 
and backwards. He afterwards declared how- 
many 8s. 2s. 93. &.C. occurred in the series, and 
the relative situation of each figure. 

" In consequence of the disappointment of 
many of the Proprietors and Subscribers, who 
could not obtain admittance into the Lecture 
Room on the 6th instant, the above experiments 
were repeated on Wednesday evening last to a 
crowded auditory. On this evening the follow- 
ing additional evidences of the utility and uni- 
versality of M. Feinaigle's System were ad- 


''' 1. Master J. C. answered to two sums in 
multiplication of 8 numbers, by 8 numbers each. 
Each sum containing 8 separate products, be- 
sides the total product ; he repeated any pro- 
duct required of him. The separate operations 
being represented on a board, by cyphers — on 
any one cypher, or line of cypliers, on either 
sum being effaced, he replaced them by the ap- 
propriate figures. This pupil was employed for 
ten minutes only, in committing the figures to 

" 2. Miss S. T. answered to the Chronology 
of the Kings of England, from William the Con- 
queror, down to his present Majesty, in any 
order that was desired. She also named the 
predecessor and successor of any King pointed 
out to her. This pupil received four lessons of 
one hour each. 

*' Master S. H. after one hour's appIicatioUf 
repeated a Greek word from Aristophanes, con- 
sisting of seventy-six syllables and \65 letters, 
both forwards and backwards ; he also named 
any syllable in any order desired, determining its 
numerical situation."* 

At these public experiments, M. Von Fei- 

• Similar experiments liave been given at the Russell 
Institution, Freemasons' Hall, the London Tavern, 
etc, etc. etc. 



NAIGLE distributed a syllahuSy in which the 
nature of the pupil's examination was stated ; 
and the six following notes, or explanations, of 
the objects of his * New System of Mnemonics 
and Methodics,' were subjoined. 

*' 1. Sijstematic Tables. A method that is 
at once speedy and effectual for acquiring the 
perfect knowledge of systematical tables, is an 
object of higher value and greater importance 
than at first it might appear. How often are we 
attending courses of lectures upon particular 
sciences, without being able to form a clear idea 
of the whole, or to give ourselves an account of 
what we are learning ! When, by the means here 
recommended, we are enabled to know previously 
the great divisions and subdivisions of a system, 
it is not difficult to refer to those fixed points all 
our ideas, and at once to secure our knowledge 
aheady attained, and to accelerate our progress 
in the science. A system acquired by this me- 
thod is not a dry and sterile series of words ; h 
is a well-arranged classification of real know- 
ledge. We learn in like manner all the systems 
of any science, whatever ; however complicated 
they may appear. 

" 2. Languages. The learning and teaching 
of languages are not only facilitated by the sys- 
tem of Mnemonics, but acquire more light and 
more solidity than ever they were thought sus- 


ceptible of. It is a fact well known to all my 
pupils, that, almost in any language whatever, 
the declensions may be learnt in a single hour, 
and all the conjugations in another. It can 
easily be conceived, that all the rest may be ac- 
quired with the same facility : but this is not 
all the advantage of my system : anomalies, irre- 
gularities of verbs, and similar difficulties which 
have been hitherto the torment of the scholars, 
become, by this system, the most pleasing and 
most instructive part of the language. My pu- 
pils are convinced, by the most satisfactory ex- 
perience, that grammar is to be learned in the 
language, not the language in the grammar ; and 
when the true way is once known, it becomes 
delightful to them to go on with ease and promp- 
titude, by themselves, from one language to ano- 

*' 3. Prose atid Poetry. When we know pieces 
of prose or of poetry in such perfection that we 
are able to answer at pleasure to any single word, 
it is not to be imagined that in learning them we 
have to fix one word after another ; but what- 
ever we commit to our memory is there in such 
an order that we are sure to find it again when- 
ever we may wish fur it. The matter and the 
diction are necessarily distinguished, and every 
thing treated after its own nature, and we are 
therefore sure neither to omit any thing that is 


to be said, nor any word by which it ia to be ex- 
pressed. Persons who could never before get by 
heart either prose or poetry, have, by a short 
practice of this method, acquired the greatest 
readiness and facility. 

" 4, Geography, Tliis part of geography* 
has only been learned by ray common manner of 
fixing in the memory proper names in general, 
and that of noting the arithmetical figures wher- 
ever we meet them. The true system of geo- 
graphy is the object of more than one of my 
lectures ; and by this new system the study ac- 
quires a degree of facility, and the science itself 
a degree of perfection, of which it was never 
thought susceptible, and yet without which it 
can never be essentially what it ought to be. 
Those who w ould think it needless, or of no use, 
to know the situation of every remarkable point 
of the globe by degrees of longitude and latitude, 
have to consider, if without these degrees, geo- 
graphy itself, or any geographical chart, could 
ever exist ; and, if not, they surely cannot main- 
tain that what is essential to geography itself may 
be neglected in the study of geography. This 
perfection is not only given to the science by my 
system, but is also attained with greater facility 

• This refers to the longitude and latitade of the fifty 
cities repeated by the pupil. 


and certainty than even the former imperfect 
knowledge could be acquired by any other method 
whatever. The same principles are applicable 
with equal efficacy to all th^i subsidiary parts' of 
a perfect geographical knowledge, and it is 
shown how to fix in the memory, for instance, 
the government, the extent, the population, and 
the military power, the products, the commerce, 
the manufactures, the arts and sciences, 8cc. of 
every state. Those who are acquainted with the 
principles of the present arrangement, cannot but 
feel how much easier it must be to compare, 
according to this plan, one kingdom with another 
by simple memory, than after any other plan, 
with all the assistance of books and systematic 

** 5. Chronology. What is done with regard 
to the kings of England may be done with any 
chronological series of sovereigns ; and though 
such a series presented nothing more than what 
may be consideied as great epochs of history, 
even of those the present system offers a greater 
number than any other system of chronology, 
and fixes them more easily than it has ever been 
possible to do by all those ingenious historical 
tables which have been invented to assist the 
memory in this interesting sivv\y. But the high- 
est perfection of historical knowledge is cejrtainly 

to know the whole history, not only by great 
D 3' 


epochs, but year by year, and fact by fact ; and 
this perfection no other system has ever been 
able to afford. 

" 6. Multiplication. To make a multiplica- 
tion, consisting of a greater number of figures in 
the multiplier as well as in the multiplicand, 
only by memory, without writing any thing, may 
certainly in many cases be desirable, or of great 
utility, and is at least a certain proof that the 
prmciples of the present method reach every 
where, and that to its means nothing is too dif- 
ficult or too complicated. It is undoubtedly of 
the highest importance to be able to fix in our 
minds the numbers in general. Statistic geo- 
graphy, history, mathematics, in short, almost 
evei7 science is full of numerical figures. Mul- 
tiplication tables, square and cube numbers, loga- ' 
rithms, algebraic formulae, and all the mathema- 
tics can be submitted to those rules." 

Since the period of M. Von Feinaigle's 
arrival in this country, he has been delivering a 
variety of courses of fifteen or sixteen lectures 
each, for which the charge of five guineas has 
been made ; but the pupil is at liberty to attend 
any particular lecture, a second time, 'should he 
not sulficicntiy comprehend it at the first hearing. 
M. Von J'einaigle has not confined his visits to 
the metropolis: Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liver- 
pool, etc. etc. have, in the summer season, been, 
successively, the theatre of his exertions. 



Xhe memory may be compared to a ware- 
house* stored with merchandise. A methodical 
arrangement of the contents of such a repositor}', 
enables its owner to find any article tliat he may 
require, with the utmost readiness. With a 
general knowledge of the contents of a library, and 
of the manner in which the books are distributed, 
a person may, even when absent from the spot, 
determine, with certainty, the situation of any 
particular book.-j- " ^Medallists," says Mr. 

* Memory is, as it were, of our ideas; 
for the narrow'niind of man not bting capable of having 
many ideas under view an<l contemplation at ouce, it was 
necessary to have a repository to lay up those ideas, which 
at another time it might make use of. Lock on tlu Human 
Understanding, vol. i. p. 111. 

t The well known anecdote of Magliabeciii, librarian 
to the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosmo III. will suffici- 


Addison,* " upon the first naming of an em- 
peror, will immediately tell you his age, family, 
and life. To remember where he enters in the 
succession, they only consider in what part of the 
cabinet he jies; and by running over in their 
thoughts such a particular drawer, will give you 
an account of all the remarkable parts of his 
reign." If our ideas were ananged with equal 
method and order, the mind would turn to them, 
with the like facility. 

Sensible objects have a powerful effect in re- 
calhng to the mind the ideas with which it was 
occupied when those ideas were presented. Thus 
the sight of any remarkable scenes in the course 
of a second journey, will frequently remind a per- 
son of the subject of which he was thinking or 
talking when he last travelled that road ; or, to 
adopt the elegant language of Mr. Foster,*!* 
" Places and things which have an association 

ently illustrate and continTi this fact. The Grant! Duke 
having asked Mugliabcchi whether he could procure a 
book that was particularly scarce, he replied, ' no, sir, it is 
impossible, for there is hut one iu the world, that is in the 
Grand Siguier's library at Constantinople, and is the se- 
venth book on the second shelf, on the right hand side as 
yon go in.' 

* Dialogue upon the usefulness of ancient Medals, pp. 
21, 22, Vl,no. 1726. 

t Essays, p. 12. For a very pretty illustration of this 
sulycct, see also Spectator, No. 417. 


ifvith any of the events or feelings of past life, 
will greatly assist the recollection of them. A 
man of strong associations finds memoirs of 
himself already written on the places where h« 
has conversed with happiness or misery. If 
au old man wished to animate, for a moment, 
the languid and faded ideas which he retains of 
his youth, he might walk with his crutch across 
the green where he once played with companions 
who are now probably laid to repose in another 
spot not far off. An aged saint may meet again 
some of the effects of his early piety in the place 
where he first thought it happy to pray. A walk 
in a meadow, the sight of a bank of flowers, per- 
haps even of seme one flower, a landscape with 
the tints of autumn, the descent into a valley, the 
brow of a mountain, the house where a friend 
has been met, or has resided, or has died, have 
often produced a much more lively recollection of 
our past feelings, and of the objects and events 
which caused them, than the most perfect de- 
scription could have done." 

Indeed, it will be found upon investigation, 
that locality is the most efficacious medium of 
reminiscence : and that system of memory will 
be the most serviceable, which brings this prin- 
ciple into the most extensive operation. For 
this reason, local'dxj (or, the connection of our 
ideas with places) is made the foundatign of the 


present system. In this respect, it is analogous 
to the scheme of Mnemonics practised by th^ 
antients, but it is here applied much more exten' 
sively and advantageously than it was by them. 

A rdom having generally four walls, the most 
obvious division of it is, into four sides, and each 
wall or side may be subdivided into panneis or 
compartments. Accordingly, the antient system 
xlivided a wall into five spaces. Thus, suppose 
the letter M to be represented on a wall as 
under ; 

Five spaces are thus gained in the places 
marked by the figures 1, 2, etc. Every wall of 
the room was, in imagination, divided in this 
manner ; and this plan was applied to as many 
rooms as were found necessary to the extent of 
each particular scheme — every room being simi- 
larly divided into four sides, — and every side 
being subdivided into five compartments. Thus, 
any idea which, according to this method, had 
been associated in the mind with the forty-eighth 
compaitment, would be placed in the third com- 
partment of the second wall, in the third room. 



But as fevv compartments could be obtained on 
each wall by these means, the calculation of high 
numbers would be exceedingly difficult. To 
remedy this defect, each wall might be divided 
into nine or ten compartments, thus.- 

If a wall be divided into nine parts, there will 
be 36 compartments in every room. In order to 
ascertain the situation of any particular number> 
it is to be considered in relation to the total num- 
ber of the subdivisions. For example, if the 
situation of number 48 be required ; according 
to the last mentioned division of the rooms, it is 
^o be found by considering the projxortion which 
that number bears to 36, the total number of the 
compartments in this arrangement. If the num- 
ber in question be less than this total, the place 
inquired after will be obvious; thus 12 being 
within the number o6, must, of necessity, be in 
the first room : being above 9, it is equally clear 
that it cannot be on the'first wall ; and being less 
than 18, it must, necessarily, be on some part of 
the second wall : and as it exceeds the number of 
the first wall by 3, it follows, of course, that its 


place must be in the third compartment of the 
second wall. If the number in question be higher 
than the number of the compartments in one 
room, its place will be readily found by dividing 
it by that number. Thus, suppose 48 to be the 
number whose place is required : 

36)48(1. 2 

9)12(1. 2 


As 48 exceeds 36, we know that it cannot be- 
in the first room, the 1 is therefore changed into 
2 ; and the fraction remaining, shows it to be in 
the twelfth compartment. There being nine 
compartments on every wall, this remainder, or 
number of the compartment, is dfvided by 9? for 
the purpose of ascertaining the wall. Now, as 
the divisor is contained more than once, but not 
twice, in the dividend, it follows that the com- 
partment sought must be on the second wall; tlie 
remainder gives the specific compartment. This 
operation, then, shows that 48 is in the third 
compartment, on the second wall, in the second 
room. This was the plan adopted by the antients 
when they divided their rooms into parts ; bu! 
being both complicated and difficult, it has been 
rejected in the present system, and another scheme 
has been introduced in its place, which is more 
simple in its construction — less difficult in its appli- 
cation — and much more extensive in its powers. 


We shall now proceed to explain the mode of 
dividing a room according to the New System of 
Memory, and to develop the principles of the 
art. It is, however, necessary to premise, that 
the pupil must not attempt too much at first, but 
should proceed gradually in the acquisition of 
this system ; for his ultimate success in it will 
greatly depend upon a perfect knowledge of the 
first principles.* As in mathematics no problem 
can be demonstrated without understanding all 
the preceding demonstrations, — so every advance 
in this art, must be grounded on the full posses- 
sion of all the antecedent doctrines. 

We shall divide a wall in the following manner: 

1 t 2 1 3 

4 1 5 1 6 

7 1 8 1 9 

These figures are arranged from left to right, 
in the usual manner of writing ; and for the more 
easily remembering their situation, it will be 
found that if two lines be drawn diagonally, from 
the four corners of the figure, they will intersect 

* Assumcudus usns paulatim, ut pauca primum complcc* 
tanmr animo, quae reddi fideliter possint : mox per iucre- 
menta tarn modica, ut onciaii se labor ille non sentiat, 
augenda usu, et exercitatione innlta contincnda est, quae 
quidem maxima ex parte meraoria constat. — Qidnct. Inst, 
Orat. lib. X, Opera, tom^ II. p 253. Ed. Bipont, 1784. 



all the odd numbers. (See Plate I. fig. 1 .) There 
is now a single wall divided into nine squares or 
compartments ; these we shall name places, and 
say, the first place, second place, third place, 
etc. etc. 

The same mode must be pursued with the 
three remaining walls in this room ; by these 
means, four walls are obtained — each being 
divided into nine places. In order to find the 
number 36 in this room, we should naturally say 
four times nine will be 36, and should, of course, 
conclude that 36 would be in the last place of 
the last side or fourth wall of the room : but this 
calculation is erroneous ; 6 must ever be in the 
same situation, which will be that occupied by 
the point in the following figure : 

The place occupied by the number 6, in all the 
four walls, would be thus designated ; 



I L 




J , 














V/i 1 \ \^X 



'w ; 

/ / \ \, 

/ \ 


^ / \ \l 


luni ii'vvi vnvniK xxixn 





























































































It must now be determined how we are to 
reckon these walls : if we stand in a room with 
our back to the windows, the first wall is on our 
left, the second before us, the tliird on our right, 
and the fpurth behind us. We shall, however, 
commence with the floor, and divide it into nine 
parts in the same manner as the walls. Where 
are 10, 20, 30, 40, etc. to be placed ? Every 
decade begins a new spries, and the decimal is 
placed on the cieling of the room ovei its proper 
wall ; thus, the first decimal, or 10, will be over 
the first wall ; the second decimal, or 20, will be 
over the second wall ; the third decimal, or 30, 
will be over the third wall ; the fourth decimal, 
or 40, will be over the fourth wall ; the fifth de- 
cimal, or 50, as its tenth part exceeds the num- 
ber of walls, will be assigned to the cieling of 
the room, and will consequently be the highest 
number in the first room, forming the connecting 
link betw.eeu this room and the second. 




Second mill. 



















































Fourth Wall. 

As one room will not supply us with suffi- 
cient numbers, a second room must be provided. 
The floor of the second room is denominated the 
yifth wall, the wall on the left, tlie sixth ; the wall 
before us, the seventh ; that on our right, the 
eighth ; and the one behind us, the ninth ; and as 
the number 50 was upon the cieling of the first, 
so the number 100 will be upon the cieling of 
the second room. 




Seventh Wall. 






















































Ninth fPull. 
I 100 Cieling. | 

Numbers, probably, originated . from holding 
wp the fingers of tlie haad thus : | , [ | , [ | J ,j 
j I I I ; live was made by holding up the 
thumb and little finger, with the ether fingprs. 
down, tlms/'"^"'':;V^'"«'''; forming the numeral V ; 
six was made by, erecting another finger and cou-. 
linuing the former position ; thus VI and VII, 

* Floor or fifth Wall. 
E 3 


VIII and Vim, in the same way, by adding a 

finger each time : ten was formed from two fives, 

thus, making X. 

A ° 

The learner should now exercise himself in 

finding the situation of the diiferent numbers in 
the two rooms. Where, for example, are QQ, 
47, 35, 21, 62, 82, 99, etc. The room must be 
first ascertained ; as to this there can be no diffi- 
culty, for as 50 is the lesser number in the first 
room, all the numbers exceeding 50, and as far 
as 100, will be found in the second room. 

Having found the room, the left hand figure 
will denote the zcall, and the right hand figure 
will show the place ; thus, 29 is in the first 
room, second wall, and ninth place; 47, fourth 
wall, seventh place ; by cutting off the left hand 
figure, the numerical order of the wall is given, 
and the remaining figure acquaints us with the 

In order to remember a series of words, they 
are put in the several squares, or places, and 
the recollection of them is assisted by asso- 
ciating some idea of relation between the objects 
and their situation ; and, as we find by expe- 
rience, that whatever is ludicrous, is calculated 
to make a strong impression upon the mind, 
the more ridiculous the association the better. 
Being provided with two rooms, we will take 
the floor of the first room, and place some- 


thing in each of the nine squares. In illustra- 
tion of this experiment, sensible objects will be 
given, as the association of ideas between them 
and the places is most striking. 










The ideas of these images must be connected 
together, and it will then be almost impossible 
to forget the order in which they are arranged. 
The first is an apple, the second a monkey; 
this monkey, takes the apple, eats, and offers it 
to the man who is in the third place ; the man 
is just going to embark on a long voyage, and 
for this purpose a ship will be in the fourth place ; 
but he will smoke his pipe before he leaves his 
native country ; — pipe is in the fifth place ; — and 
when he has finished smoking, he calls for his 
jiight'Cap, which will be found in the sixth 
place ; before he retires to rest, he wishes for 
another tankard of ale ; tankard occupies the 
seventh place. In the morning when this man 
awakes, a boat is ready to convey him to the 
ship ; this boat is in the eighth place ; a tree 
a found in the ninih place— it shall be a 


willow-tree, and iDust grow by the water-side, 
on the very identical bank from which the man 
embarks in the boat. Any different objects 
may be taken promiscuously, and the connec- 
tion made between them, at the moment, as 
chance or fancy bids. The chief use of this 
example is to induce a habit of fixing certain ob- 
jects in a regular order, that we may always 
know where to find them. For this purpose the 
pupil should exercise himself iu the numerical 
situation of the different objects, and be enabled 
to determine it quickly. 

The floor and the walls are localities on 
which the figures and words must be arranged, 
in the several places or squares, iii the order 
above described. Were a series of twenty -six 
figures to be taken, for instance, the following : 

, .Uj^';n.^.A.^ ^2, 6 3 1, 4.5 2 
"8 796.578964314 

Or a series of consonants thus : 

f I I m n g m fprsti'srn 
(Full many a gem of purest ray, serine.) • 

or any other series of figures, or consonants, it 
would be found very difficult to remember them. 
The figures, and the letters^ are merely signs of 


signs, and cannot easily be fixed in the memory ; 
the understanding having no exercise. The ele- 
ments of words must, therefore, be sought for. 
Dr. Grey changed figures into letters, and 
thus made words ; but these words could not be 
fixed in the memory without constant repeti- 
tion, and strenuous application ; the different 
words required to be remembered in his MeDio- 
via TechnicUf being almost equally burthensome 
with the facts and dates which they were intend- 
ed to imprint upon the memory. The mode 
of changing figures into letters was known long 
before the time^of Dr. Grey. The substitution 
of letters for figures was practised by most anti- 
ent nations ; in the Hebrew and Greek languages, 
there are no arithmetical signs, but the letters of 
the alphabet are used in iheir place. Shop- 
keepeis and others, from an early period, had 
been in the habit of marking the articres which 
they had to sell, with certain letters, as arbitrary 
symbols, for the prices in pounds, shillings, and 

We now take the consonants, and attach one 
or more to the series of figures, 1, 2, 3, 4* 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, ; each figure having its ap- 
propriate consonant, (^ee Plate 1. fig. 2.) The 
consonants only are resorted to, for ihey com- 
pose, like the skeleton of the human body, the 



principal parts ; the vowels are but the liga- 

The letters appropriated to the figures are not 
merely arbitrary, but are adapted as nearly as 
possible to the form of the figures,* 

t, like the figure 1, is a perpendicular, or 
down stroke, and differs only from it, in the ad- 
dition of the small horizontal line drawn across 
the upper part of it ; t is more like the figure 1, 
than any other consonant, if perhaps, we ex- 
cept the letter /. An additional reason for as- 
signing the letter Mo 1 is, that it occurs in the 
word uni^. 

71, is the appropriate letter to represent 2, 
there are two down strokes in it. 

7n, furnishes us with three down strokes, it 
will then give the idea of 3 : if we place a 3 
thus CO > it will afford a tolerable outline of the 
letter m. 
,,,,r, is to represent 4: r when written, (See 

* Dr. Grey who assigned both vowels and consonants 
to figures, in a manner perfectly arbitrary, lias the fol- 
lowing scale : 






























Here a and h stand for l, e and d for 2, i and t for 3, etc. 


Plate T. fig. 2.) resembles somewhat a 4. The 
letter r occurs also in our word foia- ; in the 
German ybA/-; in the Dutch vier ; in the Latin 
quatuor; in the French quatre; in the Spanish 
and Portugueze, quatro ; in the Italian quattrch; 
in the Greek TBj<ra^is ; in the Russ, chety'ire ; 
and in a variety of other languages. 

The English L was borrowed from the Ro- 
mans ; they had it from the Greeks, and they again 
from the Hebrews, whose famed is much like 
©ur L, excepting that the angle is somewhat 
more acute.. L was used as a numeral letter 
ioxjifty, and may, therefore, be assigned to the 
figure 5. d, in writing is the reversed form of 
this figure. (See Plate I. fig. 2 ) 

Ci k, g, q- The figure 7, with a slight curvature, 
may be made to resemble a crooked stick, and as 
we shall remember this stick the better, if some- 
thing be hung upon it, a cage slirtll be suspended 
there. In the word cage we obtain the conso- 
nants c and g ; k also is added to the number, 
for c is more frequently pronounced hard {ka) 
than it is soft (se); q being a gutteral and a 
crooked letter, shall go along with the cage and 
the stick. For the figure 7 there are then 
f, k, g, and q. 

b, h, V, TO. In the figure 8 there are two 
noughts, or two round things : these may be 



converted into beehives, and if one be placed 
upon the other, there will be a tolerably accu-^ 
rate idea of the figure 8. In the word beehive, 
are obtained b, k, v ; and w may be added, for 
it is compounded of vv. 

p,f. The figure 9 is not unlike a pipe, and 
as a pipe is seldom used without a piiff' of smoke 
issuing from it, we have the p and J" in these two 
words ; they are inseparably connected, and can- 
not easily be forgotten. 

s, X, z. The o being a round body, it may 
be compared to a wheel or grinder in a mill; this 
wheel, when in swift rotation, gives out a hissing 
sound, and the hissing consonants *, x, z, are at- 
tached to the cipher, x is formed from two half 
circles ; and z is the first letter of the word zero. 

These letters, and the figures which they arc 
intended to represent, should be impressed strong- 
ly upon the memory, as the letters must be con- 
verted into words, by the introduction of vowels 

8 1 
b t 


m s 

7 9 
c p 

2 6 
n d 

3 1 
m t 

4 5 
r I 

1 8 
t b 

s p 

6 5 
d I 

7 8 
c b 

9 6 
p d 

4 3 
r m 



The two consonants representing two figures 
must be converted into a word, to which should 
be affixed some striking idea ; and the images 
represented, connected together. Tlie objects 
when selected, each beijig a word, must be 
arranged in the different places, beginning with 
the floor, and proceeding to the first, se- 
cond, and third walls, etc. In making these 
words, it is necessary that the two consonants re- 
quired should be the two Jirst in the word ; if 
there be more than two it is of no importance, 
as the two first only will be needful. It will not 
be difficult to make a perfect figure from the ske- 
leton we have just seen. 

Floor of the First Room. 










First Wall of the First Room. 





A bat is seen flying after a mouse, -which shel- 
ters itself under a cap, stuck full of Jieeclles. 
There is some mutton for dinner, and a roll to 
eat with it. The tub and soap show that it is 
washing-day ; the servants playing with the chil- 
dren and their do/l, have forgotten to boil the 
cabbage and the pudding. As a rompensation 
for this loss, a large bottle of rum is produc- 
ed. By this method, it will be easy to commit 
to memory a long series of figures, to repeat 
them backwards or forMards, to name the first, 
fourth, fifth, eighth, etc. or to say how many 
fours, fives, noughts, etc. are contained in the 

The converting of figures into letters, and 
making sense by the introduction of vowds, will 
be found applicable to many of the purposes of 
common life. If we purchase any articles, and 
would remeiiiljer the mt-tt'iui-e or weight of thera, 
and thus prevent ftaud in the shop-keeper, it is 
only necessary to change the figures into a word 
or words, and connect them with some strange or 
ludicrous idea. Should we buy 3*2 yards of cloth, 
muslin, etc. it is easy to say, that a wa/j brought 
home the cluih, and the measure is given to us : 
if 30lbs of cheese, a 77iouse that had been gnaw- 
ing the cheese, would fix the weight imme- 
diately. The number of a hackney-coach, or of 


a house, may be preserved in the same manner. 
The purposes in domestic life to whicli this sys- 
tem is applicable, are almost infinite, and need 
no further specification. 

We have already learned to divide a room into 
parts, as the floor and walls, — to subdivide these 
into places, — to change figures into letters, — and 
to form worcte ; and, by these means, to remember 
series of figures, or of things. It would be a 
material advantage to us, to have some fixed or 
certain rooms : we may take, for instance, those 
with which we are best acquainted, and fix the 
different places upoji the various articles of fur- 
niture, as a chair, a chest of drawers, etc. What 
we have learned, hitherto, is not sufficient : as 
yet, an intellectual order only has been obtained; 
nwnheis have been localised, but there is still a 
deficiency, — the realities are wanting. 

If the reader has practised our instructions in 
a room in which he is accustomed to spend the 
greater part of his lime, and this room should 
have been hung with pictures, engravings, or 
plans, or ornamented with busts, etc. he will 
have been very materially assisted in the remem- 
brance of his places, or localities. We can, after 
a little practice, ascertain the order of different 
things placed in a room which we hnve long fre- 
quented. The transition is slight, but the im- 


pression w\\\ be permanent. Let \is fill the 
squares or places with some pictures of our o\Vn 
drawing : the two rooms will be then furnished, 
and it will be as easy to remember the symbols, 
or hieroglyphics, as to remember the situation or 
place of any picture, or article of furniture in a 
room. Instead of having a carpet on the floor, 
■\ve can suppose that the floor is inlaid or con- 
structed of mosaic. This will allow us to put 
sjmbols there. 

The outlines of the symbols are intended to 
represent, as accurately as possible, the various 
figures in the two rooms, so that they may 
be permanently fixed in the memory. (See 
Plates II. and III.) And here we dismiss the 
pupil for a season, giving a general hint, tliat 
it will be advisable to make himself perfect- 
ly familiar with the situations of the different 
symbols, before he diinks of looking into the 
next chapter. Until a knowledge of these 
symbols be obtained, no further progress can 
be made hi the system. It is, at least, indis- 
pensably necessary, that the pupil should answer 
with facility to any questions put to him respect- 
ing the j^Vs^ room, containing fifty symbols; the 
second room may be acquired at leisure. 







The following are the names attached to the 
difterent symbols : 

fit^t iHooni. 

1 Tower of Babel. 
,2 Swan. 

3 Mountain, or Parnassus.' 

4 I.ooking-glass. 

5 Throne. 

6 Horn of Plenty. 

7 Gln.ssi-blower. 

8 Midas. 

9 Flower, or Narcissus. 

10 Goliatu, or Mars. 

11 Pillars of Hercules. 

12 David with the Lion. 

13 Castle, or Nelson's Mo- 


14 Diogenes, or Watchman. 
Ij jEsculapius, or Serpent. 

16 Ceres, or GJesuier. 

17 Archimedes, or Carpen- 


18 Apollo. 

19 Robinson Crusoe. 

20 Peacock. 

21 Vaulter, or Rider. 

22 Cocktijfhtiug. 

23 Pegasus. 
21 Elephant. 

25 Sanclio Panza. 

26 Charioteer. 

27 Don Quixote. 

28 Pa^-k-horse. 

29 S tandard-bearer. 

30 Sysiphus. 

31 Capid. 

32 Diana. 

33 Clouds, or Sky. 

34 Noah's Ark. 

35 Curtius. 
36j Kermitage. 

37 Miner. 

38 Moses. 

39 Vesuvius. 

40 Pleauire Garden. 

41 Monument. 

42 Golden Calf. 

43 Staie Ued. 

44 Piano-Forte. 

45 Bajazet. 

46 Fount lin, or Square. 

47 Vulcan. 

48 Apis. 

49 Orange-Trcc. 
40 Bacchus. 

F 3 



dScconti i!!o 

51 Pigmalion. 

52 Jupiter. 

53 Neptune. 

54 Toilette, or Penelope. 

55 Fleet. 

56 Guitar Player, 

57 Conjurer. 

58 Orpheus. » 

59 Samson. 

60 Still. 

61 Bagpipes. 

62 Phoenix. 

63 Temple of Glory. 

64 Fame. 

65 Schoolmaster. 

66 Tents. 

67 Mutius Sccevola. 

68 Mercui-y. 

69 Mausokum. 

70 Lottery, or Fortune. 

71 Saturn. 

72 Ceutaur. 

73 Pedlar. 

74 Thresher. ' 

75 Garden Engine. 


76 Gardener. 

77 Mowers. 

78 Pagan Priest. 

79 Direction-Post, 

80 Apothecary. 

81 Cymbal-Player. 

82 Trojan Horse. 

83 Actason. 

84 Cabriolet. 

85 Europa. 

86 Brewer. 

87 Hunter. 

RR Bullfighting. 

89 Hercules. 

90 Burning-Glass. 

91 Tantalus. 

92 Hawker, or Sportsman, 

93 Golden Fleece. 

94 Lime-Tree. 

95 Shepherd. 

96 Cap of Lil)erty. 

97 Solomon. 

98 Trophy. 

99 Avenue. 
100 Justice. 






CHAP. n. 


.JLhe pupil is, by this time, supposed to have 
iixed all the symbols in the first room, and to be 
enabled to tell readily the first, seve?:;th, thir- 
tieth, forty-ninth, etc. and also to say wliat place 
is occupied by Midas, Sisyphus, etc. In making 
the application tt) chronology, we shall confine 
ourselves to the succession of the kings of Eng- 
land since the conquest. 

1. William the Conqueror. A word 
must be now made from William ; the first half 
wil is taken, and to this is added low, by which 
willozi) is obtained ; this enaliles us to remember 
William. The willow is fixed upon the Tower 
of Babel, our first symbol ; we have then fVil- 
Uam I, but another circumstance remains ; he 
was the conqueror : — we hang some laurel, the 
reward of valour, and the crown of conquest, 
upon the willow tree. The date is yet wanting ; 


we say the laurel is dead ; in the word dead, 
are d, d for 66 ; the 1000 being understood, 
through the whole series.* 

2. William Rufus, or William II. 
There must be tzi)o willows, one on each side of 
the swan; the swan is put into a red (bag): by 
making the bag red, we preserve tiie meaning of 
the Latin word Rufus. 

3. Henry I. There is one hen upon the 
mountain tossing up the ground ; (toss). 

4. Stephen. The looking-glass is very 
much stiffened ; there is a watch placed before 
the glass ; this is (timely ). The word stiffened 
will recal to the mind the name of Stephen. 

5. Henry II. A (taylor) sitting upon the 
throne, with two hens, one under each arm. 

6. Richard I. This was the Jirst rich 
man, — the hornoi plenttj is before him. The 
first rich man, probably, pilfered from other peo- 
ple ; he must have been a (thief). 

7. John. The glass-blower's name was 
John (Taffi^). 

* As the reader will find at p. 60, a tabular view of 
this application, we shall merely explain the manner of 
connecting the different images, inclosing the word which 
gives tlie datc'ia a parenthesis. 


8. Henry ril. Midas, or the man with 
the loMg ears, has just received a present of three 
hens ; he puts one in each ear, and one in his 
mouth, the hens are so near to eacli other, they 
are ahiiost (united). 

9. Edward I. To fix the name of Edward, 
we convert the verb to zcard, that is, to watch, 
into a substantive, and say here is one weirdy 
guard, oi- soldier, watering Narcissus, or the 
flower, with an (engine). 

10. Edward II. There are two wards, or 
guards, behind Goliath, each in a (mask). 

11. Edward III. Three soldiers as guards 
between the Pillars of Hercules, playing with a 

1^. Richard H. This is the second rich 
man, who meets David putting his hand into 
the lion's mouth ; David is mocking at the lion's 
strength, (inock.) 

13. Henry IV. We take a (miiff"), put 
four hens in it, and place it on the pyramid. 

14. Henry V. Diogenes h-^%Jive hens in 
his lantern ; they are very noisy and trouble- 
some, — (rout' em.) 

15. Henry VI. Aesculapius, or the doc- 
tor, is very much annoyed by six hens, which are 
(running) round the serpent. 

16. Edward IV. Here are four soldiers 


taking away poor Ceres, and putting her in a 
(redoubt).* , 

17. Edward V. Archimedes, ovlht carpenter. 

18. Richard III. Apollo. 

As these two kings are of the same date, one 
word will be sufficient to fix it. Here are j^rc 
guards preparing to rob the third rich man ; 
Apollo is looking on, and amusing them with a 
tune on his lyre ; in the mean while, Archimedes, 
or the carpenter, vociferates (rob'etJt). 

19. Henry VII. Robinson Crusoe is seen 
to shoot seven hens, in a (rebellion). 

20. Henry VIII. There is a Peacock, 
with eight hens in her nest ; they are young and 
cannot speak, — they are (lisping). 

21. Ebwakd VI. We hav« here the vault' 
er, or rider ; one man is a sufficient weight for a 
horse ; but our liorse must carry seven. There 
are six guards, or wards, upon this horse, besides 
the vaulter, who are all scrambling for a piece of 
a (lark). 

22. Mary. There must be some rejoicings 
where there is a cock fight ; it is very possible 
that the town may be (illuminated). 

25. Elizabeth. This queen had so flour- 
ishing a reign, that she is (allozeed) to ride upon 

* As t!ie b is not souiuUd in pronunciation, the r, (/, f , 
are the letters Avhich give tlie date. 


i4. James I. Tlie word chains sounds 
somewhat like James; we will, therefore, put 
the Elephant in cliaius : what (dhmal) chains. 

25. Charles 1. ^oov Sancho Panzaw\io\\ 
his ass ! Poor fellow, lie met with many 

26. Charles IE. The cAarioifecr is running 
a race ; the (odds) are against hnn. 

27. James II. Don Quixote must be put 
jn chains ; he must have two sets of chains j he 
shall have (double) chains. 

28 William HI. The patient ^ac Morse 

ravelling along the accustomed road, arrives at 

that part where three willows have been planted : 

how melancholy it is to see so many willows ! 

(do weep). 

29- Anne. The Standard Bearer is just 
arrived on a visit to (cousin) Anne. 

30. George I. Sisyphus is rolling up the 
hill " his huge round stone," — but he stops and 
listens to some one who is playing on the 
(guitar.) * 

George II. This sovereign is a (king) 
(between two kings of the same name. 

George HI. has had some important con- 
cerns with (Cadiz). 

* No. 30, as it completes a wall, may iaclude George I, 










<0 (M 











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o ■ 






o^ G> 










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u ^ 















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5 1-2 































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i ^ 







a: a 


U fc 










S =- 












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■;^ > >- 

. >* K* "^ lJ ri "^ 

l-< !^ > "-I tJ S K» 

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X K X B w 

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a et a 

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In the application of the Art of Memory to 
Geography, this science will be considered under 
the following heads; (1.) Principles. (2.) Ge- 
neral Geography. (3.) Particular Geography. 
(4.) Statistics. 

Sect. 1. — Principles, 

Geographical charts represent the situation of 
cities, towns, seas, continents, etc. on the globe ; 
but we w II suppose that nothing of this kind has 
ever been fiibricated ; that there are no charts : 
if we wish to ascertain the relative situation of 
any places, the means must be invented to ac- 
complish what is required, beginning with the 
first principles. Whenever the memory is to be 
treated with, we siiould employ the powers of 
reason. The charts must be drawn in our intel- 
lect, and we should proceed step by step ; what 
is wanting in the memory, will be supplied by 


The earth being a round body,* it is repr©= 
sented by a globe; but as both sides of this globe 
cannot be seen at the same time, it must be di- 
vided into hemispheres or halves ; there will then 
be an eastern and a western, or, a northern and a 
southern hemisphere. 

Suppose a circle to be described, and a point 
placed within it ; the situation of this point must 
be determined witii relation to some other part 
of the circle. If a horizontal line be drawn 
across the circle and divide it equally, the line 
appears to us straight ; but cannot, in reality, be 
so, because it is half the circumference of a globe. 
A perpendicular line is then drawn, and the 
hemisphere is divided into four equal quarters : 
each quarter containing 90° or one-fourth of 360"; 
every circle containing HGO". (See Plate I. fig. 3.) 
The horizontal line must be taken for the equator. 
The quarter then in which the dot or point ap- 
pears, should be divided by QO lines, but as this 
would completely conceal the surface of the 
diagram, and obliterate the little point itself, we 
will divide it into 9 parts. (See Plate I. fig. 4.) 

The point is now evidently within the first 
stripe or line, and if these lines be named ladders, 

• The earth is, as every one knows, an oblate spheroid, 
but it would be needless to descend to particulars, in a 
Seoeral illustration. 


we shall say it is on tlie first ladder ; but its situa- 
tion is novv only half determhied. Tiiese ladders 
are divided into f^teps ; and each has nine steps. 
This will be effected by drawing 8 horizontal 
lines across those already made. (See Plate I. 
fig. 5.) The point is still on the first ladder, 
but on what step ? It is on the sixth step. 

Two rooms should be provided, with four walls 
in each ; in the upper room is to be placed the 
northern hemisphere, and the southern is to be 
supposed under the northern, in the lower room. 
We will begin with the northern hemisphere, di- 
viding it into four equal parts or quarters ; trans- 
ferring one quarter to the first wall. (See Plate 
I. fig. 6.) 

The former division of a wall was thus : 

1 I '-M 3 
-^ I ■> I 6 

r i 8 I 9 

It will not, however, be more diflicult to re- 
member nine figures in one line, than in three. 
The floor of the upper room in which we stand 
is the equator ; upon this we reckon the longi- 
tude. Prom the pole to the equator there are 
90", but we only place 60" on the wall, the re- 
maining 30" being fixed in the cieling. In each 
of these squares, there are 10° of longitude, and 
10" of latitude. 




The horizontal lines are parallels of latitude^ 
and the perpendicular lines afe meridians or cir- 
cles of longitude. 

The series of walls in the first room will be as 
follows : 

















15 J6 























Upon referring to the globe, it will be found 
that the whole hemisphere, north of the equator, 
has been transferred into the first or upper room ; 
the southern hemisphere being reserved for the 
room beneath. 

Before we proceed further, the meridian must 
be fixed. Tiiis, in English charts, is taken from 
London, or more correctly fiom Greenwich, 
counting the longitude east and west from that 
place. The French place their meridian in 
P,ins, but they mark also in their maps the lon- 
gitude from Ferro, from which island, all the 
other European nations commence theirs ; by 
these means, die longitude which is laid down on 
a foreign n\ap is comprehensible by ihcm, and 
the Parisian mode is easily understood by any 


other continental geographer, but o\ir maps are 
not intelligible any wliere but in England. 

In making our calculation we shall adopt the 
meridian of Ferro, because it divides the globe 
into those two equal parts or hemispheres, which 
are usually represented on niaps. Suppose a 
place to be in 254° of longitude, and 43° of 
latitude ; on what ladder, on what step, and on 
what wall will it occur ? We must take 254, 
(and as it will be remembered our hemisphere 
is divided only into tens of degrees) we must cut 
off the unit iigure, thus 25,4, and we have 25 left, 
but as the 25th ladder would include only those 
degrees under 250, and 254 being above that 
number, it is on the l6ih ladder. To ascertain 
on what wall this 26th ladder is, and its nume- 
rical situation there, ih* figures 2 and 6 n)ust be 
added together ; the product gives the number of 
the ladder. By counting the difference between 
6 and 8, thus 6, 7, 8, three, the number of the 
wall is given. In the latitude 43, the 3 is re- 
jected, and 4S being past 40 it is on the fifth 
step. A place theii iu longitude 254 and lati- 
tude 43, will be found on the 26th ladder, fifth 
step ; or on the third wall, eighth ladder, and 
fifth step. 

If we read that an engagement had taken place 
bttvveen two ships in S24° longitude, 36° S. lati- 
tude, how shall we find on which wall this spot 


is situated ? We know that south latitude must be 
in the lower room, and that 3G being more than 
30, must be on the 4th ladder step. For the 
longitude, as in the foregoing example, we cut 
off the unit 32,4 — 324 is more than 320, there- 
fore it must be on t!ie '33rd ladder; these two 
figures are now added together ; the product 6 
gives the situation on the wall, and by counting 
from 3 to 6 — 3, 4, 5, 6, we get 4, which is the 
number of the wall. This event, therefore, took 
place near the mouth of the Rio de la Plata ; on 
the 4th wall, 6th ladder, and 4th step, of the 
southern room. 

Sect. 2. — General Geography, 

We are now provided with a geographical net, 
with which all the different places may be taken, 
from the smallest to the largest. What we have 
learned in the common way on globes is soon 
forgotten, there being no connecting media to 
bring the different countries to our recollection. 
Supposing we are looking at a globe, and we fix 
our eyes upon England, we cannot see its anti- 
podes ; places can be seen only in one direction. 
The Chinese, v\hen shown a map of the world, 
said, why put us up in a corner ? we are in the 
centre. In fact, every where is the centre, and 


Jh4MUft»f. ty Jfun, ,-.'^. jre«4 

X D [ JLS 




the centre is every Mliere. The whole circum- 
ference is equally distant from us wherever we 
may be. The four quarters of the northern 
hemisphere being arranged on the four walls, 
Mhen we are in the room, we can, in an instant, 
see every part of the hemisphere. (See Plate 

On the Jirst wall will be a partof the Atlantic 
Ocean, the whole of Europe and a great part of 
Africa and Asia. 

On the second wall will be found the remain- 
der of Asia, and a large proportion of the North 
Pacific Ocean. 

On the third wall there is a continuance of the 
Northern Pacific Ocean, and a part of North 

On the fourth wall there is the remainder of 
North America, part of South America, the 
American Islands or West Indies, and a great 
part of the Atlantic or great Western Ocean. 
This completes the northern hemispliere, and 
occupies the first or upper room. 

In the second or /ower room, (see Plate V.) 
on the first wall, we have a part of the Southern 
Atlantic Ocean, part of Africa, and the Indian 

The second wall is occupied by the remainder 
of the Indian Ocean, the Indian Archipelago, 
and by New Holland. 


The third wall contains tlie Southern Pacific 
Ocean, and tlie South Sea Islands. 

The fourth wall has nearly the whole of South 

Thus there are in the northern Room the 
whole Continent of Europe and Asia, the greater 
part of Africa, the whole of North, and part of 
South Araeri*^a; the Iowa; or Southern Room 
containing the remainder of Africa and South 
America, the Asiatic Islands, Polynesia and 

Supposing the windows of our room to be on 
one side, if we stand with our back to them, the 
first wall is on the left ; this wall is divided into 
nine ladders, which show the longitude, and each 
ladder into nivie steps, giving the latitude. 

On the Jirst ladder,^/'s^ step, there is almost 
entirely sea, being a part of the Atlantic Ocean; 
a small portion of Africa, however, is disco- 
vered. On this part Sierra Leone is situated. The 
square on which this fails is known by the num- 
ber 1 ], (1st. ladder, 1st. step,) — here the symbol 
for 1 1 is, the Pillars of Hercules. These pil- 
lars are placed in the square; one pillar is fixed 
in the sea, the oUier on land. Leone will rccal 
to mind the name of a Lion ; a lion must be 
placed between die pillars, and the situation of 
this place will then be fixed in the memory. 
On the second step there is a part of the At- 


lantic Ocean and of Africa ; upon this part of 
Africa are Senegal, Cape Verde, and Goree ; and 
the symbol for the l,2lh place (1st ladder, 2d 
step,) is David with the lion ; if it be said that 
David in tearing the sinews of the lion, is gored 
by the animal ; and that he has a green cap 
in his hand, these throe places will be fixed 
in this square. It is quite sufficient if the words 
given recal the names of the places to our me- 

On the third step are the Canary Islands; 
these are somewhat like a cluster of birds (Ca- 
nary Birds) that must fly round the Pyramid, 
the symbol for 1, 3, (1st ladder, 3d step.) 

On lUe fourth step, there is part of Portugal, 
and the island of Madeua. The symbol for 14 
is Diogenes with the lantern. This man is the 
proprietor of the island, and has come to Ma- 
deira from ijisbon, on purpose to drink a bottle 
of his favorite beverage. 

On the Ji/th step is Cape Fini'^terre. The 
symbol for 15 is iEsculapius with his serpent ; 
a serpent then shall be placed at the extremity of 
the \dU(\, ( Finis terr(B,) 

On the sixth step thtre is a small part of Ire- 
land. The symbol for l6 is Ceres, or the j^lean- 
er; she shall have a garland upon her head; 
gar-land and Ire- land are too much alike in 
sound to be easily forgotten. 


On the seventh step is Iceland, The sym- 
bol for 17 is Archimedes, or the Carpenter: 
he is breaking up the ice, and that we may re- 
niember the name of the celebrated mounti 
Hecla, we will say, that he acquits himself wi< 
vej7 great eclat. . \v- 

These illustrations seem amply sufficient l^' i:^ 
rect the pupil in the application of this * ni 
geography, so far as it relates to the use ot 
symbols, and the connecting ideas to be as ^ 
ciated with them. 

While we count our meridians all east from 
Ferro, it must be remembered, tliat in English 
maps, London, or rather Greenwich, is taken 
for the first meridian, from which the degrees 
are countetl 1 80° East, and 1 80° West. If a place 
be described in longitude 121° west of London; 
to reduce it to the meridian from Ferro, 12 1** must 
be substracled from 180°, (the whole number of 
degrees west,) the remainder is 59, which added 
to 180, aud the 18° difference between the cal- 
culation from London and Ferro, will give the 
product 275°. A place then which is 121° west 
of London, may be said to be 257" east oi 
Berro. The meridian of Paris is 20° east from 
Ferro, and 2 from the meridian of London. 
This process is at once simple and correct, and 
will allow us to use a general meridian which 


will be intelligiUe on all maps, and to all per- 

The best mode of learning the geography is to 
..'j^ke a chart of Mercator's projection of the 
earth, in which the degrees of latitude and lougi- 
'e are marked by tens, that it may coincide 
^1 the divisions on the walls, each of the 
res there containing 100°; 10' both ways. 
i$^ the squares in the map must be covered 
■.,>vith a sheet of paper, except one, that is 
the first step on the first ladder ; the space 
taken up by the land in this square should be 
noticed, and the outline of the land described ia 
the map, and traced upon a drawing, or diagram, 
of the first wall, divided into ladders, and ladder- 
steps, as seen before. Tliese squares should be 
sufficiently large to show some of the principal 
projections of the land, that the most remark- 
able places may be inserted ; thus constructing a 
small chart. 

In the lower room, which contains the south* 
ern hemisphere, we must count downzeardf 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc. still begimiing with the 

Every one of the small squares may be divided 
into degrees. 





_L I III III 1 1 

iii i iii iii" 


. — I, ■ J 

Suppose the point in this square to represent 
Madeira. This point is about on' -fifth of the 
whole, therefore, it is iu 2° of longitufie, and a 
little less than one-fifth of the whole 10° of lati- 
tude, we see then 32*^ | of latitude, and 2" of longi- 
tude ; there is not an error of | of a degree. 


To ascertain the relative situation of towns, 
some association must be formed between the 
towns and cities found in any one square. 
If a sort of narrative be invented, the me- 
mory will be materially assisted. We will tak« 
25 for an example : in tliis are niany towns, 
as Madrid, Barceloua, Bourdeaux, Rociielle, 
Brest, Rouen, and Paris. The svmbol for 25 
is Sancho Panza. Sancho then must set out oa 
his travels ; he departs from Madrid, and ar- 
rives at Barcelona, where he has to call for 
some parcels (Barcelona); lie then goes to 
Bourdeaux, and is very fond of drinking a 
bumper of good Bourdeaux zoiiie ; thence he 
travels to Rochelle, where he rests on a rock : 
being pressed for time at Brest, he departs for 
Rouen; and by rozcing down the Seine, arrives 
at last at Paris. To remove the appaient diffi- 
culty of fixing the names of so many squares, it 
must be observed that, the greater proportion 
of them is occupied by sea, where, of course, 
there is nothing to fix. It may also be sup- 
posed, that as there are no less than eight elevens, 
there will be much confusion in remembering 
the name of any particular place. An associa- 
tion has already been formed for the eleven in 
the first wall. In the eleven in the second wall 
is Ceijlon : it is not likely that we sliall ever com- 
mit so great an error as to place Ceylon on our 



first wall, or Sierra Leone, or Goree, on the 
second. The locality of each is so permanentljr 
fixed as to defy any thing like confusion. 

Sect. 3. — Particular Geography. 

In particular charts the divisions are different 
from those in general charts ; being divided into 
SBuch smaller parts. 




26 27 28 '29 30 31 32 33 34 35 

TThe above is a chart with a series of figures. 
The figures which run along the bottom of this 
chart are the degrees of longitude ; those which 
run up tlie sides are tlie degrees of latitude. The 
Latitude must be counted North or South of the 
Equator, and the Longitude, East or West of the 
first meridian. There is here a scries of ladders 


and steps, but very differently numbered from 
those which have been seen before. The square 
in longitude CJl)*, and latitude 55*, if brought to- 
gether will make 2955 ; the tens must be re- 
jected, and the units only left. We know that 
the squares in longitude, from 20 to 30, are on 
tlie third ladder, and tVoin SO to 40 on the fourth; 
and that the latitude begins on the sixth ladder step. 
To remember this, some word must be formed 
from the two figures. Having cut off the tens, 
we find 2955 becomes 9 longitude, and 5 lati- 
tude. The minutes are next to be determined. ' 
The distance from line to line is 60 minutes, one 
half will of course be 30 minutes; ^ — 15; | — 45; 
J — 12; ii—5. When the geography of Eng" 
land is to be learned, we should commence from 
the bottom or 3outh of the map, as England is 
above the equator : when any country is beneath 
the equator, we must of course count down- 
wards. Although the floor is not used in geo- 
graphy, it will be convenient to suppose this 
chart of England placed upon the floor, that the 
different counties may be arranged in order ; or 
it may be supposed to be on a table, &c. or on 
any other object. 

England is generally divided into Circuits, 
each of which contains a certain number of 

H 3 


Circuits in England and Wales, 


f 1 




The usual division of (he Counties is into 
Home Circuits, etc. etc. but this will not be 
adopted here. The following is our arrangement 
of them. 

I. South East. Sussex, Hertfordshire, Kent, 
Middlesex, Esses, Surrey. 

ir. South West. Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dor- 
setshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, Cornwall. 

in. East. Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge- 
shire, Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Bucking- 

IV. West. Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Glouces- 
tershire, Worcestershire, Monmouthshire, Here- 
fordshire, Shropshire. 

V. Midland. Northamptonshire, Rutland- 


shire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, NoUingham- 
shire, Warwickshire, Derbysiiire, Staffordshire, 

VI. North. Yorkshire, Durham, Norlhuni'- 
berland, Lancashire, Westmoreland, Cumber- 

Vn. North Wales, Montgomeryshire, Den- 
bighshire, -Flintshire, Merionethshire, Caernar- 
vonshire, Anglesea. 

VHL South Wales. Glamorganshire, Breck- 
nockshire, Kadnorshire, Caermarthenshire, Car- 
diganshire, Pembrokeshire. 

All these Circuits are numbered in a series as 
ladders, and the counties are the steps ; there- 
fore 4,4 will be 4th circuit, 4th county, and so 
of the rest. — The symbol of 44 is a piano- 
forte ; if it be said that the keys of the instrument 
are bound with worsted, Worcestershire will be 
immediately brought to our recollection. In the 
same manner we must proceed with the others, 
fixing each on a symbol, and connecting some 
strange and ludicrous idea with this symbol. 

The student should be prepared with a small 
map of England which is not coloured ; and 
colour the circuits, each with a separate colour. 
The first, for Instance, blue ; the second, yel- 
low ; the third, green ; the fourth, red ; the 
fifth, lilac ; and when he comes to the sixth, 


begin again. When this is done, it must be 
remenibered that the numerical order of the Cir- 
cuits is represented by the dif^'erent colours. The 
first colour will be blue, the second yellow. 

When the counties are numbered, the pupil 
must count upwards, commencing with the 
lowest. The more effectually to distinguish 
their numerical order, we use the colours. 
The first county in the first circuit, must be 
bordered wiih blue ; the second county with 
\ellow; the timd with green, etc. and the like 
with die other remaining counties in the circuit. 
The numerical order of the counties will thus be 
firmly nnpressed on the memory. 

France contains one hundred and ten depart- 
ments. These are to be divided into eleven 7?e- 
gioiis, containing ten departments in each. The 
regions should be arranged in geograpliical order, 
commencing from ^ the equator, and counting 
upwards. The meridian is taken from Paris. 
West of this meridian we comiuence witii O, the 
region of the Pyrenees. On the East is I the 
Region of the Mediterranean, IT of Piedmont, 
III of Charente, IV of Lake Leman, V Central 
Region, VT Fuiisterre, Vtl Region of .luiat, 
Vlll of the Seine, IX of the Rhone, X northern 

If we wish to know the thirty-fifth dcj)art- 
ment, it will be found in the third region, fifth 


-department. To distinguish the region there are 
five colours; one colour serves for I and VI. a 
second for II and VII, a third for III and VIII. 
In the same manner one department is distin- 
guished from another. 

Sect. 3. — Statistics. " 

It has been shown that by the aid of the first 
principles of this science, it vvill not be difficult 
to find the situation of kingdoms, provinces, etc. 
and their respective longitude and latitude. 
There are, however, many other particulars 
which it is important to remember, as the num- 
ber of inhabitants, the natural products, the 
military power, the extent in square miles, the 
form of government, the state of commerce, of 
the arts, etc. etc. These may be all fixed in 
the memory with equal facility. Suppose that 
there is before us, a table, and that all the 
kingdoms of Europe, are placed upon it, and 
arranged according to their relative importance. 
This is shown in the following statistical table. 





1— 1 


> 1 
" 1 













^ : 








The first symbol he'in^ the Tozoer of Babel, 
it must be connected, in some manner, with the 
kingdom, which is placed first. This is Eng- 
land. Tlie Tower of Babel was the cause of 
the confu.'«ion of languages : in England are 
heard many different languages. Spain shall be 
II. The symbol for 2 is a Swan ; a swan then 
is placed in the sea, between Spain and Eng- 
land, and it will swim to Enghmd to convey 
intelligence. Ill is France, and is represented 
by the mountain, or Parnassus ; — the Pluses 
are banished from France. IV is Sweden, 
represented by a looking-glass, which hiay be 
emblematic of the smooth surface of the Baltic 
Sea, when calm, and at rest. By such compa- 
risons as these it will be easy to fix any thing that 
may be required. It novv remains to mention 
the objects in the particular squares or places. 

1. Population. The symbol for this square 
is the Tozi'er of Babel. From the top of a 
tower, some idea may be formed of the popula- 
tion of a city, by the number of people walking 
in the streets. 

2. Natural products. This square is repre- 
sented by the swan. A swan is an animal. 
Animals may be reckoned among the natural 
products of a country. 

3. Mititan/ power. A fortification may be 
supposed to be on a moutttain ; and, as this is 


tlje symbol for 3, the military power will imme- 
diately occur to us. 

4. Extent in square miles. The looking-glass^ 
which represents 4, will by its four-square figure, 
call to mind the square miles. 

5. Government. It will not^ be difficult to 
connect the idea of a throne, wiih that of govern- 
ment, whether it be monarchial, republican, or 
any other form of government. A throne is the 
symbol for 5. 

6. State of commerce. Commerce, the source 
of plenty, may well be represented by the Horn 
of Plenty, the symbol for 6. 

7. Arts and Manufactures. To remember 
these it will be only necessary to think of the 
Glass-ljlower, the symbol for 7. 

a. The Sciences. The symbol for 8, Midas, 
or the man with long ears, is capacitated for the 
reception of all branches of science. 

There is here again a series of ladders and 
ladder-steps, which must be denominated by 
their respective num>>ers. In the number 2,4 
there is 2 for Spain, and 4 for the extent in 
square miles, or the second ladder, fourth step : 
4,6 is the Commerce of Sweden; fourth ladder, 
sixth step. 

In the statistical table may be placed every 
particular that it is necessary to know respecting 


a nation. The manner of application for each 
square is now considered. 

1. Population. This is changing every year ; 
the thousands and hundreds must therefore be 
omitted, and the millions only preserved. The 
population for England will be the number ], I, 
first ladder, first step : this is represented by the 
pillars of Hercules. England contains l6 mil- 
lions of Inhabitants.* This number will be fixed 
in the memory by changing the figures into a 
word; t d will be the consonants giving the num- 
ber ; — it may be said then, that there is a Toad 
crawling up the pillars of Hercules. 

2. Natural Products. If a country be re- 
markable for the excellence of its horses, a rude 
outline of this animal may be drawn in the 
square belonging to the natural products. If it 
contain extensive salt mines, a barrel or basket 
of salt may be placed by the horse ; if good 
wine, two bottles of wine should be added ; iron 
may be represented by bars, and sheep by an 
outline, as with the horse. To connect these 
circumstances togetlier, some narrative should 
be invented, the more improbable and ludicrous 
the better. The horse being pressed by hunger, 
eats the salt, but becoming thirsty, in conse- 

• Accordiug to the last Population Returns, 16,5)2,144. 



quence, drinks the wine ; the wine has an effect 
upon him, he becomes frantic, breaks the bars 
of iron, and endangers the safety of the sheep. 
The symbol for 12 is David with the Lion; 
David must hold the horse, and take especial 
care that the Lion does not devour the sheep. 

In the course of our reading, if it be required 
to commit to memory any remarkable circum- 
stance respecting a country, we should take a 
sheet of paper and divide it as our table is di- 
vided, placing in the appropriate squares a re- 
semblance, or rude outline, of the object or 
circumstance to be remembered. This mode 
will assist the memory very materially, and ex- 
cite a greater degree of attention than the mere 
idea which is presented to the mind by reading. 

3. Military Power. The state of the mili- 
tary force, in time of peace as well as of war, 
must be considered, with the divisions into artil- 
lery, cavalry, and infantry ; or, any other ar-r 
rangement may be made which the nature of the 
military force, in any particular country, may 
demand. The square may be thus divided: 






4. Extent in Square Miles. Here we should 
divide the square into several parts, significant 
of the face of the country ; whether it be culti- 
vated or uncultivated, wood-land, meadow, or 
pasture, arable, etc. and what may be the ex- 
tent of water in the country. 

5. Government. If die government be mo- 
narchial, a king may be supposed sitting upon the 
throne, attended by princes ; or, if of the mixed 
kind, he is supported by Lords aaid Commons. 

6. Commerce. Tn this are arranged the prin- 
cipal exports and imports, and whatever relates 
to trade in general. 

7. ^rts and Manufactures. Those of Eng- 
land might be represented in many ways. - It 
will be sufficient, perhaps, to place there the 
steam-engine and the cotton-mill, and there will 
be a visible remembrance of the arts and manu- 
factures of our own country. 

8. The Sciences. To this square belong th« 
principal universities or foundations for the pro- 
pagation and increase of knowledge, with the 
various literary and scientific Institutions, as also 
the philosophers, poets, etc. etc. 

This general system of statistics is applicable, 
of course, to any particular country, and to its 
various subdivisions. In England, for instance, 
it might be applied to every county, m the sam« 
manner, as it is used for the whole kingdom. 



JL H E pupil having acquired some knowledge of 
the details of geography, including statistical ta- 
bles, and also of the mode of fixing in his me-<- 
mory the chronological succession of sovereigns, 
will proceed to the study of history with peculiar 

The following arrangement of some dates will 
introduce us to the application of the mnemoni- 
cal principles to history. 





There are here units of years, tens of years, or 
decennials ; and hundreds or centuries. As the 
division into rooms already noticed, will be here 
resorted to, we cut off the first series of units, 
and call them places ; the next which are rejected 














are named stripes ; and the remaining figures, 
rooms. For example, 1786, would be seven- 
teenth room, eighth stripe, and sixtli place ; 
1524, fifteenth room, second stripe, and fourth 
place, and so of the rest. 87 is in O room, or 
the room of units and tens,* eightii stripe and 
seventh place. When we view a choice collec- 
tion of pictures, some impressions of the excel- 
lence of a particular picture, and of its situation 
in the room or gallery, are generally fixed in the 
mind. The remembrance of one picture will 
suggest the situation of another, and in this 
manner it will not be ditiicult to fix the places 
of the more conspicuous paintings : and if there 
are many rooms, the particular room may be 
distinguished. Instead of a room being filled 
widi pictures, it is easy to imagine that it is oc- 
cupied by the events of a whole century : in this 
room are all the years, reduced to localities. 

A room is now taken with three walls, (see 
Plate I. fig. 7) each of nnIucIi is divided into 
three stripes ; and each stiipe into nine compart- 
ments or squares, as ue have, in some instances, 
done on our walls. 

Each of these stripes is now a ten; and before 
the first ten, there is O stripe, which is placed 

• Tne second io the room of centuries. 


on the floor : on this are put 1, 2, 3, etc. to 9. 
The number 100 must be placed on the cieling 
of the second room, which should be divided in 
the same way. This number will also serve as 
an inscription to designate the room. 

As it will be needful to appropriate a room to 
each century, there will be occasion for a series 
of rooms. This series will be thus arranged. 










Here are the hundreds; and those before 100 
are placed in the preceding or O room. There 
is now a necessity for a tenth room. To obviate 
this inconvenience it will be easy to suppose that 
the house is a double house. Thus we shall be 
furnished with rooms for 2000 years. 

But whence, it will be asked, are so many 
rooms to be procured ? Every one is familiar 
whh the apartments in his own house. All 
these rooms must be employed, and named, 
first, seventh, fourth, etc. and it will be better 
to choose rooms which are supplied with pic- 
tures, furniture, or some other remarkable ob- 
jects, upon which numbers may be fixed. Each 
room will be distinguished by one of the sym- 
bols. The Jirst room will have the tower of 
Babel painted Hpou it ; and to fix this more 


Strongly upon the memorv, it may be observed 
that the proprietor of the room h a great linguist, 
and the idea of the confusion of languages can- 
not fail to suggest to us the Tower of Babel, the 
distinguishing symbol of this room. 

The second room will be designated by the 
Swan ; the occupant of this room may be 
much attached to the study of ornithology ; he 
may be fond of birds, and possess an extensive 

The third room will have Parnassus or the 
Mountain; this room may be the habitation of a 
poety or of one who has a taste for poetry. If there 
1)6 not a sufficient number of rooms in our own 
house, some of those belonging to our frienda 
may be engaged, whether they be at London, 
Edinburgh, or Vienna. Having placed them 
ideally, in order, we are now ready to fix what- 
ever is required to be remembered. 

For example, in the history of England it will 
be found that William the Conqueror began to 
reign in lOGQ. This date must be placed in 
the tenth room, sixth stripe, and sixth place. 
The tenth room will belong to Goliath, and we 
shall have associated this idea with the room, by 
comparing the possessor to Goliath in size and 
«hape, or in character for courage, bravery, or 


any other similar quality. The second king is 
William Riifus, who ascended the throne in the 
year 1087; he will, of course, be placed in the 
same room, on the eighth stripe, and seventh 
place, and the whole of the stripes and places 
between this and the former, may be devoted to 
William the Conqueror. . 

Charlemagne, who was crowned Emperor in 
the year 800, is, naturally, placed on the cieling 
of the eighth room, — the room belonging to 
Midas. With Charlemagne may be arranged 
Egbert, or any king of another country whose 
reign was coeval with that of Charlemagne. 

When the present historical arrangement has 
become familiar, it will be proper to take -a 
sheet of paper for every century, forming a room 
and making the proper divisions of three walls 
and a floor, as above described. A particular 
fact may be then put upon paper, by sketching a 
rude outline of the circumstances, by figures of 
animate or inanimate beings ; this, though it may 
appear to some unnecessary, will imprmt the 
different facts upon the memory more forcibly 
than the usual mode of committing them to 
writing. This v'ill be sufficiently exemplified by 
the following bieroglyphic : 





It is thus explained. A convention was en- 
tered into in Eg)'pt, between General Khber, 
on the part of the French, and the Grand Vizier j 
on the part of the Sublime Porte, which was 
approved by the Cabinet of London. The 
straight line with the crescent on its top denotes 
the Grand Vizier, by its superior height to the 
perpendicular line which is to represent General 
Kleber ; the line drawn through the centre of 
this line forming 2 acute angels, is intended for 
the General's sword. To denote the convention 
two lines are drawn, which meet together in the 
centre, and represent the shaking of hands, or a 
meeting. The convention was formed in Egypt, 
which is signified by a pyramid. The Cabinet 
of London is typified by the outline of a cabinet 
on the right of the diagram ; the head of a ship 
placed in the square denotes London, as it is 
frequented more than any other port by ships. 


It is not to be supposed that each division will 
become more difficult in proportion as it is filled 
with events. The reverse indeed will be the 
case. It is a much greater labor to retain a few 
facts scattered throughout the different squares, 
than it is to remember a multiplicity of them, 
each being arranged in order. If we take a few 
insulated facts, there can be but little connexion 
between them ; but when there is a multiplicity 
of events disposed in order, by associating them 
together, the one assists the remembrance of the 
other, and a strong connecting chain is formed, 
the links of which can scarcely be broken. The 
facility of committing these facts to memory is 
increased by their number. In selecting the 
facts we should be careful to take the simple 
facts ; and not to mistake their connecting cir- 
cumstances, or consequences, for the facts them- 

It may be asked, perhaps, is there not occa- 
sion for a different room for every country ? Cer- 
tainly not. The history of one country must 
never be separated from the history of another 
country. We can .scarcely speak of an event of 
very great political importance which has hap- 
pened in England, without involvii)g the history 
of most of the European States, of the East 
Indies, etc. etc. The political interests of one 
country are almost always united with those of 


another country. Sometimes, the events of one 
nation are of high importance; sometimes those 
of another nation. The gradual progress of a 
nation to power, and the gradual decline an^ 
extinction of that power must be familiar to 
every one who is, in the slightest degree, ac- 
quainted with history. The wheel of power, 
like the fabled wheel of fi>rtune, is continually 
revolving ; and, as one nation, in one century, 
takes the lead in importance and influence ; the 
next views it sunk into insignificance, and conse- 
quently yery unproductive of peculiar or striking 

Some, however, may object, that we shall 
not be able to distinguish any particular event, so 
as to assign this event to its proper country. 
There can be, however, no fear of this. Sou^e 
particular circumstances connected with, and 
inseparable from, the fact itself, cannot fail to 
distinguish the country in which this event hap- 
pened, whether in England, France, Spain, Ger- 
many, or any other part of the world. 

Hitherto, that period of time only has been 
considered which is posterior to the Birth of 
Christ. Antecedently to this period, however, 
there is a space of four thousand and four years. 
This time, though embracing a large number of 
years, is by no means so pregnant with events as 
that after the Birth of Christ. 


Plate I. fig. 8. represents the series of cen- 
turies, and on the left of this series are placed tke 
events that happened from the creation to the 
Birth of Christ. 

It would be easy to assign to each year its 
proper place ; but the first SOOO years are so 
barren of events, that it would be useless to do 
so ; and the difficulty of remembrance would be 
enhanced by the paucity of dates worthy of being 
committed to memory. We ought not to take 
rooms where there is nothing to fix. It is only 
necessary to know the true series of facts ; the 
years must be put into words. Thgre are but 
four years before the four thousandth year. In 
these the Creation, and the birth of Cain and 
Abel, are the principal events. From 4000 to 
1000 there are not more than thirty principal 
facts. If there were 300, not more than three 
rooms would be required. The period which 
includes the histories of Greece and Rome, will 
produce a greater number of facts ; and there 
will be more certainty as to the dates. From 
the building of Rome then to the Birth of Christ, 
there will be occasion for seven rootns. (See 
Plate 1. fig. 9.) 

These remarks will suffice for the antient and 
modern history, — for the antediluvian and post- 
diluvian periods. We may, however, wish to 
remember not only the principal facts in general 


history, but to enchain and fix the fleeting 
visions of tlie moment, — those passing incidents 
Avhich interest, amuse, or instruct us. " The 
sacred treasure of the past" is not the only 
*' substantial shadow" which will be registered 
in our ideal repository. We shall be enabled to 
arrange y«^«re events, and thus have an orderly 
disposition of every circumstance of business or 
pleasure, in which we may be engaged. In this 
repository may be placed passing events, those 
already entombed in the grave of time, and those 
which are yet to seek the same sepulchre. Our 
ideal almanack will enable us not only to regis- 
ter appointments — but to enrol the payment of 
bills and other mercantile concerns. To the 
diarist it will be a neverfailing source of profita- 
ble istruction and amusement. 

To fix the events of a whole year more places 
are required. Our year is divided into months, 
weeks, and days; and into four seasons. Every 
room has four sides. Every season contains 
three months, and each wall contains three 
stripes. (See Plate I. fig. 10.) The months are 
named first, second, third, fourth, and so on ; 
on each stripe are the days of the month, and 
consequently a sufficient number of squares or 
places, in which the facts and events may be 
arranged. To remember the first, second, and 
third mouths, the figures may be changed inta 



letters, and the letters into words, if necessary. 
If it be required to commit to memory some 
remarkable circumstance which happened on the' 
25th of June, we should take the figures 6,25 
(sixth month, 25th day,) and change them into 
letters ; these would he d n i; of this we might 
make Daniel, or any other word that would 
associate better with the nature of the event. If 
it be 6,8 (June 8th) we might say d v (dove) 
and connect it with the leading feature of the' 

The advantage of resorting to symbols for 
the representation of sensible objects, has, al- 
ready been insisted upon : it must, however, 
be repeated, that the rude outline of any one 
object, if drawn upon the paper, will contri- 
bute more essentially to imprint the circum- 
stance upon the memory, than whole pages of 
laboured description and minute detail. The 
Egyptian hieroglyphics were formed in this 
May, and the key to their interpretation (the 
combination of the different images) was a sacred 
trust reposited with the priests. The symbols 
which may be formed will serve the purpose of 
secret writing : for we may be well assured that 
they will be as unintelligible to every one but 
ourselves, as the piiest-writing was, to the 
profanum vulgus of Egypt. 



Sect. 1.— 0/i learnins Lanc^uafres, 

J. HE learning of Languages is, in these days, 
an object of such general pursuit, and at the 
same time of such real importance, that every 
plan of instruction which has for its object to 
abridge the labour of this study, or to give per- 
manence to its acquisitions, comes to our con- 
sideration with the strongest claims on our 
attention. The first approach to the study of 
Languages presents to view a long and dreary 
passage, but which must be travelled through 
■with care and diligence, by those who wish to 
make any useful progress. Now it would cer- 
tainly be a great advantage to turn and shorten 
this toilsome road, and to be enabled to pursue 
our journey through the regions of science by 
more direct and less fatiguing advances. 

That any course of learning should be devised 
by which the acquisition of Languages shall be 


rendered an expeditious and unlaborious task, it 
would be presumptuous to expect. But it may 
be reasonably hoped, that, in the progressive im- 
provement of human experience, new methods 
of instruction may be introduced, in this as well 
as in other sciences, which may afford additional 
facilities to learning, and clear away many obsta- 
cles to improvement which former ages were 
unable to remove. ^ 

It is quite obvious that the difficulty in ac- 
quiring a foreign language consists in the consti- 
tutional difference of our native tongue, and that 
which we propose to learn. If the grammatical 
properties of the two languages were similar, the 
mere obtaining of a copia verborum would be 
an undertaking of no great difficulty. But how 
considerable a labour it is to obtain a perfect 
knowledge even of the genders and declensions 
of nouns, the conjugations of verbs, and other 
matters which are the very initials of language, 
any one who has had the least experience of the 
drudgery of teaching can well testify. 

It would seem, then, that one of the most 
extensive facilities which can be afforded in this 
matter, is to point out the affinities of different 
languages — to systematise, as far as can be, their 
similarities ; and, where it is practicable, to tjace 
and notify their variances. In other words. 


if the expression may be allowed, to exhibit the 
uriivenalities of language. 

Something of this nature will be attempted in 
the present chapter. It is inserted, because it 
constitutes a part of M. Von Feinaigle's in- 
structions ; and because the Editor hopes that, 
it will be found to contain some useful matter. 
But he does not mean to delude the reader into 
an expectation that he will be here provided with 
a sort of talismanic key, which shall enable him, 
without labor and without loss of time, to un- 
lock the janua linguaruni. Indeed that (what- 
ever some interested enthusiasts may pretend) is 
what no intelligent reader would expect, nor 
any honest man venture to promise. All that 
will be here attempted will be, to exhibit some 
of the most important similarities of different 
languages — to show that, notwithstanding indivi- 
dual peculiarities, they still retain strong marks 
of affinity in many essential particulars. 

Facies non omnibus nna, 
Kec tamen diversa ; qualem decet esse sororum. 

Ov. Met. l. 2. V. 13. 

And, to bring the matter more home to practice, 
to offer some rules, by the assistance of which 
one language may be usefully applied to the ac- 
quisition of another. 

As we are about to consider some of the uni- 


versal properties of language, it may not, per- 
haps, be thought improper to enter on the 
subject with a slight sketch of the origin of lan- 

Sect. 2. — Sketch of the Origin of Language. 

*' We are informed by Scripture, that when 
the building of Babel was begun, about eighteen 
hundred years after the fall, tliewhoJe earth was 
of one speech. And had no miraculous inter- 
position taken place, it is probable, that some 
traces of it would have remained in every lan- 
guage to this day. For, though, in so long a 
time, many words must have been changed, 
many introduced, a»id many forgotten, in every 
country, yet men being all of the same family, 
and all deriving their speech from the only one 
primitive tongue, it may be presumed that some 
of the original words would still have been in 
use throughout the whole eaith : even as in all 
the modern languages of Europe, some Greek, 
and some Hebrew, and a great deal of Latin, is 
still discernible. But Providence thouglit lit to 
prevent this ; and by confounding the language 
of the builders of Babel, to establish in the 
world a variety of primitive tongues. 

•^ •fp W "F 

" Languages are either Primitive or Derived. 


That those which are formed out of the «ame 
parent tongue should all resemble it and one ano- 
ther, and yet should all be different, is not more 
wonderful, than that children and tlieir parents 
should be marked with a general family likeness, 
and each distinguished by peculiar features. 
Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French, and a 
great deal of the English Tongue, are derived 
from the Latin ; with the addition of many new 
words, and new modes of termination and syntax 
which were introduced by the northern nations. 
And, therefore, all these languages resemble the 
LiBtin and one another ; and yet each is different 
from it, and from all the rest. But, if we could 
compare two original or primitive tongues toge- 
ther, the Hebrew for instance, with the Gothick 
or the Celtick, or the language of China, with 
that of the Hurons in North America, we should 
not discern, perhaps, the least similitude : which, 
considering that all mankind are of the same fa- 
mily, could not be fully accounted for without 
supposing, that some preternatural events like 
that at tlie confusion of Babel, had some time 
or other taken place. But this history solves all 

• Beattie on Language, in his Dissertations, pp. 304- 
206, 4°. 

104 NEW ART OF MfiMOftY. 

This is the general opinion respecting the ori- 
gin of ilie diversity of Languages; but it is not 
an uncontroverted doctriiie. Dr. Priestley* 
has argued upon this point in the following man- 
ner :— 

" The present diversity of language is gene- 
rally believed to have taken its rise from the 
building of Babel, and to have been brought 
about by the interposition of the Divine Being; 
but it is no uiipiety to suppose, that this (agree- 
able to most other operations of the Deity) 
might have been brought about by natural means. 
The possibility of this natural deviation seems 
to be deduced from the following considera- 

" First. The primitive language, or that 
which was spoken by the first family of the 
human race, must have been very scanty, and 
insufficient for the purposes of their descendants, 
in their growing acquaintance with the world. 

" Second/^. Not being fixed by the practice 
of writing, it would be very liable to variation. 

" Thirdly. Supposing the primitive language 
to have had few inflections, (because few would 
have been sufficient,) it would easily admit any 
inflections, which chance or design might sug- 

* Lecture on the Theory of Language, p. 287, and leeq. 


gest to the founders of different families, or to 
their successors. These different inflections 
would consequenily introduce different construc- 
tions of words, and different rules of syntax : 
and thus what are called the very stamina of 
languages, would be formed independently of 
one another, and admit of all possible varieties. 

" Fourthly. Considering into what different 
climates mankind were dispersed, furnished with 
the bare rudiments of the art of speech, into 
what different ways of living they fell, and how 
long they continued without the art of writing, 
(without which no language can be fixed,) it 
seems to be no woixier that languages should be 
so different as they are ; both with respect to the 
rules of inflection, with the fundamentals of 
grammar which depend upon them, and the 
words of which they consist. 

" Tiie difficulty which some allege there is, 
in conceiving hosv languages should arise in the 
world so very different, not only in the words, 
but in the manner of using them, seems to arise 
wholly from the supposition, that the primitive 
language was copiou'^, regular, and perfect in all 
its parts: the difficulty of changing such a lan- 
guage is allowed ; but the fact, is apprehended, 
is nuich easier accounted for upon the present 

" To these arguments it may be added, that 


to a person thoroughly acquainted with the pre-* 
sent state of mankind, ti.e prodigious diversity of 
human manners and customs may probably ap- 
pear almost as difficult to be accounted for, as 
the diversity of languages only." 

The late Dr. G. GRnGORY has obsefved 
on this subject, that it is impossible to say what 
was the nature of the confusion of language at 
Babe/ ; whether it consisted in the invention of 
new tortus, or in the improper use of the old. 
The miracle at Bahel, he adds, might be only 
a temporary confusion,* sufficient to set aside 
that useless and absurd undertaking : and it is 
more natural to suppose, that the consequent 
dispersion of mankind was the effect of dissen- 
tions occasioned by having misunderstood each 
other, than that ihey could not live together, be- 
cause they did not all continue to speak the same 

II. The origin of alphabetical writing is in- 
volved in as much doubt as that of the diversity 

* This conjecture, as Dr. Gregory states in a note, 
is fonfirmed by a criticism of Mr. Bryant, wlio remarks, 
in his analysis of Ancient Mytiiology, that ("THJli^ really 
signifies lip, and that consequently the niiia(;le was not 
any alteration in the language, but a failure or incapacity 
in labial utterance, which, soon after their separation, 
tlaey recovered. 


of language ; and the controversies which have 
arisen on both subjects have been Mmilarly con- 
ducted — one side pretending to found their argu- 
ments on the authority of the Scriptures, and 
the other side denymg that those records furnish 
any such inference. 

They who have recourse to supernaturnl inter- 
position to account for the origin of writing, 
allege that the first alphabetical writings were the 
two tables of stone, which, as we are infoi med 
by Moses, were written by the finger of (iod 
himself. And it must be acknowledged (in the 
words of Dr. Priestley) that the oldest acco. nt 
we have concerning the use of letters in Asia 
and Greece is so circumstanced, as by no means 
to clash with this hypothesis. It seems Itkewise 
very probable from Robertson's compansou of 
Alphabets, that all the known ones might origi- 
nally have been derived from the llebiew, or 

But in opposition to these arguments it has 
been asked — If the Deity had taught or revealed 
such an art to mankind, why is it not explicitly 
noted in that complete history of revelation, 
which inspiration has handed down to us ? The 
writing on the tables at Mount Sinai is not 
spoken of as a new invention; and if it had been 
such, and particularly if it had been the imme* 
diate act of the Deity, is there the least proba- 


bility tl*t so important a fact would have been 
omitted by the sacred historian ? There are va- 
rious other arguments in this matter, but these 
form the hinge of the dispute ; and we shall close 
this subject with a very satisfactory observation 
of Dr. Priestley, who reniarks, that, the imper- 
fections of all alphabets, the Hebrew by no 
means excepted, seems to argue them not to 
have been the product of divine skill, but the 
result of such a concurrence of accident and 
gradual improvement as all human arts, and 
M'hat we call inventions, owe their birth to. For 
certainly, the alphabets in use bear no marks of 
the regularity and perfection of the works of na- 
ture : the more we consider the latter, the more 
reason we see to admire their beauty, just pro- 
portions, and consequent fitness to answer their 
respective ends ; whereas, the more we examine 
the former, the more defects, superfluities, and 
imperfections of all kinds we discover iu them. 
Besides, had there ever been a divine alphabet, 
it would certainly have established itself in the 
world by its manifest excellence, particularly as, 
upon this supposition, mankind were incapable of 
devising one themselves. 

Ill, But whatever may be the origin of «/- 
phabeticai zci iiing, it is certain that all alpha- 
bets are, more or less, defective. In the or- 
thography of modern languages, in particular, it 


is a great inconvenience, as has feeen truly 
observed,* that the pronunciation does not cor- 
respond with the writing ; but that the same let- 
ters have different sounds, and the same sounds 
are often represented by different letters : some 
letters also, according to the pronunciation, are 
superfluous in some words, in others letters are 
wanting. This is chiefly a mark of their deriva- 
tion from other languages : since, in many of 
those differences, the speUing leans to the an- 
tients, when the pronunciation is modern. Tlius 
the (p) in the word receipt is not pronounced ; 
but it shows the derivation of the word from 
recipio in Latin. Some words of the same 
sound are spelled differently, to preserve a dis- 
tinction in writing, as air, heir : hair, hare, etc. 
Other words, on the contrary, which are spelled 
in the same manner, are pronounced differently, 
to preserve a distinction in speaking ; as I readr 
and I have read. 

Sect. 3. — Accmint of some attempts towards 
forming a universal Character or Alphabet. 

All the alphabets extant are charged by 
Bishop Wilkin s with great irregularities, 

* Priestley's Lectures on Language, p. 43. 


with respect both to order, number, power, 
figure, etc. 

As to the order it appears, says he, inartificial, 
precarious, and confused, as the vowels and con- 
sonants are not reduced into classes, with such 
order of precedence and subsequence as their 
natures will bear. Of this imperfection the 
Greek alphabet, which is one of the least defec- 
tive, is far from being free : for instance, the 
Greeks should have separated the consonants 
from the vowels ; after the vowels they should 
have placed the diphthongs, and then the con- 
sonants ; whereas, in fact, the order is so per- 
verted, that we find the o the fifteenth letter in 
the order of the alphabet, and the &>, or long o, 
the tvi'enty-fourth and last : the e the fifth, and 
the n the seventh letter. 

With respect to number, they are both redun- 
dant and deficient; redundant by allotting the 
same sound to several letters, as in the Latin c 
and k,f and ph ; or by reckoning double letters 
among the simple elements of speech, as in the 
Greek I and ^|/, the Latin q or cu, x or ex, and 
the j consonant. They are deficient in many 
respects, particularly with regard to vowels, of 
which seven or eight kinds are commonly used, 
though the Latin alphabet takes notice only of 
five. Add to this, that the difference among 


them with regard to long and short, is not suffi- 
ciently provided against. 

The powers again are not more exempt from 
confusion ; the vowels, for instance, are gene- 
rally acknowledged to have each of them several 
different sounds ; and among the consonants we 
need only bring as evidence of their different pro- 
nunciation the letter c in the word circa, and g 
in the word negligence. Hence it happens, that 
some words are diflferently written, though pro- 
nounced in the same manner, as cessio and sessio ; 
and others are different in pronunciation, which 
are the same in writing, as give, dare, and give, 

Finally, he adds, the Jigtires are but ill con- 
certed, there is nothing in the characters of the 
vowels answerable to the different manner of pro- 
nunciation ; nor in the consonants analogous to 
their agreements, or disagreements. 

As we are on this subject, the reader may not 
be displeased, perhaps, to have the various 
schemes which have been proposed for the emen- 
dation and correction of the English Alphabet 
brought together in one concise view. 

** There have been many schemes offered for 
the emendation and settlement of our ortho- 
graphy ; which, like that of other nations, being 
formed by chance, or according to the fancy of 
the earliest writers in rude ages, was at first verj 


various and uncertain, and is yet sufficiently irre- 
gular : of these reformers some have endeavoured 
to accommodate orthography better to the pro- 
nunciation, without considering that this is to 
measure by a shadow ; to take that for a modet 
or standard, which is changing while they apply 
it. Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal 
unlikelihood of success, have endeavoured to 
proportion the number of letters to that of 
sounds, that every sound may have its own cha- 
racter, and every character a single sound. Such 
would be the orthography of a new language to 
be formed by a synod of grammarians upon prin- 
ciples of science. But who can hope to prevail 
on nations to change their practice, and make all 
the old books useless ? or what advantage would 
a new orthography procure equivalent to the con- 
fusion and perplexity of such an alteration. 

" One of the first who proposed a scheme of 
regular orthography, was Sir Thomas Smith, 
Secretary of Slate to Queen Elizabeth, a man of 
real learning, and nmch practised in grammatical 
disquisitions.* After him auother mode of 

• In the prefa;' ' ohnson's English Dictionary 

(from whWA this h. .iiatled) a f^peclmevi may be 

seen of .Ilia rfePoTMcrj or«if>g)«ifhy. Tke want ol" juoper 
ty,p98, itowever, renders >* y^">•^^'ii^h\t to etliibit this and 
ptji^r spe,ciaieu3 here. 


writing was offered by Dr. Gill, the cele- 
brated Master of St. Paul's School in London. 
Dr. Gill was followed by Charles Butler, 
a man who did not want an understanding which 
might have qualified him for better employment. 
He seems to have been more sanguine than his 
predecessors, for he printed his book according 
to his own scheme. 

'* In the time of Charles I. there was a 
very prevalent inclination to change the ortho- 
graphy ; as appears, among other books, in 
such editions of the works of Milton as were 
published by himself. Of these reformers every 
man had his own scheme ; but they agreed in 
one general design of accommodating the letters 
(o the pronunciation, by ejecting such as they 
thought superfluous. Some of them would have 
written these lines thus : 

All the erth 
Shall then be paradis, far happier place 
Than this of Eden, and far happier dais. 

" Bishop Wilkins afterwards, in his great 
work of the philosophical language, proposed, 
without expecting to be followed, a regular or- 
thography ; by which the Lord's prayer is to be 
written thus : 

Y«r FSdher hsitsh art in h6ven, hfllloed bi 
dhyi nam, dhi cingdym cym, dhy sill bi dyn in 
erth as it is in heven, etc." 


Here Dr. Johnson has closed bis account, 
which we shall emleavour to complete by no- 
ticing some other philosophical speculations of a 
similar nature that have been submitted to the 
public. But we shall first present the reader 
with a more detailed accourit of Bishop Wilkins' 
plan of a universal and philosophical language. 
This account we shall give in an extract from 
Dr. Priestley's Lectures on the Theory of 
Language, because it contains the most clear 
and concise exposition of it, that can possibly be 

" Having in the first place, with prodigious 
labour and exactness, distributed all things 
to which names are given into classes ; under 
forty genuses or general heads, (some of which, 
however, are subordinate to others) he assigns a 
short and simple character to each of these forty 
genuses,---a definite variation of the character, to 
each difference under the genuses, — and a further 
variation for each species, etc. By this means, 
the characters, representing all things that have 
names, have the same analogies with one another 
that the things themselves have. 

" Characters being provaded for the names of 
things, the grammatical distinctions of words, 
numbers, tenses, persons, voices, etc. are denoted 
by some appendage to the character. 

" In this manner may we be furnished with an 


universal character, which shall represent ideas 
directly, without the intervention of any sounds, 
and which may be equally understood by people 
using any language whatever.* 

" To make this character efFable, the Doctor 
(Wilkins) appropriates a single sound to the 
characters representing each genus and difterence, 
and also to each variation and appendage before 
mentioned : and they are so contrived, that the 
simple sounds adapted to all the parts of the 
most complex character may be pronounced with 
ease, as one word. 

" By tliis means any people, after they had 
applied this character to represent their ideas, 
might soon learn to read it in the same manner 

• Tbc languages of Europe have one instance of this 
kind of writiny;. Their aritkmeliculfiguus, which were de- 
rived from the Arabians, arc signiticantiBarks precisely of 
the sarae nature as the universal characters ai)Ove men* 
tioued. They have no depondcnte on words ; but each 
figure represents an object — represents the number for 
which it stands : and accordingly, on being presented to 
the eye, is equally understood by all the nations, who have 
agreed in the use of those cyphers — by Italians, Spaniards, 
French and English, however diflerent the languages of 
those nations are from one another, and whatever dift'erent 
names they give in tlieir respective languages, to each nu- 
merical cypher.— JB?«Jr on the Belles Lett. Led. vii. 


as any other people ; whereby, in conversation 
as well as in writing, they might make themselves 
perfectly understood by one another. 

" The elements of this character and language 
are so few, and the combination of them so 
easy, that the Doctor (VVilkins) says he has no 
doubt, that a person of a good capacity and me- 
mory may, in one month's space, attain to a 
good readiness of expressing his mind this way, 
either in the character or language. 

" As the names of individuals cannot be com- 
prehended in tables of genuses and their differ- 
ences, the Dt)ctor (VVilkins) hath contrived an 
ALPHABET of all the simple articulations of the 
human voice ; to which he hath assigned two 
sets of characters, to be used at pleasure : the 
one consists of short and plain strokes, the other 
is a kind of delineation of the position of the 
organs in forming the articulations." 

This plan Dr. Priestley considers the most 
rational of all the plans of a universal and phi* 
losophical language. And he adds, whenever 
this noble project is resumed, it seems to be im- 
possible to proceed upon a better plan than 
this. The principal thing that is wanting to the 
perfection of it is a more perfect distribution of 
things into classes than, perhaps, the present 
state of knowledge can enable us to make. 


Mr. JiODWicK, in t\ie Philosophical TranS" 
actions* gives ' an Essay towards an universal 
Alphabet.' His plan was to contain an enume- 
ration of all such single sounds, as are used in 
any language : by means of which people should 
be able to pronounce truly and readily any lan- 
guage; to describe the pronunciation of any 
language that shall be pronounced in their hear- 
ing, so as others accustomed to this language, 
though they had never heard the language pro- 
nounced, shall at first be able truly to pronounce 
it : and lastly, this character was to serve to 
perpetuate the sounds of any language what- 

The construction of " a new alphabet, and a 
reformed mode of spelling," has also occupied 
the attention of that celebrated Philosopher, Dr. 
Franklin. His plan may be seen in his mis- 
cellaneous works.'!" In this alphabet he has 
attempted to provide that no letter should have 
two sounds, and every sound should be repre- 
sented by a distinct letter. " It is to be observed 
(he says) that in all the letters, vowels, and con- 
sonants, wherever they are met with, or in what- 
ever company, their sound is always the same. 

r— ■ 

• Vol. xvi. p. 126. 
t Vol. ii. p. 357. ed. Lond. 1806. 


It is also intended, that there be no superfluous 
letters used in spelling ; i. e. no letter that is not 
sounded ; and this alphabet, by six new letters, 
provides that there be no distinct sounds in the 
language, without letters to express them. As 
to the difference between short and long vowels, 
it is naturally expressed by a single vowel, where 
short ; a double one, where long : as for mend, 
write mend; but for remaitied, write re- 
meen'd ; for did write did, but for deed write 
diid, etc." 

In this alphabet c is omitted as unnecessary ; 
k supplying its hard sound, and s the soft ; k 
also supplies well the place of z, and with an s 
added, the place of .r : q and x are therefore 
omitted. The vowel u, being sounded as oo, 
makes the w unnecessary. The ?/, where used 
simply, is supplied by i, and where as a diph- 
thong, by two vowels : that letter is therefore 
omitted as useless. The jod, j, is also omitted, 
its sound being supplied by a new letter, which 
serves other purposes. 

The philosophical construction of the alphabet 
may be best seen in the following account, writ* 
ten by himself, and entitled : 


" Remarks oh the alphabetical Table." 

^It is endeavoured to give the alphabet a more nU' 

\ fund order ; beginning: first witli the simple sounds 

to <' formed by the breath, with none or very little 

huh J help of tongue, teeth, and lips, and produced 

r chiefly in the windpipe. 

C Then coming forward to tliose formed by the roof 
^' ' i of the tongue next to the windpipe. 

j.^ „^ ^ Then to those, formed more forward, by the forc« 
t. d. i part of the tongue, against the roof of the mouth. 

{Then those formed still more forward in the 
mouth, by the tip of tlie tongue, applied first to 
the roots of the upper teeth. 


Then to those formed by the tip of the tongue, ap- 
plied to the ends or edges of the upper teeth. 


C Then to those formed still more forward, by the 
/• ^'' ^ under lip applied to the upper teeth. 

{Then to those formed yet more forward, by the 
upper and under lip opening to let out tiie sound- 
ing breath. 
/ And lastly, ending with the shutting up of the 
m. J mouth, or closing the lips while any vowel is 

It is impossible for want of proper types to 
give a specimen here of the Doctor's reformed 
mode of spelling ; but several examples may be 
seen in the 3rd vol. of his works, p. S57, in 
which is inserted a correspondence which was 


carried on between the Doctor and Miss Ste- 
phenson, on this subject, and in which the 
former urges the utility of his scheme, and 
endeavours to answer the objections raised 
against it."* 

Mr. Noah Webster, another American 
author, has proposed a more moderate inno- 
vation, " to render our orthography sufficiently 
-regular and easy." 

1. The omission of all superfluous or silent 
letters. Thus bread, head, give, bread, built, 
meant, realm, friend, would be spelt, bred, 
hed, giv, brest, bilt, ment, relm, frend. 

2. A substitution of a character that has a 
certain definite sound, for one that is more vague 
and indeterminate. Thus, mean, near, speak, 
grieve, zeal, would become, meen, neer, speek, 
greeve, zeel. Thus key should be written kee ; 
laugh, laf; daughter, dawter ; blood, blud ; 
character, karacter; chorus, korus, etc. 

3. A trifling alteration in a character, or the 
addition of a point would distinguish different 
sounds, without the substitution of a new cha- 

* Mr. Webster states, that the Doctor, amidst all his 
other employments, public and private, actually conl- 
piled aUictionai7 on this scheme of reform, and procured 
types to be cast for priiiting it. But it never was 


racter. Thus a very small stroke across the 
would distinguish its two sounds. A point over 
a vowel might answer all the purposes of dif- 
ferent letters. And for the diphthong on, let the 
two letters be united by a small stroke, or both 
engraven on the same piece of metal, with the 
left hand line of the w united to the o. 

These, with a few other inconsiderable altera* 
tions, Mr. Webster thinks, " would answer every 
purpose, and render the orthography sufficiently 
correct and regular."* 

The only other scheme of reformation we shall 
notice is that put forth by Mr. Elphinston. 
We shall transcribe the first paragraph of his 
preface, f 

" Evvery tung iz independant ov evvery 
oddher. Hooewer seeks dhe anallogy (or nat- 
tural rule) ov anny tung, must dherfore find it at 
home; nor wil dhe seeker seek in vain. Inglish 
diccion dhen haz no laws, but her own. Yet, 
in her picturage, and consequently in much ov 
her livving practice ; hav anny oddher laws, or 
any lawlesues, been prefferably regarded. No 
more can anny language adopt dhe system ov any 
oddlier; dhan anny nacion, dhe hoal poUity ov 

* Dissertations on the English Language, p. 394. 
♦ Propriety ascertained in her Picture, 4^. 



anoddher iiacioii : for such adopter wer no more 
a distinct nacion or language ; wer but a mon- 
grel, or an eccoe." 

Sect. 4. — Proposed Philosophical Arrange' 
merit of the Alphabet as applied to Language 
in general. 

The ordinary arrangement of the alphabet be- 
ing thus defective and unphilosophical, we shall 
propose another mode of disposing the letters, 
which we shall endeavour to justify, by assigning 
a reason for allotting to each letter the particular 
place which it occupies. We shall exhibit our 
alphabet, then, in this form : — 



ph f 











' t 

According to this scheme, the letters are dis- 
tributed into four colunais, each column con- 
taining five letters. This arrangement is not an 
arbitrary one, but is made upon principles of 
philosophical propriety. 


The first column contains the vowels. Y, is 
a vowel in Englisli, but it is by no means an 
essential part of the alphabet. It takes in general 
'the sound of i, as in rhyme, cyder, system, synfax, 
etc. For this reason (as Mr. Walker has ob- 
served) printers, who have been the great cor- 
rectors of our orthography, have substllultd the 
i in its stead, in many instances. We shall dis- 
card ?/, therefore, fi cm our alphabet. 

The vowels are placed first, because they can 
be pronounced without the assistance of conso- 
nants, while consonants cannot be pronounced 
without the aid of vowels. In order to arcount 
for the arrangement of the vowels, thus ; a, e, i, 
0, u; we must advert to the pronunciation of them. 
The French pronunciation is the most natural and 
pkilosophical ; for in the course of that pronun- 
ciation of the vowels, there is a regular gradation 
of sound from the most open to the closest, — ■ 
from high to low, — aw, a, ee, o, en. This h 
the order of nature. The sound of a is produced, 
by a very wide opening of the lips ; which are 
somewhat more closed in the pronunciation ofe,* 
and still more so in the utterance o( i. When o 
is pronounced, the lips approximate still more, 
and at the sound of u, they are almost closed. 

This subject may be further illustrated by the 
following extract from Mr. Walker's Princi- 
ples of Engli.'ih Pronunciation prefixed to his 


Critical Pronouncing Dictionary. After ex- 
hibiting a detailed view of the organic formation 
of the vowels, not differing materially from that 
before stated, he renjarks that, in this view we 
fiid, that, a, e, and o, are the only simple or pure 
vowels : that i is a diphthong, and that w is a 
semi-consooant. If we were inclined (he adds) 
to contrive a scale for measuring the breadth or 
narrowness, or, as otliei s term it, the openness or 
closeness of the vowel, we might begin with t 
open, as Mr. Elphinston calls it, and which he 
announces to be the closest of all the vocal 
powers. In the pronunciation of this letter, we 
find the aperture of tlie mouth extended on each 
side ; the lips almost closed, and the sound 
issuing horizontally. The slender a in waste 
opens the mouth a little wider. The a in father 
opens the mouth still more, without contracting 
the corners. Tlie German a, heard in wall, not 
only opens the mouth wider than the former a, 
but contracts the corners of the mouth, so as to 
make the aperture approach nearer to a circle ; 
while die o opens the mouth still more, and con- 
tracts the corners so as to make it the os rotun- 
dum, a picture of the letter it sounds. 

Consonants are divided into different classes 
according to the seat of their intonation, or from 
those organs of speech which are chiefly em- 
ployed in forming them. The distinction which we 


shall adopt, is .that which divides them into 
labials, gutturals, dentals, and palatals ; as they 
are formed by the lips, the throat, the teeth, or 
the palate : or, in other words, because the 
breath, in passing from the lungs, is intercepted 
in those seats or places, or at least is very strongly 
compressed there. 

In the second column are the consonants b, 

f, P, T>' 

jB is a labial : it is formed by intercepting the 
passage of the breath through the mouth, by 
closing the lips. 

F may be represented by ph. Ph occurs 
chiefly in words derived from the Greek, and 
written in that language ^. The Italians, 
in such words, write y,* thus, while we adhering 
strictly to derivation write philosopher, they write 

P is a labial, formed (like h) by closing the 
lips ; but in a less forcible manner. The Ara- 
bians (says Mr. Wallis) have not this letter, but 
substitute for it either Be or Phe. The illiterate 
Jews in this country usually confound b and p 
in their pronunciation, using the one for the other. 

* Euudem olini (j)li) sonum habuisse ac/ inscriptiones 
veteres confinnant, in quibus altonun pro altcro proniiscue 
adhibeii {•erninms : ut pliidelis pro fiddis, — Middleion d€ 
ImI, Lxtcu Pron, Disc, 



F is a labial : it is formed by a touch of the 
upper teeth and the under lip. It is, indeed, the 
flat fj to which letter it bears the same relation 
as "p does to h. The Arabians and Persians have 
not this sound ; and Wallis is of opinion that the 
English-Saxons either had it not, or wrote it by 
f ; for they used, he says, no v consonant, and 
they wrote many words with f^ as the English 
did after them, for some ages, which are now 
written with v, as well as those which are now 
written withy.- as gij\ heofon, etc. which are 
now written give, heaven. And Priscian ac- 
knowledges, that the Latins formerly pronounced 
y with the same sound, with which afterwards 
the V consonant was pronounced. 

In the third column, are c, g, q, x. 

C and g are both gutturals ; c has the sound 
of s and k ; g of J and k. As the sound of k is 
usually given to c, there is great reason for sup- 
posing that this was its original sound.* In the 
less frequent sound of c, the guttural becomes a 
hissing sound. The hard sounds of c and g, (ka, 
ge) are produced by a stroke in the throat, and 
are consequently gutturals : g is the only weak 
sound of tch, as in church ; ch is a guttural as- 

• 'WalHs observes, that tl)e Latin k was formerly used 
for c : for the Komous wrote judiflfereutly Calendie and 


Q is the strong sound of c, which, as was be- 
fore observed, is a weak guttural. 

X is written egs, ecs, and eks ; it is a guttural 
aspirate, with a hissing termination. Aspirate 
and hissing are compound sounds. 

The fourth column contains d, h, t, t. 

D is a dental, or produced by pressing the 
tongue against the gums of the upper teeth, and 
then separating them. 

T is also a dental, and is similarly formed. 

H. This letter is no more than an aspiration, 
or breathing forcibly before the succeeding vowel. 

^ is a hissing dental. It is the flat s, and 
bears the same relation to that letter as h does 
tojJ, andy'tou. It is formed by placing the 
tongue in the same position as in t and fZ, but 
not so close to the gums as to stop the breath : 
a space is left between the tongue and the palate 
for the breath to issue, which fojms the hissing 
or buzzing sound of the letter. 

X, //?, w, are placed in the centre because they 
are of a middle ilature between mutes and con- 
sonants. They are generally termed liquids, 
because, in pronunciation, they easily flow inta 
and combine with the mutes. X is a weak pala- 
tal, in is a labio-palatal, and n is a strong palatal. 
JR is not found in all languages, it is formed 
by the forcible expulsion of the air, which during 
its passage, causes a tremulous motion of the 



tongue. The Greeks sometimes wrote this let- 
ter with an aspiration, and we, follow their ex- 
ample ill rhetoric, rhythm, etc. 

aS is a hissing palatal, and is formed in the 
same manner as z. 

J and V are placed between the highest vowels 
and the weakest consonants. 

We shall subjoin the following tabular view 
of the powers and qualities of the consonants, 
accordinof to this system. 


Gutturals, 1 Dentals. 1 





a labial with 
a weak touch 

a guttural witl] 
the sound of A; 
a weak touch 

a weak den- 





a labial with 
a strong touch 

a guttural; weak 
sound of che. 

a dental aspi- 

I J 

k L 



a weak pala- 

a labio-pala- 

a strong pala- 



Q r 

s T 

a labial with a' 
strong touch. 

of c. 

a strong den- 


V w 


y z 

a labial with a guttural as-' 
I weak toucii,'pirated,with a 
)ut aspirated; hissing sound. 
It is the weak 
sound of'i)/t. 

1 hissing den- 

. 1 



As in the course of this chapter we have no- 
ticed the schemes of different autliois on this 
subject, it may be as well to insert here the fol- 
lowing tables of the consonants ; extracted from 
Dr. Wallis, Mr. Walker, and Mr. Elphiuston. 

(I. From Dr. AVallis *) 
Synopsis of the Letters. 


Labial or 

HaU" Mute B 

( Half Vowel 




c ^ 

Palatine or 

g ^ Palate 


< Half Mute D 

Half Vowel N 


[utp C 

Guttural or 
Throat •\ Half Mute G 

Half Vowel wasisrh 

a Lowioi 



a shjli 



L R 

* Grammatica Angliamay p. 55. 




- -d 



{5. From Mr. Elphinston.*) 


i Ungual, I guttural, I dental, \ labial^ 

direct ; dopri'saire ; 


k, c, f 


eb, si 


ch [tsh'] 






[zh]zi J 

/ pallatal or 
gb J 

J; o L - U Vcompouai 

1 J 

We may conclude this part of our subject in 
the words of Mr. Walker on a similar occasion. 
" In this sketch of the formation and distribution 

• * Propriety ascertained is her Picture,' p. 3, 


of the consonants, it is curious to observe on how 
few radical principles, the almost infinite variety 
of combination in language depends. It is with 
some degree of wonder, we perceive that the 
slightest aspiration, the almost insensible inflexion 
of nearly similar sounds, often generate the most 
different and opposite meanings. In this view 
of nature, as in every other, we find uniformity 
and variety very conspicuous. The single Jiatf 
at first imprinted on the chaos, seems to operate 
on languages; which from the simplicity and 
paucity of their principles, and the extent and 
power of their co-mbinations, prove the goodness, 
wisdem, and omnipotence of their origin. 

" This analogical association of sounds is not 
only curious, but ustful : it gives us a compre- 
hensive view of the powers of the letters : and, 
from the smull number that are radically differ- 
ent, enables us to see the rules on which their 
varieties depend : it discovers to us the genius 
and propensities of several languages and dia- 
lects; and, when authority is silent, enables us t© 
decide agreeably to analogy." 


Sect. J. — The derkation of French from Latirtf 
skozcn to consist, principally, in the change 
of certain letters according to established 

When two difFeient nations have an inter- 
course together, either by means of war or com- 
merce, an attempt is made on both sides, to ren- 
der the language of each, mutually understood. 
For example, France was once conquered by 
the Romans. The French people were, of 
course, subject to the laws of tjitdr conquerors, 
and if they had any complaints to prefer before 
the courts, were, of necessity compelled to make 
them in Latin, 

- The people in acquiring this language, did 
nut resort to grammars; lhe\f had heard a 
part^ular name given to a particular object, 
another name to another, etc. and had con- 
stantly seen the objects characterised by these 
names. The French had heard the Romans 
mention a bridge, vvhich they called pons; they 
heard them speak of the expense of a bridge, 
(pontis) of going to a bridge, (ponti) of destroy- 
ing this bridge, (ponlem) of going far from it, 
(ponte) of more bridges, (pontes, pontium, pon- 
tibus, etc.) The common people seeing such 
terminatk)ns affixed to each word, and not caring 
to understand or remember ihem, rejected tlieia 


off at once, preserving the body of the word 
pout, and forming tlie French ponte. The 
Spaniards and Italians followed the example. 
The terminations, which, in Latin, formed the 
declensions, were omitted ; and as in this last 
word, so in many other derivatives from Latin 
appellatives, the last vowel only was changed, 
and a great part of the original word remained. 
What is done in adjectives and substantives, also 
takes place in verbs. 

In Latin, the verbs have their infinitive moods 
terminaled in re; once preceded by a, once by 
e, and once by i, as are=ere=ire. It has been 
observed, that the consonants are weak, strong, 
aspirated, and hissing. All nations used the 
letters of the alphabet, but they changed the 
pronunciation according to the genius of their 
respective countries. The language of one peo- 
ple abounds with weak letters, others with strong, 
hissing, or gutteral letters, etc. 

The Latin word f rater when changed into 
French, has the letter a weakened, and it be- 
comes e — as in frere: the deep Roman a is 
taken away, and the weaker letter e is substi- 
tuted, as in mare, mer: chare, chere; pater, 
pere ; catena, chaine. As it is the genius of the 
French language to shorten their verbs, the 
Latin infinitive are, becomes er ; as in amare, 
uimer. In the third conjugation the final e only 


is cut off, and the ir remains, as in fiiiire, Jinir ; ' 
venire, venir, etc. etc. In the second conjuga- 
tion which ends in ere, were the final e to be re- 
jected, er only would remain, which would be 
the sime termination as that of the first conjuga- 
tion. If it be changed into i, the third conjuga- 
tion will appear ; we seem then in danger of 
losing a wh jle conjugation. Tiiis inconvenience, 
however, will be soon obviated. The genius of 
the language requires that the sound should be 
shortened ; there remains, then, no other mode 
than to deprive the ere of the first vowel, and 
the second conjugation in re will be found, as 
perdere, perdre. By taking away the vowel that 
precedes the r, this letter would come into con- 
tact with a preceding consonant, with which, in 
some cases, it would be impossible for it to 
stnid. The verb valere, would, according to 
the rule just given, become valre ; but as / and 
r cannot stand together, one should be taken 
away. To connect them a sharp vosvel nmst be 
inserted, and this must be e, but then the conju- 
gation would be lost. Let us try i, and we shall 
find it will become oir. 

The Latin trea is changed into trois, for va- 
lere, there is valoir ; this cannot be an irregular 
conjugation, for all the remaining parts are con- 
jugated regularly ; as there is only the infinitive 
vu/uir, it is then neither regular, nor irregular, 


but regulated. This oir can only stand for the 
infinitive mood ; it is instead of valre : if the 
infinitive mood be not found regularly, the future 
cannot be given. As r is indispensable, we must 
part with the /. The Latin vvord ca/x, is made 
chalk in English, but in pronouncing this word, 
the I is opened and the pronunciation becomes 
(chawk) changing the c into ch. in Freflch^ 
calx becomes chaux; in the Latin word alter, 
the I is opened and alter is converted into autre > 
saltare into sautre. 

From the Latin pulvere, the French infinitive 
would be pulver,* but the / is resolved into eu, 
and V is changed into d; thus, pulvere becomes 
poudre; cinere, cindre. In vaudre, the / must 
be rejected, and au supplied ; thus valre — vau. 
In the future, the French do not say, as in Latin 
or English, / will do,— hut I have to do ; they 
take the present of avoir, add it to the infinitive, 
and thus form the future vaudr-ai, vaudr-as, 
vaudr-a ; we cannot say voulerai. In the pre- 
sent tense, in Latin, there is valet ; the e is re- 
jected, and as the / and t cannot stand together, 
/ is opened as before, and we immediately have 

It has been shown already, that the infinitive 
moo^s of the Latin ending in are, ere, ire, are 
changed into er, re, ir, in French. The first 
and last conjugations are both made by rejecting 


the final e. Afterwards we find a fourth conju- 
gation in oil'; it has been shown how this is 
formed, and that it is not a new conjugation, for 
no tense or person is formed from oir. 

If the Latin and French languages are com- 
pared together, it will be easy to prove how 
much one is derived from the other, and how 
very materially the study of the Latirt and French 
will facilitate the acquisition of other languages. 
Those who are acquainted with the Latin lan- 
guage know that mus is the termination of the 
first person pKual, so that from are we get 
amus, from ere, emus, from ire, imiis. ii the 
first person plural in French be required, the 
vowel must be omitted, and ms will be given* 
The French words iion, nom, noms, are all pro- 
nounced in the same manner; for when m is 
final, it is pronounced as h, which has a nasal 
sound : m, then, is no more necessary, for if we 
write according to the pronunciation it would be 

In the verb darner, for cxamp'e, the infini- 
tive termination er is changed into oris, and we 
have darisoiis. The second person in Latin, is^ 
known by the termination tis — atis — etis — if is:. 
the same principle that directed the French to 
shorten the forn>er person, induces them to pur- 
sue tlie same method here. The i is taken away 
vmd ts \a left, \vhich has tlie same sound as, a«d, 


may be supplied by, z. The word is written 
according to its pronunciation, and from darner 
is produced da?isez. The Latin termination ent 
is continued in French, but is mute ; they say 
dansent (danse) as if there were no eiit. 

In the next tense the past time occurs; we 
danced yesterday: again for the first person 
plural there is oris, but this would denote the 
present tense ; to distinguish, therefore, the im- 
perfect, from the present, tense, and to show 
that it is past, i is placed before ons, as ions ; 
and this is always found in the imperfect in all 
conjugations. In the second person, present, 
there is ez ; to denote the imperfect, i nmst be 
added, as iez. For the third person, ent with 
the i before it, ient ; but this requires some lit- 
tle addition ; o, therefore, is placed before the 
J, and oitrit i^ formed. This tense, then, is dan- 
dons, dansiez, dansoient. 

The future, we shall dance, will require some- 
thing more than ons; the whole iniinilive is here 
taken, and the termination ons is added ; thus 
■ne have da user, danserons, danserez, and dan- 
sei'ont. From ont comes the infinitive danser^ 
to dance. This future also has an imperfect, / 
would dunce; i the sign for the imperfect being 
added> danieiions, daiiseriez, danser'oint, are 
obtaiiied. If the word danserions be analysed> 
Uiu5, danse \ r \ i \ ons^ it will be *bund tbafr 


vNS is the sign of the third person plural ; i of 
the imperfect ; aiKl ;■ of the future. 

There are yet two more tenses to be consi- 
dered. The first is the preterperfect, 7ce have 
danced^ or we danced. In Latin, the termina- 
tions are }uiis, stis, runt ; the mus is softened 
into wes, as in parlames ; the stis was formerly 
written parlastes, but as the s was not sounded, 
it was entirely dropped, and the i being softened, 
formed parlates; and runt was softened into 
rent, as in parlerent. In the imperfect of the 
subjunctive mood, flie terminations are ssions, 
ssiez, and the third person would be ssaient ; 
but that would be a longer termination than the 
genius of the French language would allow, it is 
therefore shortened into ssent. 

If the person, tense, etc. of the word Juiiriez, 
be required, it nmst be remembered that ez is 
the sign of the second person plwral ; that i is 
the sign of an imperfect tense, and r of the fu- 
ture : it is liierefore the second person plural of 
the future imperfect. In rendroit, t is the sign 
of'the third person singular, oi is the sign of the 
imperfect, and r of the future ; it is then the 
third person singular of the future imperfect, and 
belongs to the conjugation ending in re. 

A French verb which is termed irrcrrular. 
is nevertheless derived regularly from the 
Latitt> For example the verb plaire^ This 


verb is evidently derived from the h-atm p/acere : 
to convert tliis word into French, it must be cur- 
tailed, and the first step towards this, will be to 
leave out the e before the /•; there will then be 
placre, but as c and r cannot combine together, 
and tile r is absolutely necessary, the c must be 
dispensed wiih ; the a being changed into the 
softer sound ai, which forms plaire. To form 
the different persons and tenses, it remains only 
to reject the final e, and add the proper termina- 

The French verb connoitre is derived from the 
Latin cognoscere. We will now consider the 
vaiious changes which take place (iuring the pro- 
cess of derivation. In the word connoissance, 
which is also derived from cognoscere, the so is 
changed into ss, and the o is sliortened into oi, 
oiss : we then have cognoisseie ; but as there 
cannot be a double e, the first is taken away, be- 
cause the latter is wanteci for the infinitive ter- 
minaiion ; the word becomes then cognoissre : 
the r being too vvei.k by itself, it must be 
strenglhened by a d or t ; a t h preferred ; the 
g is changed into n, and the double s is lost — at 
last connoitre is obtained. 

In thej^utitre, the r is retained ; as counoitrai, 
coiinoitras, etc. but in other tenses, the r is 
changed into its original s — je cotuiois, tu <:o«- 
iioiSf etc. 


Anollier example may be found in mourir. 
In the Latin, there is for the infinitive, some- 
times moriri, but generally mo/7'. To form 
mourir, the final i nmst be taken from moriri, 
and the softened into on ; for the future, the ir 
is rejected, and we have je mourai — tu mouras, 
etc. In the present, the infinitive termination 
is omitted, and an s is added, as je viours, tu 
mours; but as the ou is too long, it is changed 
into en, as je meurs, etc. In the same manner, 
when in the Latin word dolor there are two 
ihort o's, they are strengthened and converted 
into ou and eu ; as, dolor, douleur ; color, 
eouleur ; and from dolorosus comes douloureux. 

When the Latin word debere is to be sought in 
French, the b must be changed into v (devere,) 
the second e being rejected, it becomes devre, 
but as the v and r cannot combine together, the 
termination re is changed into oir, devoir. This 
verb then is not regular, but regulated. It is 
impossible to obtain the future from devoir, as 
it is irregular, and must be derived from the re- 
gular verb devre. In the present, the r is re- 
jected, and it becomes devs ; but, as v and *• cannot 
stand together, and as s is the personal character, 
it must remain, and the v be omitted ; the word 
des is then left, but as the e is too weak, it must 
be strengthened by changing it into oi : we have 
then dois — je dois, tu doisy il doit. When in 


the plural there are two syllables, tlie e is re- 
stored, and devons, devez, doive/if, are ob- 

It remains ou]y to fix the conjugations. This 
may be easily done by observing which of the 
vowels, a, e, i, precedes the personal termina- 
tions rcns, rez, ront. The Latin conjugations 
may be learned in the same way. In the verb 
aller, we do not, in the present tense, Bayfa/Ie^ 
hut jevais; the v a is in not then derived from 
aller, but from tlie German, zcenden. It takes 
part of the present from one verb, and the re- 
mainder from another. When the Latin verb 
habere is to be converted into French, the b is 
changed info r, and hatere is formed ; the /* 
not being sounded in French, it is omitted, as 
avere; the first e is rejected, and the re being 
changed into oir, we have avoir. 

In the present, the oir would be s — avs; but 
V and s not combining together, the v must be 
omitted, and the a is softened into ai — making 
uis; the s not being pronounced, it is therefore 
dropped ; we have tiien ai — -jai : the future 
comes from the infinitive ax're ; the v being re- 
solved into u; as avrai — aurai — auras — aura. 
The second person singular always takes s for its 
character, as in Latin — habes — as=dehes — doi&. 
The third person has t from the Latin, but as 
this letter was not pronounced in some cases, it 


has been dropped ; yet it is again brought into 
use, when the nominative case is put after the 
verb, wlien two vowels would come together, as 
aima-t-il? — moura-t-'U? When the nominative 
precedes the verb, the t is omitted. 

The following observations showing the pro- 
cess of derivation in some particular languages, 
and the mode by which one letter is substituted 
for another, will serve to illustrate the subject 
upon which we have been treating. Thty are 
taken from Dr. Rees' Cyclopaedia.* 

** The substitution of a labial for an aspirate 
or a guttural, or a diphthong, forms a general 
principle which pervades the Latin tongue in its 
formation from die Greek. Hence vicus, a vil- 
lage, from oixoj; vinum, w^ine, from oivog\ oris, 
a sheep, from oig ; video, to see, from n^co. With 
respect to our own language a similar analogy 
prevails, which has converted a guttural into a 
labial ; thus laugh is pronounced la/f; enough, 
oiuff; and most of those words which begin or 
end with ?/ and zc, whether derived from He- 
brew, Greek, or Gothic, began or ended with 
a guttural. On tliis general principle year may 
safely be said to be derived directly, or indirect- 
ly, from yvfoj, a circle, and means a period, 

• Art. Etymology. 


or revolution of time ; wheel from «y^<w to rotlf 
etc. etc. 

" The prefixing of the letter s to Greek words 
is a principle that pervades the Latin tongue ; as 
in sperno, to despise, from ttts^vyi, the heel ; thus 
the primary sense of sperno is, to put the heel 
upon ; qn the same principle is salio, insilio, in- 
sult, taken from aWoiMai, The French gene- 
rally drop the gutturals either in the middle or 
at the end of vfords ; hence we should be justi- 
fied by an invariable analogy in saying, that eau^ 
water, is from aqua, and seul from singulm. 
The Italians generally drop the liquid /,• agree- 
ably to this custom of the language, Jiiime is 
derived from Jiumen, a stream, and piano from 
planus, a plain. In German, most of those 
words which have t in English, are used with an 
s ; as teaser, water ; besser, better ; es, it : and 
the corruption of m into f or v, is a principle 
that runs through the Welsh tongue ; thus, ve, 
voer, and vayr, are but the Latin words, me, 
fnare, and major." 

We shall conclude this section with some ex- 
cellent rules given by Mr. Greenwood,* for 
ascertaining when an English word is derived 

• E.ifay toward a Practical English Grammar, p. 21'^. 


from Latin,- and how it may be made Latin 

1 . Most English words, ending in nee, or cy, 
are derived from Latin words in tia ; Tempe- 
rantia, dementia ; Temperance, Clemency. 

2. Words in ion, in Enghsh, are made Latin 
by casting away n ; as. Question, Questio ; Re- 
iigion, Religio. 

S. Words ending in ty are made Latin by 
changing ty into tas; as. Liberty, Libertas; 
Charity, Charitas. 

4. Words ending in nde are derived from the 
Latin, by changing o into e ; Fortitude^ Forti"- 
tudo ; Gratitude, Gratitudo, etc. 

5. Adjectives, which end in d, do for the 
most part become Latin, by the addition of us ; 
as Rigid, Rigidus ; Putrid, Putridus, etc. 

6. Words ending in t, n, or r, between two 
vowels become Latin by changing the last vowel 
into us ; as, Mute, Mxitus ; Obscure, Obscu- 
Tus; Obscene, Obscanus, etc. 

7. Most words ending in 7U are made Latin, 
by changing nt into ris ; as Latent, Latens ,' 
Vigilant, Vigilans, etc. 

8. Many words ending in al, by the addition 
of is become Latiij; as Liberal, Liberalise 
Substantial, Substantialis. 


Sect, 6. — Mode of learning the Conjugations 
and Declensions of a Language. 

In the Latin infinitive are, ere, ire, are the 
terminations of the primary conjugations ; there 
are two more in ere which are secondary. The 
first person singular is given by the termination 
0, as eo — deleo from delere ; and io — audio from 
audiere ; but we do not say amao from amare^ 
but amo : a and o are two dependant vowels ; 
the a is merged in the o according to the genius 
of the language ; for a labial cannot precede a 
lingual vowel. In eo and io there is first ^ 
lingual, and then a labial vowel, we conse- 
quently have : 

amare — delerie— audire — larabere — fugere 
amo —deleo — audio — lambo — fugio 

The preterperfect tense is terminated by vi, as 
amavi — delevi — audivi, except in the secondary 
conjugations which only change the o of the pre- 
sent tense into i; as lambo — Iambi— fugio— 

The supine is known by the termination tuntf 
as, amatum — deletum — auditum— lambitum — 
fugitum. The personal characters are in the sin- 
gular (amoj, m (amabam^, s (amas—amabas, 


( (ama? — amabaO 5 and in the plural, mus, tis, 
nt, as (amamz«, ama^js, amanO* The third per- 
son plural from ire is not iiit, but being softened 
in the pronunciation by the insertion of ti, be- 
comes iunt, as audiunt, fugiunt ; and the se- 
condary '(^re, as in lambere does not make lam,' 
bent in the third person plural, but lamhunt. 
The different tenses to be considered are the pre- 
sent, imperfect, preterperfect, preterpluperfect, 
and future ; and there are two moods, the indi- 
cative and the subjunctive, each of which con- 
tains all llie foregoing tenses. 

In the present tense of the subjunctive mood 
when the vowel is a in the infinitive, it is changed 
into e ; and when it is e in the infinitive, it be- 
comes a in the subjunctive ; this may be thus 

remembered a / « amare — amem : delere-^ 

deleam; legere — legam. The character of the 
imperfect is ha in the indicative, and re in the 
subjunctive mood. The word hare will bring 
this to our recollection — amabam — amarem; 
deleham — delerem. 

The character of the preterperfect is i in the 
indicative, except in the secondary verbs, and in 
the subjunctive is erim ; amavi — amaverim; 
delevi — deleverim ; — Iambi — lamberim. 


The preterpluperfeci of the indicative ia 
known by the termination veram, etc. except 
■when the pretcrptrfect is formed simply with t, 
in which case it is eram. The same tense in tbo 
subjunctive is vissem, or issem :~^amaveram'— 
amavissem ,• — deleveram — delevissem ; legeram 

The future of the indicative is formed by bo in 
amo and deleo, and by am in lambo and Jugio, 
In the subjunctive mood^ the future termination 
is formed from the preterperfect indicative by 
the addition of ero throughout; as amabo—* 
amavero ;—delebo — delevero ; lambam — lam' 

The following tables of the Latin conjuga- 
tions and declensions may be committed to me- 
mory, by placing them on a wall, a mantle- 
piece, a door, etc. preserving the situations of 
the moods, tenses, and declensions as described 
in the tables. 











"3 .22 






3 — 






1 ^ 



























«; c 








1 "= 



.S '=< 











5 1 ^• 




«.s 5'i^ rt-^ 

> S .E 







-r Si 



plural cud 
of all the 
scs in tli( 
subj. moo 




V V ^ ^ ^ 

J3 O » 3 S 

^ O ij <u n 

o.H.M V « 

S.-2 p:| 

!« £ >) tC ^ 

p.-. © s o 

«j {^ Si n Ri 

.s o ii c* u .a 

C 1 H tl 5^ ~ 

.:s o <ii fj o .a 

S 3 
.2 I 


Sect. T, ^—Particular Directions for the acqui" 
iition of a Language. 

Having fixed the terminations of the declen- 
sions and conjugations, and observed the signs of 
the different cases, the student may proceed to 
the learning of a language. Supposing this to 
be the JLatin language, an easy book must be 
first taken, for instance, a Latin Bible, and an 
English one, placed by the side of it. In the 
latter we read, " In the beginning God created 
the heaven and the earth," etc. etc. In the 
Latin it is, In principio creavit Dens ca'lum et 
terram, etc. The two versions having been 
compared, the first word is found to be the 
same in both ; the second in the Latin (princi- 
pium) does not resemble the English ; its mean- 
ing may, however, be ascertained with tolerable 
accuracy from its situation ; and as o is the sign 
of the ablative singular, there will n6t be much 
difficulty in discovering the translation of p?'//ic/- 
pium to be ' in the beginning.' The next word in 
Latin is creavit, this is found to be a verb by its 
termination ; cre-a-vi-t is proved to be of the 
first conjugation by the character a ; v shows it 
to be the preterperfect tense, and t gives the 
third person singular. It is impossible to err in 
assigning creavit its proper meaning ; the 
word so nearly resembles the English created. 


Who createtl ? God created — Deus is the nomi- 
native. What did he create ? the heaven and the 
earth: cochun et terram will immediately be 
presented to us; our caleiiial and terrestrial 
cannot fa' I to give the meaning of diese words> 
and the final m will point out to us Uiat they are 
in the accusative case. In this manner, we should 
proceed for two or three pages, and then read 
them for three or four times more, till we can 
translate with tolerable facility. We do not 
consult grammars to learn the rules, but merely 
to solve any difficulty that may occur. In the 
present mode, the grammar is learned in the lan- 
guage, anil not the language in the grammar. 
Every rule is an abstraction, and cannot be un- 
derstood without an example. Instead of long- 
rules we learn examples, and these should be 
fixed upon the walls of a room in proper order. 
The striking analogy between many modern lan- 
guages, and the consequent facility of acquiring 
several languages, at the same time, must be 
evident to every one. This is particularly the 
case with the English, German, Latin, French, 
Italian; Spanish, and Portugueze languages. 


)pstematic Cables. 

JL H E knowledge of systematic Tables is pecu- 
liarly important to the student in any branch of 
science, whether it be botany, zoology, chemis- 
try, mineralogy, etc. and the mode of fixing 
these tables in the memory, must be deemed of 
very great use to all who are concerned in such 
pursuits. The application of this art to such 
tables will be shown in the following Mineralo- 
gical Table of Hau y. 

The characters of Minerals are of three kinds, 
Physical, Geometrical, and Chemical, 


1. Specific Gravity, (according to the Hy- 
drostatic balance of Nicholson.) 

2. Cohesion. 

1. In Solids is proved : 
I. By friction with a File, 
t Yielding. 
ii Not yielduig. 

154 NEW aut of memory. 

Physical characters, continued. 

II. By rubbing the angular parts of one mi- 

neral against the angular parts of ano^ 
ther mineral. 

III. By Percussion with a hammer. 

i Dirticult to be broken. 

a Brittle. 

Hi Crumbling. 

IV. By a Steel. 

i Giving Fire< 
u Not giving Fire. 

V. By flexion or pressure. 

i Simply Flexible. 
21 Elastic. 
Hi Ductile. 
iv Soft. 

1. In its own nature. 

2. Having imbibed a fluid. 

VI. By the force of Traction. 

2. Liquids (yielding with the slightest pressure.) 

I. By moistening the hand. 

II. By not moistening it. 

II. PARTICULAR. (As found by the senses.) 
1. Impression upon the Tongue. 
I. Bi/ Taste, 
i Salt. 

ii Astringent. 
Hi Sweetish. 
iv Pungent. 
V Bitter. 
vi Urinous. 


Physical characters, continued. 
II. By adhesion. 

2. Feeling. 

I. Unctuous and Greasy. 

II. Smooth, hut not greasy. 

III. Harsh. 

3, Smell. 

J. By Breathing. 

II. By Rubbing. 

III. By Heating. 

i Aliaceous, or garlic-like. 
ii Bituminous. 
Hi Sulphureous. 

4, Sound. 

I. By Percussion, 

II. By Bending. 

5. Light. 

I. By Reflexion, (producing Colour.) 
i Colours of the mass. 

1. In their species. 

2. In their distribution. 

i Uniform. 
ii Variegated. 

1. In stripes. 

2. In spots. 

3. In their action. 

1. By change of colour. 

2. By reflex irises. 


Physical characters, continued. 

ii Colours of the Streak. 

1. Similar, 

2. Dissimilar. 

ill Colours of the Powder, 

1. Similar. 

2. Dissimilar. 
(Producing Lustre) 

i Brilliant. 
ii Dull. 
Hi Greasy. 
tv Silky. 
V Pearly. 
vi Metallic, 
vii Pseudo-Metallic, 
II. jBy Refraction. 

1. Limpid. 

2. Transparent but coloured, 

3. Translucid. 

4. Opaque. 

iil« J5_y Phospltorescenct, 
i By heating, 
ii By rubbing, 

6. Electricity, 
I. Passive. 

i By communication. 
ii By rubbing. 
1. Vitreous. 
3. Resinous. 


Physical characters, continued. 
in By heating. 

(Vitreous on one side, and resiuoui 
on the other.) 
II. Active » 
t Vitreous. 
a Resinous. 
iii Neither vitreous nor resinous > 

f. Magnetism. 

I. Simple, 

II. Polar. 

11. (geometrical €i^tmtt0, 


1. Determinable. 

I. Elementary. 

II. Secondary. 

J. Indeterminable. 

I. By rounding oflf the surfaces and angles. 

II. Striated and rough. 

III. Amorphous bodies, (i. e. bodies of an 

irregular form.) 

3. Imitative. 

I. Bodies formed by concretion. 

II. Pseudoraorphous bodies, (i. e. such as 

have assumed the form of another body, 
for which they are substituted.) 


Geometrical characters, continufd. 

1. Laminated. 

2. Lamellated, ' 

3. Stratiform, 

4. Foliated, 

5. Fibrous. 

j With parallel fibres^ 
it With radiated fibre?. 

6. Granulated. 
J', Compact. 

8. Cellular. 

I. Directions, 

I, Longitudinal. 

II, Transverse. 

III, Indeterminate, 

g. Varieties. 

I. Conchoidal. 

II. Smooth. 

III. Rough. 

IV. Scaly. 

V. Articulated, 


1. With Straw. 

I. Fusibility. 

II. The result of Fusiop, 

nu Tiie Reduction of metallic Substances. 


Chemical characters, continued* 
2. With red-hot Coals. 

I. Volatility. 

II. Detonation. " 

III. Decrepitation. 

IV. Ebullition. 

II. BY ACIDS, (and in particular by the Nitrli 


i. Dissolution with effervescence. 

2. Dissolution without efferves- 

3. Reduction into jelly. 


1. Dissolution of Copper by Ammonia, 

forming a beautiful blue Colour. 

2. The Vapour of sulphuretted Ammo- 

nia, blackening the Carbonate of Lead. ^ 

The characters of minerals, as we have seen, 
are physical, geometrical, and chemical. The 
physical characters are general and particular; 
and both these are again subdivided. The ge- 
neral physical characters must be first consi- 
dered. In order to fix these, we should take a 
room \vhich is familiar to us, and place the va- 
rious divisions upon the different objects in that 
room, which are also well known to us, invent- 
ing some connecting circumstance by which w« 


may be the better enabled to remember the par- 
ticular division of the table. 

Having a room in which there are four walla, 
"we take 'the first which is on our left hand, and 
commence with specific graviti/, the first divi- 
sion of the general characters, and to fix this in 
our minds a balance is placed on the top of the 
wall, near the cieling. The next division ia 
cohesion, which is put by the end of the balance } 
if we ask what preserves the whole wall in its 
present firm state, the answer will be cohesion. 
There is now occasion for a sopha, which is 
placed against the lower part of the wall ; upon 
which the solids must be put ; cohesion in solids 
is proved in six different ways. In one corner of 
the sopha, a file is placed, which will call to 
mind the first mode, friction with a file ; in ano- 
ther corner, some minerals of an angular shape ; 
and thus we must proceed to fix the six different 
divisions. The sub-divisions will be easily re- 
membered, if connected, in some way, with the 
principal outlines, which are thus permanently 
fixed. Having filled one wall with the general 
physical characters of minerals, the particular 
characters are next to be considered. The paV" 
ticular physical characters of minerals are known, 
1. by taste, 2. by adhesion. Another wall is now 
needful, in which there may be a door : on this 
door a tongue is placed as the emblem of taste ; 


the door being divided into six compartments, in 
tlie first is found a cube of salt, to convey the 
idea of saline ; on the second a stritig for 
astringent; in the third some sweetmeats for 
sweetish; in the fourth, a knife for sharp, which 
may cut the string in the second compartment ; 
bitter in the fifth division will come immediately 
under sweetish ; and cannot fail to be remem- 
bered by the contrast which it presents ; urinous 
is in the sixth and last division, and will need no 
symbol. In this way must the pupil proceed 
with the remaining divisions of the table, fixing 
each upon an object, and connecting some 
striking circumstance with the object, that will 
afford a permanent idea of the system \\hich he 
is desirous to acquire. 


CHAP. vn. 

anlj Brose. 

A HE first materials of a poetic edifice are to be 
found in metaphors, allegories, arid in various 
kinds of fiction ; , and, it is thus all images, 
comparisons, allusions, and figures, particularly 
those which personify moral subjects, concur in 
adorning such a structure. When these images 
are reduced into verse, ihe ear is delighted to a 
high degree, and the mind insensibly repeats 
them while the eye reads them. This is parti- 
cularly the case with rhyme. Cadence, har- 
mony, and especially rhyme, afford the greatest 
assistance to the memory that art can invent; 
and the images, or poetic fictions, that strike 
our senses, assist in engraving them deeply on 
our minds. 

When a historical narrative is related in prose f 
the facts only are stated in a plain, regular order, 
without any minute description of the different 
objects which occur in the course of the history. 


The poet; however, proceeds differently. He 
describes, minutely, every object wliicli presents 
itself; if it be a mountain, we have a lively de- 
scription of its situation, the objects seen from 
it, and the trees or houses upon it. Should 
there be a castle on this mountain, its antient 
and present state is accurately described, toge- 
ther with the characters of its various possessors 
and their contests for the occupation of it : these 
descriptions we read with pleasure, and they are 
more firmly imprinted upon the memory by the 
variety and succession of images employed in 

In order to commit to memory any particular 
piece of poetry which may be divided into stan- 
zas, each consisting of four, six, eight, or ten 
lines, etc. it is necessary to take one stanza at a 
time, to read it over, and to select the principal 
objects or images, and combine them with the 
Jirst symbol ; attaching (he next stanza to the 
second symbol, and so on with the remaining 
stanzas. By these means we are not only ena- 
bled to recite the whole poem in regular order^ 
but to repeat any one or more stanzas in any 
order, — to determine the numerical situation of 
any line or vvord in the poem — and to say how 
often any particular WDid may occur. As we 
are able to repeat any stanza in the poem, it will 


only be needful to count the lines or words, if it 
be required to determine the numerical situation 
of any line or word. 

It will not be d fficult to apply these princi« 
pies to the repetition of poetry. A single illus- 
tration, perhaps, will be sufficient \ and, for this 
purpose we take the first stanza of Goldsmith'* 
Edwin and Jiigeiina. 

" Turn, gentle hermit of the dale, 

" And guide my lonely way 
" To where yon taper cheers the vale 

" With hospitable ray." 

We must here reflect, and imagine that we sets 
a Hermit standing on the Tozcer of Babel, and 
turning round with inconceivable rapidity ; a 
very large taper is placed upon his head. An- 
gelina is walking by the tower and calling out 
loudly to the hermit ' to guide her lonely way ;' 
the taper cannot fail to suggest the remainder of 
the stanza. 

In a poem that is not divided into stanzas, we 
must take 4, 6, 8, or 10 lines, preserving the 
connection, and fix them upon a symbol. Se- 
veral small pieces of poetry may be readily im- 
printed upon the memory by placing them upon 
the pictures, or furniture, of the wall of a room 
with which we may be acquainted. Though 
the symbols are not here actually resorted tO;, 


yet the principle that is pursued, is precisely 
the same, for what are the symbols, but 
pictures which line the walls of our imaginary 
rooms f 

As a further illustration of the mode of com- 
mitting poetry to memory, we shall give the fol- 
lowing examples from Nolegar, as quoted by 
Feyjoo, iu his Cartas Eruditas,* 

First Example, 

Feuix Divina 
De tan hellas alas 
Humilde, y piadosd 
Al Cielo te ensalzas. 

Divine Phcenix, 
With such beautiful wings, 
Humble and Merciful, 
Thou laisest to Heaven. 

" The Pkanix in the first verse of this stanza, 
(says Noiegar) must be placed on the first predi- 
cament of the sphere,f on the right hand, and a 
papal crown, or tiara, or any other thing be- 
longing to the Church, must be put on its head ; 
because we cannot apply any other material ob- 

• Tom. i. 

t This will answer to the first place in the first wall of » 


ject, to represent the Word Divine; w6 majf 
then make a reflectioji or two on these images, 
and say, why has a Phcenix, the Papal Crown 
on its head ? It is a Divine Phoenix, a Divine 
Phmnix. Then the second predicament of the 
left hand shall be taken for the second verse, and 
a drum with a stick to beat it, may be placed 
there ; the stick may explain the word [t?e] with, 
* # #^ I imagine that the drummer being 
ready to beat it, says [<^e} with and the drum 
Itari] such ; in the same place, I would put two 
beautiful women silting by the drummer, who 
should have two wings lying at his feet ; and 
speaking of the second predicament, f would say, 
JDe tan hellas alas (with such beautiful wings.) 

" On the third predicament opposite th« first on 
the right, I would put a woman kneeling and 
soliciting the pardon of a poor man condemned 
to banishment, who should be there with a 
chain, and by this image I xvould recal to mind 
the words of the third verse, Humifde y piadosa 
(humble and merciful.) On the fourth predica- 
ment, I would place a piece of carpet, (alfomhra) 
or any thing whose name begins with al [to,] and 
I would only use this syllable, to which I would 
sew the tester of a bed, and would say (al eielo) 
to heaven; and for the word thou raisest I would 
put a Priest, raising the Host, to whom the Cu- 
rate (ayudantei) should hold some salt, saying 


(ten sal alzas) take some salt, (thou raisest.) In 
tills last image the figure Apenthesis is formed, 
and reflecting, I should say (ensalzas) thou 

Second Example. 

Pongan, Scnor, el medio, y el gohitrm 
Lot altos alribtilos de tu Essencia. 

Sir, let >r«'tIiod and government be established 
By the high attributes of thy Essence, 

'' In order to commit these verses to memory, 
(says Nolegar,) on the right hand of the table 
upon which I am writing, and where my ink- 
stand is, I would place a slave, or a black wo- 
man, with a basket and two hens in it ; and cJos* 
to the slave a Marquis or Duke, who on enter- 
ing my room should attempt to frighten the hens, 
at which the slave must say (Po)tgan, Senor,) 
Let them lay, Sir. On the right hand of the 
slave I would place a Medi§ Ce/emin (half a 
Peck measure,) and on the left hand a Chairif 
signifying the letter (i/) (G) or some (hiel) 
Gall, For government, I would place oue of 
the many Governors of my acquaintance, who is 
astonished at what is going forward, I would 
reflect, and think that I heard him say, Ponganf 
Scnor, el medio y el gobierno. To represent 
ihs other Terse, I w ould put for (los altos) tWQ 


or three pieces of timber with some tiles, taking 
these for the whole of the roof of a house, which 
consists of timber and tiles ; and for (atributos) 
attributes, I would place two tributary Princes, 
with an image of the letter (A) on the head of one, 
who must be going to collect tributes or taxes, 
and if his name be Andrew, the better ; because 
the (A) might be placed as an imi^e of the name. 
Then supposing our food to be dependent on the 
collection of the taxes, it would be easy to re- 
remember, that Andrew was bringing some attri- 
butes by the letter (A) ; now, at the feet of this 
collector, I would place an alembic of Quint- 
essences, or a Distiller, with a glass full of wa- 
ter, (Quintessence, already drawn,) who should 
mind not to break it with his feet ; and close to 
the glass I would place a small stick, or the 
stick of a drummer, made of iron, that we may 
remember it is not to be broken ; because it 
might be used as we have already said, for an 
abecedario, meaning (de tu) of thy. In this 
manner, whenever I write, I shall remember 
that I have this verse at my right hand; Pongan, 
Senor, el Medio, y Gobierno ; and on my 
left, the other ; Los altos atributos, de tu Es" 

When Prose is to be Committed to memory, 
the particular passage, or chapter, should be 
read over carefully two or three times, and 


having selected the principal images or objects, 
it will be necessary to form a narrative by com- 
bining them with the different symbols. We 
should take a few lines only at a time, and pro- 
ceed gradually in fixing the various objects pre- 
sented to us. 

To remember the principal points in a Sermon 
which is regularly divided into parts, it is only 
needful to take the different heads or titles as 
they are given, and arrange them on the cieling 
of the church or chapel, placing some on the 
cornice, and others in various parts, in regular 
order.* Or, a sort of imaginary tree may be sup- 
posed springing from the centre of the cieling, 
and the proofs and illustrations adduced by the 
preacher, may be suspended on its branches. 
This method will be rendered more effectual, 
if a symbol of the idea be formed, as for 

• A plan somewhat analogous to this, is mentioned by 
Mr. I^ugald Stewart, who observes, " I have been 
told of a young woman, in a very low rank of life, who 
contiived a method of committing to memory the sermons 
which she was accustomed to hear, by fixing her atten- 
tion, during the different heads of the discourse, on dif- 
ferent compartments of the roof of the church ; in such a 
manner as that when she afterwards saw the roof, or re- 
collected the order in which its compartments were dis- 
posed of, she recollected the method which the preacher 
had observed in treating his subject.— Elements qf the 
PJiilosophy of the Human Mind, p. 456. 


j70 new art of memory. 

Justice a pair of scales, etc. etc. This, hoW' 
ever, is not essential.* 

Mr. Stewart, speaking of the assistance ren- 
dered to an orator, or public speaker, by the topi- 
cal memory, in recollecting the plan and arrange- 
ment of his discourse, considers the accounts 
given of it by the antient rhetoricians, as abun- 
dantly satisfactory, and makes the following per- 
tinent observations on the subject. " Suppose 
(says this author) that I were to fix in my me- 
mory the different apartments in some very large 
building, and that I had accustomed myself to 
think of these apartments always in the same in- 
variable order. Suppose farther, tliat in pre- 
pnring myself for a public discourse, in which I 
had occasiou to treat of a great variety of parti- 
culars, I was anxious to fix in my memory, the 
order I proposed to observe in the communica- 
tion of my ideas. Tt is evident, that by a proper 
division of my subject into heads, and by con- 
ncctinaf each head with a particular apartment, 
(w.!ii( h I could easily do, by conceiving myself 
to be sitting in the apartment while I was study- 
ing the part of my discourse, I meant to connect 

* The chapter and verse of the text maybe soon fixed, 
}>y changing the nnnilnr of each into a hieroglyphic, and 
formjujf an association between the two. 


with it,) the habitual order in which these apart-^ 
menls occurred to inv thoughts, would present 
to me, in tlicir proper arrangement, and without 
any effort on my part, the ideas of which I was 
to treat. It is a'so obvious, that a very little 
practice wou'd enable me to avail myself of this 
contrivance, toithout any embarrassment or dis- 
traction of mi/ attention." * 

A public speaker may arrange the arguments 
of his adversary on various parts of his person, 
and thus be enabled to review and answer 
a multiplicity of observations made by many 
different speakers. The first remark might be 
placed on his head, one in each eye, one in 
each ear, another on his nose, mouth, etc. etc. 
if it be required to remember a iiigh number, 
we need only resort to the symbols : for in- 
stance, 27,819 will be fixed by remember- 
ing the names of Don Quixote, Midas, and 
Robinson Crusoe, the 'i7th, 8th, and IQth 

The advantages of this part of the system 
to the different professions are very great. Tiie 
minister — the legal student, and the Member 

• Elements of the Philosiyphy of the Uumun Mind, pp. 
456, 4,07. 


of Parliament, may all practise this method 
with success. The application of these principles 
will also render an essential service to the mer" 
chant and ihe man of business, iu the various 
couceriis ol life. 

CHAP. Vlll. 


Xhe application of Mnemonics to arithinetie 
was entirely omitted in the former edition of this 
work, becanse the editor did not conceive at that 
time, that the system could be rendered suffici- 
ently intelligible to the general reader. Anxious, 
however, to make this edition as complete as 
possible, he has given faithfully the substance of 
Mr. Feinaigle's Lecture on Arithmetic, without 
any attempt at illustration. As this Lecture has 
been accurately detailed in a recent publication,* 
it is extracted from that work, but without any 
of tlie reporter's commentaries and observations. 

" We have now to see how our methods will 
apply to Arithmetic. 

" In this subject we think we have, or may have 
evidence, for every particular proposition. But 
let us think a little ; in many cases we have cer- 

• Cross' Examination of Feinaigle's Arithmetic. 


tainty : but is certainty and evidence the same 
thing ? For instance we know that 6 multiplied 
by 6 gives 36 : this is certain ; but is it evident ? 
Ail we can say is that we have learned so : but 
where is the evidence that 6x6 gives just 36 ? 
When you say that 6 X 6 is 36, you answer that 
it is three tens and six units ; but see we this ? 
How are we convinced that it is just 36 and no 
other number ? It is only in our machine ; but 
how it comes we know not. We have these 
products given us in our multiplication tables, 
which we all know how difficult it is for children 
to learn ; nay, many grown persons cannot learn 
it, because it is founded only upon tlie poor na- 
tural memory, upon which we can never depend. 
We make it only an object of memory instead of 
presenting it to the intellect, and we have no evi- 
dence, because we want the first evidence. To 
find the first evidence we must cousider the fi- 
gures ihemselves. Let us see then what is in the 
figures : we have 


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 

100, &c. 

1000, &c. 
What conies after 9 ? Is it 10? No; 10 is a 
higher unit, and must therefore be placed before 
the 1 ; now what comes after 10? Is it 1 1 .? 
No ; it is 20. Thus we find those nations did 


who employed letters for numbers : after having 
used the first 9 they went on thus, 10, 20, 30, 
&c. and not 10, II, 12, &c. .Thus change these 
numbers as you please, you will always find they 
go from 1 to 9, and by considering the numbers 
in this way, the child sees at once that the rap- 
port of 10 to 60 is exactly the same with that of 
1 to 6 ; and all the relations of these numbers 
are at once in his mind. The first thing then 
must surely be to give the evidence of those fi- 
gures ; after this every thing will be easy. In 
problems, the greatest difficulty is to understand 
. the question ; when we do that, the problem is 
half solved ; the mind then acts like an alge- 
braical formula. O I we see — put this here, 
and that there ; do this, and do that, and it is 

" Let us see then how we are to get the true 
idea of number. 
Let this be one, --------O 

Let it be one something, an apple, or an 
orange, or whatever, and let this be 
another, ---------Q 

Now what have we here ? Is this two ? 1 see only 
two ones ; an I we say that these are equal to one 
two: But how kn>)W we this?. Have we evi- 
dence in the tiling itself that two ones are the 
same with one two ^ I should see two things in 
one thus : ---------<I) 



and the child sees at once that two halves are 
equal to one ; and that two halves and one are 
equal to one two. In the same manner I have 
for three, a circle divided into three sectors ; 
and the child sees at once that three thirds are 
equal to one ; and that the half of 3 thirds is one 
half; and that three thirds and two halves and 
one are equal to three. And so on for the higher 

*' Thus tlie child sees at once the proportions 
between the fractions : those things which are 
most difficult to be learned by the common way 
are here the first to be acquired, because they go 
M'ith the first conception. If I say give me one 
half of three thirds, or one third of one half, or 
one half of one third, or one third together with 
one half of one third, he gives me them at once, 
because he has a clear conception of their mean- 
ing. I give not these things to the child, he 
must give lliem to me ; and it is wonderful what 
calculations many children will make when they 
go on witli their reason ; but all this is gone 
when they begin with the usual methods, be- 
cause evidence is taken away, and commonly we 
find that the more instruction they receive, the 
difficulty is the greater. But in our method they 
proceed with pleasure, because they continue to 
have evidence ; and I will engage that any child 
instructed in this method, would in one fortnight 


perform calculations of which you have no idea. 
So true is this, that if we were to unknow all that 
we have learned, and begin from the foundation, 
it would be better. 

** We can go on with the same principles to 
Mathematics ; in them we have three things, 
weight, measure, and number ; but all are redu- 
cible to number. 

" If we now represent our succession of . • 
units thus, and divide ten into two halves, . . 
as we have seen that this is necessary for . . 
representing two in one. If I ask what . . 
is 6 to 8, or give me one half of eight, . . 
and one fourth of eight, the. child finds 
this at once, which is sometimes the solution 
of a difficult problem. If we go onto Addi- 
tion, and ask what is 7 and 8 r the child sees 
at once that 7 is equal to 5 and 2, and that 
8 is equal to 3 and 3 ; so that 7 and 8 are 
equal to two fives and five, or one ten and five, 
or fifteen. In the same manner 6 and C) are one 
ten and two, 8 and 8 are one ten and six, See. &.c. 
so that we see addition is certainly demonstrated 
thus ; and subtraction is as evident. 

" Let us go on then to Multiplication. Say that 
we ask how much is eight taken six times, the 
answer nmst be in tens and units, the child sees 
that 8 is equal to 5 and 3, 

and is equal to 5 and 1. 


And multiplying tlieSe he has - - - - 25 
Thus every number must be considered by 15 
what it is in rapport to 10 and 5. 5 


But let us see if this is not in our dots also, . 

We have certainly above a and below b and e 
four dots, which are the tens ; above b we have 
four, and above c two; two nuiltiplied by four 
gives eight for the units, so that we have 48. 

" In the same manner 7 nmltiplied by 9> 
we have 6 tens, and one multiplied by ?>, 
or 3 units, that is 63. tjj 


And so 8 multiplied by 9, we have 7 tens, 
and one multiplied by two units or 72, 
and so in every odier case; only the rule ^' 
must be changed when we change the . 
object of the question. 

So that we see a child has no need of the mul- 
tiplication table ; he burdens not his mind with 
it; he sees not only the relation of the different 
numbers, but he sees all haw they affect and 
combine with each other; ail is in tlie nature of 
the thing ; the evidence is before liim. 

" Let us now go on to Division. Suppose we 
have to divide 63 by 7 ; let us see if this is not 
included in the nature of the thing. We have 


If we subtract the 7 from 10, we have 3; and 


if we add this to 6, we have 9 the quotient. 
Divide 54 by 9. 

Subtracting the 9 from 10, and adding the re- 
mainder to 5, we have 6 the quotient. 

4 2 

SO 6)48(8 8)72(9 and so on. 

And in cases where the dividend does not exactly 
contain the devisor, as in 

we find by multiplication, that 8 mulkiplied by 9 
gives 72, we have then 4 over, which is conse- 
quently 4 ninths. 

" Thus in every case we have always the answer 
to the nearest whole number. Here also we 
have no need of the multiplication table, which, 
as I said before, is so difficult to learn, as the 
numbers themselves give us the answer ; it is in 
their nature. You see then how easy it is to ad- 
vance by our method, and we charge not th« 
memory with what it is so difficult to fix." 


^irttficial iHemotp. 


JlA-S many of the treatises on this subject are 
extremely rare, we shall give the title of each, 
and occasionally notice their contents ; but we 
shall not attempt a particular analysis of the early 
books, as the same principles will be found am- 
ply developed in those of a more recent date, 
from which copious extracts will be made. In 
some few instances, indeed, on account of its 
rarity, or usefulness, the whole work has been 
reprinted ; and, a slight sketch of the author's life 
has, when practicable, been introduced. The 
articles thus noticed are all numbered; the books 
are chronologically arranged, according to the 
dates of their publication ; and the MSS. are 
referred to that period in which their respective 
authors probably tlourished. 


1. ThomcB JBradwardini Ars 3Iemora- 
tiva. 3IS. 

This curious manuscript is No. 3744 in the 
Shane Collection, preserved in the British Mu- 
seum. It consists of three pages and a half of a 
small duodecimo size, and treats of places, and of 
images or symbols to be arranged in the places ; 
and, is evidently an attempt, though a feeble one, 
to form a system of topical memory, according to 
the plan of the antients. 

Thomas Bkadwardin was called the 
Profound Doctor, and was born in Sussex, 
about the beginning of the fourteenrfi century. 
He was educated at Merton College, Oxford, of 
which he was proctor in 1325. Being called to 
court by Stratford, archbishop of Canterbury, he 
was made confessor to Edward III. and presented 
with a canonry of Lincoln, and also with the 
chancellorship of St. Paul's, London. He ac- 
companied the king in his warlike expeditions; 
and to his sanctity of life and pious prayers, the 
superstition of the age attributed much of the suc- 
cess attending the arms of that monarch. His 
writings were partly theological ; and he appears 
to have been one of the most enlightened eccle- 
siastics of his age. He gained great credit by his 
mathematical works. 


2. Matheoli Perusini iractatus Artis Me- 

morativce, 8°. 1470. [BL Ictj 

This work was often reprinted in subsequent 

3. Jacohi Puhlicii Ars Memorativa in- 

cipit feliciter, 4°. p&L IctJ 

4. In 7iova mirahilique ac perfectissima 

Memorise Jacohi Puhlicii, prologus 
feliciter incipit, 4". [iJL Jct*] 

These two articles are without date, place, or 
printer's name. Panzer* has arranged No. 3. 
among the books printed at Cologne, by John 
Gnldenschaff, but does not assign any date to it. 
Publicius was the author of Ars conficiendi epis- 
tolas TulUano more, printed in 1488; and of 
Artis Oratories Epitom. Ars Epistolaris et Ars 
Memorise, printed in 1482. It is very proba- 
ble, then, that tlie article under consideration, was 
printed before the year 1482, and afterwards re- 
printed with, the two other tracts of Publicius. 
Tlie Ars Memorativa seems to have been the 
fountain from which every successive writer has 
taken copious draughts. It treats of the airange- 

• Aunales TypograpUici, torn. I., p, 343. eiL Norimh. iTSt- 


ment of places and the combination of images. 
Several wood-cuts are given, of the most rude and 
grotesque description, representing the alphabet 
by symbols taken from diiFerent objects. 

5. Ars 3Iemoraiiva per Johannem Priiss. 

foL Argent. 1488. [ijj. let.] 

6. Petrus Colonia, Ars Memorativa, 4". 

[W. let.] 

No. 6. consists of eight leaves, with several 
badly executed wood-cuts, evidently the produc- 
tions of a very early period. It is without date, 
place, or name of the prmter. The arms of 
Cologne occupy the whole of the last page; 
from this circumstance, and from the addition 
of the author, it may be inferred that the work 
was printed at Cologne. The address to the 
reader notices the attempt of Publicins, and ex- 
presses the author's desire to form a compendious 
view of the Art of Memory for the use of all 
persons. There is, of course, but little differ- 
ence between the schemes of Publicius, and Pe- 
ter of Cologne. The wood-cuts, which are nu- 
merous, are interspersed with the letter-press, and 
are intended to represent images of particular ob- 
jects; as a carpenter, by a hammer ^ a cobier, 
ii by a shoe, etc, etc. 


7. Incipit Ars Memoria venerabilis Sal- 

donini Sahodiensis Medicce Artis 
D act oris Eximii, 4°. Paris. [6L let ♦] 

This article is without date, place, or name 
of the printer. It is, in fact, a republication of 
Publicius, with some introductory rule&, which 
are dehvered in Latin hexameters, aceompanied 
by a prosaic comment and exposition. Manget, 
m his Bibliotheca Script or um Medicorum* 
has the following meagre information respecting 
this * venerable and illustrious medical Doctor.' 
* Baldovinus (Sabodie.mis), De eo erstat, Ars 
viemoricc carmine cum glossis. Varisiis^ in 4°.' 

8. Fcenix Duni Petri Rauenatis Me- 
morice magistri, A°. Venetiis, 1491. 

9. Memorice Ars quce Phcenix inscribitury 

8". Paris, 1544. 

10. Phcenix sen Artificiosa Memoria CI. 

J. V. D. et militis J>. Petri Raven- 
iiatis Juris Canonici olim in Pata- 
vino Gymnasio Professoris celeber- 
rimi, 4*"^ Vicentice, 1600. 

• Tom. L p. 224. 


In this work, [Nos. 8, 9, 10.] the places and 
images are noticed at large, with various rules for 
forming, arranging, and combining them. If we 
would remember, says Peter, any particular cir- 
cumstances, we must form some vivid imagination 
of the event, and associate it with the names of 
some" pretty girls"ofouracquaintance! ! ! Iwould 

^wish him that is melancholy, (says Burton) to 
study Cosmus Rosselius, Peter Ravennas, and 

■ Schenckelius Detectus. 

1 1 . Jacohi Colincei Campani de Memoria 

Arti/iciosa compendiosumopusctdnm. 
Jmpressit Ascensms, 4". ^Paris'] 1515. 
Venundatur in Aedihus Asccnsianis. 

12. Nicholcd Chappusii de mente et me- 
moria lihellusntilissimus, 4*^. \^Paris\ 
1515. Venundatur ubi impresstis : 
est in Aedibus Aseensianis. [hi. Jct.] 

The two preceding articles are little more than 
a repetition of the scheme of Peter of Ravenna, 
with some observations on the theory of natural 
memory. They are both beautiful specimens 
of early typography, and have in the title a large 
colophon [in wood] representing a room of a 
printing ofiice, in which are a compositor at work, 


a press, a man laying on the ink, and another 
working the press. 

13. Congestorium Artificiosce Memorice 
Joamiis Romberch de Kyrpse; — opus 
omnibus Tkeologis, predicatoribiis ; 
confessoribuSy advocatis, etuotariis; 
medicis, philosophis ; Arti liberalium 
professor ibus. Insuper mercatoribus, 
nuntiis, et tabellariis perfiecessarimn, 
8°. Veneius,per 3Ielch. kUtessa, 1533. 

[hi let.] 

This work abounds with the most curious wood- 
cuts ; according to tlie title, it is intended for di- 
rines, preachers, confessors, advocates, notaries, 
physicians, philosopliers, and professors, of the 
liberal arts: it is also very necess-ary for mer- 
chants, messengers, and amanuensts. The au- 
thor speaks of natural memory, its seat, etc. and 
illustrates his observations by the representation 
of a head, on which the situations of thought, 
fancy, etc. are laid down with great care. Arter 
having treated of the necessity and use of places, 
and images, of visible places and fictitious places ; 
the author recommends the fixing of certain places 
upon the walls of the different rooms of a house, 
monastery, or other place : and, the better to re- 
member the situation of the places, puts symbols 


there. A wood cut is given with the symbols 
for figures as hij^h as 30, niauy of which repre- 
sent very accurately the outline of the figure. The 
alphabet is represented in the same way by sym- 
bols ; and, in one instance, entirely by birds of 
different species. 

In speaking of languages, in order to fix the 
numbers and cases of nouns in the mind of 
the pupil, M. Romberch resorts to the fol- 
lowing expedient. A naked man is to personate 
the singular number ; ihe nominative case is to be 
placed on the head of this man, the genitive in 
his right hand, the dative in his left, the accusa- 
tive on his breast, the vocative on his middle, and 
the ablative on his knees. A man clothed gives the 
plural number, and the cases are to be disposed in 
the same manner, as on the naked man. Two 
chapters are devoted to the merchants; in the one, 
they are instructed to remember the weight and 
measure of their goods ; and in the other, the debts 
owing to them, the bills which they have to pay, 
etc. etc. I'hree chapters are dedicated to gam- 
ing; one explains tlie application of the art to 
dice, another to cards, and the last to chess. 

Another edition of Romberch's Congestorium 
was published at Franckfort, in iGO^, 8°. Xo- 
dovico Dolci translated this book into- Italian, 
but gave it a dialogue form j it was printed at 
¥enice, iu 8". 1562.. 


14. DeMemoria reparanda, migenda, ser- 

vandaque lib. itmis ; et de locali vel ar- 
tificiosa Memoria lib. alter Cruill. 
Grataroli, 8°. JRomcc, 1555. 

A prior edition of this treatise was printed at 
Basle in lo54, with Grataroli's Opuscula, which 
were all corrected by himself. Many other edi- 
tions followed, and a translation into English was 
made by William Fulwod nnder the following 

15. T/ic Castel of Memorie : iv herein is 
contemned the restoring, augment- 
ing, and conseruinge of the Memo- 
rie atid Remembrance, tvith the 
safest remedies, and best precepts 
thereunto in any icise apperteining : 
made by Gidielmus Gratarolus JBer- 
gomatis Doctor of Artes and Phy- 
sike. Englyshed by William Fid- 
ivod. The Contentes ivherof ap- 
pear in the Page next folowing. 
Imprinted at London in Fleete- 
streete by William How, dwelling 
at Temple barre. [bl. let.] 


An earlier edition of this extremely rare book 
is noticed in the Censura Literaria.* After the 
line in the title of this edition, * The contentes/ 
etc. there is a cut of the Printer's sign with the 
motto post tenebras lux. * Printed at London 
by Rouland Hall, dwellynge in Gutter-lane, at 
the signe of the Half Egle and the Keye, 1562, 
12°.' The address to the reader is dated Nov. 
20, 1562. The date to the edition from which 
our extracts have been made, is placed at the end 
of the ' address,' and is Nov. 20, 1573. 

An Epistle * dedicatorie' to Lord Dudley, 
'^Maister of the Queenes Maiesties horse,' follows 
the title. This epistle is in verse, very prolix 
and dull. After a studied eulogy on his patron, 
Mr. Fulwod enlarges upon the importance of 
memory, particularly to the Judge, Preacher, 
Captaine, Marchaunt, Lawyer, and Husband- 
man, and shrewdly observes. 

For what helps it good bookes to r«ade, 

or noble stories large : 
Excepte a pcrfecte Meraorie, 

do take thereof the charge ? 

What profits it most worthy thinj 

to see, or else to heare : 
If that the same come in at the one, 

and out at the other eare? 

Vol. vii, p. 209. 


An address from the translator to the reader, 
concludes with this sage admonition, lege et per- 
lege, ne quid temere. In the next place we 


Verd'ute. ] 

A Castell stroug I doe present 

well furnished and sure : 
Munited eke with Arraoure bent 

For euer to endure. 

Which iiitherto long time hath ben 

In (Limbo patrum) hidde, 
But now at last may here bee scene, 

From daungers men to ridde : 

Procuring them a perfect state,* 

And safe securitie, 
Wherby they may fynde out the gate 

Of wisedome's lore. For why ? 

Hee that hath lost his Mcmorie, 

By mee may it rcnewe : 
And hee that wyll it amflifio. 

Shall find instructions trewe. 

And hee that will still keepe the same, 

That it shall not decay : 
By mee must learne the way to frame, 

And my pr«ccptes obej-. 

• Sapi. 6, 8. and 18. j 


Lo here yee see my full effecte : 
And that I doe entende 

The secretes tlierof to detect. 
That thereby wittes may mende. 

Then ludge mee^ 
As I am worthie. 

The Castel of Memorie is divided into seven 
chapters. The first ' declareth what memorie 
is, where it Jiorisheth, how profitable and ne- 
cessa7'ie it is.' The second * conteineth the 
chiefe causes wherby the memorie is hurt, with 
their signes and cures :' and, in treating of moist 
and cold brains, concerning the * nieates forbid- 
den the pacient,' there are the following curious 
directions :' 

" Let them also forbeare Marow (which is in 
bones) Cranes fleshe, fishe, especially if it be 
clammy and nourished in diches or holes, colde 
pot herbes, milke, cheese, especially much, or 
naughtie : fruites moist and not ripe or often 
but sometimes they maye eate sharper or tarter 
nieates, chiefly in the winter, as Garlike, Peni- 
royall, or Calamint, Capers being watered ; 
mustard is praised of Pithagoras, they must eate 
little and speciailye at supper : they must drink 
no water, except it be sod with hony, or cinna- 
mon, or some other pleasant spices. They must 
abstein from ouer mutch sleepe, and not to 


sleepe in the daye time, nor upon the noddle of 
the head, nor upon to mutch fulnes of meate : 
let them also take heede of ouer great watch- 
inges, for it weakeneth the spirite, and resokieth 
it, and stuffeth the head." 

The third chapter ' sheweth the principall 
tsndajnages of the memorie in what sorte, so 
euer tliey bee.' The fourth * telleth likewise 
the perticuiar helpes of the Memorie.' The 
fifth * comprehendeth certain best approued and 
chosen medicinable compounded remedies and 
presertiatiues greatly encreasing the Memory ;* 
and containeth a receipt to make ' Pilles that are 
good for a languishing braine, especially in aged 
and olde folkes,' "an odoriferous or sweet smell- 
ing aple for the memorie' — ^ a comforting water 
or lee, for the washing of a colde and moist 
head, also it helpedi the Memorie, autl it must 
be of the ashes of Twigges, or of an oake.'— 
Another, and another follow. The sixth chap- 
ter * expresseth Philosnphicall .Judgements, 
Rules, and PreceplesofRememhraunce; these 
are twenty iu number; the nineteenth is as fol- 
lows : 

. " For the recreation of your myude and there- 
storing of your strengthes, you must not flye to 
fylthie and dishonest things, but you shall bring it 
to passe by changing of your studie ; for it is better 
somewhat to refresh your niynde, then altogether 


to lose it. Yea, also the plaies, pastimes or en- 
terludes of Christians ought to be sage and ho- 
nest. Therefore after earneste and graue studies 
you muste repaire to lighter and easier, as to 
Histories or Musicall exercises, for it restoreth 
the strength and norisheth the conuenient reste, 
and also vertue is of more power after leasure 
and rest. There be some that had rather play, 
the which indeede is graunted and permitted, so 
that the playe bee a play and not an earnest or 
said thinge, and let it be shorte, honest, without 
deceite hurt or couetousnes. The Chestes playe 
(a Treatise whereof I lately translated into Eng- 
lishe) doth moue and stire up the wit, but in 
the same is often bestowed to much tyme and 
studye, the which ought to be better applied. 
The baule or Tenyce play, doth also profite the 
hole bodye (But above all the noble exercise of 
Shooting in the long Bowe is most commenda- 
ble) walking abroad is good chieflye for the 
heade ; but it is better to dispute together walk- 
ing up and downe and mouing the handes. 
This recreacion of the minde ought not to be 
daily nor often, and especially it must not be 
used at the hours or tyme of study." 

The seventh chapter * entreateth in fevve 
zeoordes of locall or artificiall MemorieJ 

" Artificiall Memorie is a disposyn or placing 
of sensible thinges in the mynde by imagination, 


whereunto the naturall memorie hauing respect, is 
by them admonished, that it may be hable to call 
to mind more easely and distinctly suche thinges 
as are to bee remembred : and (as Cicero sayth 
in hys seconde to Herennius) it .consisteth of 
places, as it were of waxe or tables, and of 
images, as of figures and letters. For so it 
commeth to passe that such thinges, as we haue 
heard or learned, we reherse agayne, euen as 
though we read them. Nor it skilleth not 
muche whether we begynne at the first, or at the 
mjfie. The places themselves rMiis!; be set in 
order, for, yf there be a confusion in them, it 
foloweth of necessitie, that al the reste must be 
disordred. And it behoueth also that there be 
many places, that manye thinges maye be placed 
by the same exercise and practise. Cicero 
judged that there should be an hundreth in num- 
ber. Thomas A<juinus thought it good to have 
mo. [more]. For these places many have 
searched by diuers and sundry artes. Metro- 
dorus found oute three hundred and sixtie places 
of the XII signes in the whiche, the sunne goeth 
his course : because the Astrologers do deuyde 
the Zodiacke into so manye degrees. 

" Cicero inuented a certayne familiar house, se- 
uered or parted into manye places, and he thought 
it good that we shoulde deuise after euerye fyft« 
place, either a golden hande or some other dis- 


tinction, wherby the one might be discerned 
from the Oiher, and also in them to obserue a 
stfdfaHt and unmonable order, th.-st wee miglit 
a!vv;jys enter in and go out at the right syde. 
A'l' idler A'jtiior, not unskillful, fayned places 
bv certavife iyuing creatures, and deriued their 
or<!«.r out of the Latyne alphabet, in suche sorte 
thai euer) one of their names shouloe bcginne 
with some one of euery- letter : euen as if these 
vere the names : an Asse, a Beare, a Cat, a 
Dogge, an Elephant, a Foxe, a Goate, a Horse, 
tj Ja^e, a Kyte. a Lyou. a Mule, a Nyghtingafc, 
an Oule, a Partridge, a Quaile, a Rabbet, a 
Sheepe, a Throstle, a Unicorne, Xystus the Phi- 
losopher (who wrote of these) Hyena, Zacheus, 
He deuyded all these into fyue places : into the 
heade, into the fore feete, into the bealye, into 
the hynder feete and the tayle, for this order na- 
ture herself niinistreth, neither can the wit be 
confounded in counting or reckenning them. 
Hauing thus gotten then an hundrcth and fyftene 
places, he graued in them the Images of thinges 
worlhye of memorie, and also he coraniaunded 
that many thinges should bee written by the 
mynde or wit in the face of him that speaketh, 
in the heares, in the forehead, in the eyes, and 
so to descend downewarde to the feete. But me 
thynketh it a verye easye thinge to deinise and 
Jmmagine not onlve an hundreth but also infinite: 


places, seeing no man is ignorant of the situation 
of the citie where he was borne, or in the which 
he hath long dwelled. 

" Therefore when the mynde entreth in at the 
gate, whiles it considereth the diuersitie of waves, 
directing and leading to diners countreyes, and 
whiles it remembreth frendes houses, pnblike 
dwellinge places, palaces, or common places of 
Judgment, it shall fynde out a maruelous number 
of places. Hereto also it maye imagine great 
courtes, or places of larger roume, wherein it 
may deuise as great a number of places as it list- 
eth, so that euery thing may be written therein 
that he will haue. 

*' And because the teaching by examples is 
briefe and effectual], nowe will I put forth some 
examples, to the end that thereby the matter 
may be the better perceiued. I will put forth 
a)i example of tenne, and consequently by the 
proportion thereof shall be deuised the example 
of a thousand. 

" And therefore I take or choose a greate and 
emptie house, to the which you muste not go 
often but seldome, and appointe or sette the 
fyrst place which is at the doore, three foot 
distant from the doore. Let the seconde place 
be twelve or fyftenne foote distant from that, as 
for example let there be one corner or angle. 
Let the thyrd place be distant from the seconde 
s 3 


even as many or twelve foote, and there may be 
perchance, another corner, or a middest betwene 
die first and the second corner. The fourth shall 
be a corner. The fyft shall be a corner, distant 
by as miiche. The syxte llkewyse: and' the hall 
beyng finished, you shall enter into one chamber, 
and immediately within the doore you shall note 
or appoynte the seuenthe, and afterwarde, in the 
fyrst corner of the chamber the eyght, and in the 
second corner the nynthe, and in the thyrd the 
tenth with his distaunce. And yf you wyll haue 
any more places, goe out of the chamber, and 
so raarke or note the other chambers propor- 

" But yet remember that the dystaunce whych 
is geuen is moderate and conuenyent, but yf 
there be not found so great dystaunce, but a 
lesser eucn unto eyghte, or to Ipsse euen unto 
fiue foote, yet should it be tolerable. As con- 
cernynge the teniple, it ought to be such a one 
as must not be much frequented, especially of 
yourself to the ende that you be not confounded 
or troubled, with the multitude of the fygures or 
Images. These places ought to be memorable 
and remoueable with ones hand, for the corners 
are not places, but fyxed images sette and placed 
in the corners, uppon the which (euen as upon 
paper) are painted other fygures, which may he 
put out euen as letters upon paper. As for 


example, the firste place is marked or known 
by * * * in setting * * * in his place. The 
second by asalue boxe, setting there also a salue 
boxe. Tlie iii by a morter putting it there. The 
fourth by a pestle. The fyfte by a pair of 
writing Tables. The sixte by a hares foote» 
The senenth by a Scarcer. The eight by a 
bagge. The ninth by a lofe of waxe. The 
tenth by the Canes of Cassia. And these names 
must be kepte alwaies in niynd and the places 
from fine to liue^that the quinaries or fyfte places 
may alwaies by had in mcmorie. Of the dis- 
tance there is enough spoken. Yet note tha? 
you may passe to fine and thirtie, and not be- 
yonde, leste t'nere should chaunce a negation in 
the images. 

" And bee it spoken euen likewise of the 
quantitie as touching the height, that there be 
not manye of a height, but from fyue eueii unto 
eleven foote. And let euery fyftic place be 
marked, as it is sayde of the order. The qualiti« 
also must be noted, that they be not to light, nor 
to darke, nor to much frequented. Let us come 
to the Images which are the ihinges that must be 
places : the Images whiche bee knowen unto 
us, ought to be so set in these places with such 
mouingcs, that by them we may call tliinges to 
remembraunce. For example, I would remem- 
ber twentye names^ I will do thus : In the fyrste 


place, I will set the Images of Peter, one whom 
I well knowe, with an * ^ * full of water iu hys 
hande, the whyche he shall power upon James 
one also well k no wen unto me : and so by this 
notable act, I shall remember these twoo, and 
so place in my remembraunce these twoo names. 

" In the seconde place I wyll put Henrye 
who is unto mee verye well knowen (for these 
fygures must be exactly knowen that they maye 
quickelye come into ones Memorye) who shall 
put his hande into a Boxe and pull out the salue, 
and therwilhal to besniyer Steuen, one also 
whom I do very uell know. 

" In the thyrde place I will set Wylliam, one 
whome I knowe also, who shall take out of the 
morter a playster, and shall put it upon Fraunces 
face : or inuentinge some other mad iestes and 
toyes, whereby the memorye maye bee confyrmed 
to beare awaye suche lyke names. 

" And so in lyke manner proceede with the 

* As the 'original passage has not, here, been literally 
translated, we shall present our readers with a specimen of 
Grataroli's Latin. — " Transeanius ad imagines, qua; sunt 
res collocandic : dobent it;v imagines nobis notae in istis 
locis collocari cum motibus talibus, ul per eas valeamus 
memorari. Verbi gratia, volo memorari dc viginti nomi- 
uibus, sic faciam : in priino loco iniaginem Petri mihi 
aotissimi locabo, cum urinali in raanu pleno urina quam 
fundet supcr^Iacobum mihi uotissimum : et ex isto acta 


" Likewise if I would remember any man 
and also his acte, I will imagin him and the 
doyng of his acta; as, if I would remember one 
eating of iigges, then I will imagine that with a 
figge, he did some mery or strange thing. 

Grataroli next treats of figures, and gives the 
five following rules concerning them. 

'*' Thefyrste is that the fygure do mone either 
to laughter, compassion, or admiracion, for one 
may soone fynde a figure that styre up and moue 
the affection of the Soule. 

" An example hereof is this, if I should settc 
©r place in the mouthe of a mad Asse, the head 
of Antonye to be almoste bytten in pieces, the 
blood to gushe out of him, and that he asketb 
helpe, and holdynge up his handes cryeth out : 
for it cannot bee but that when I woulde, I 
shoulde see him with the eyes of my mynde, and 

Dotabili, honim duorHin memorabor: ctsic duorum nomi- 
nuin raenioriaiu milii fcceio. In secundo l«co pouaiii Mai- 
tiiiiim niilii iiotis^imuin (nam opoitet imagines istas esse 
iiotissinias, at cito in nicnioriani rtcuiTant) qui ponet 
tligitum sunm in pyxidc ct extrahct nnguentiini, qno - m 
di'^ito ^oriliciiini un^et ani Ilcnrici niilii notissirai. In 
/e;^(tf ponani Andieam niihi itidem uotuin, qui cum manu 
ex mortaiio extrahet cmplastrum quod ponet super faciem 
' Frnncisci, vcl alios ridiculos actus fabricando, ex quibus 
memovia dc talibus nominihus confirmetur. Et ita pari- 
fonnitcr pioredatnr in aliis." — Gratarolux de Manor ii ; 
<)Pi St. pp. 66, 67. Kanil. 1554. 


declare or express Antony to him that should ask 
or enquire for him. 

" Aiiother is, that we should represent eyther 
the lyke by the like, or by the contrary, or else 
by the proprietie therof. An example of tbe 
fyrst is, as if I were about to place the name of 
Galeae, I should write the name of some other 
excellent physition, whose authoritie (as neere as 
lusiy be) is eyther equall or lyttle inferiour. 

" An example of the seconde is, if 1 writ the 
name of an unlerned physition, if I describe 
Thersites, by Achilles, and the good for the * 
euill ; or the foule by the fayre. 

*' An example of the thi/rde is, yf I represent 
Ouidius Naso, by a great nose : Plato, by large 
shoulders, Crispus by crysped or curled heares ; 
and Cicero by Gelasinus. 

" The tkyrde is, that wee accustome our- 
selues to place thinges, euen from our very 
youth, and that we encrease with dayly exercise : 
although that the teaching therof may helpe and 
profit euen them also that be elder. 

" The habite, the perfectnes and dexteritye 
(I meane to practyse these thynges) is muche the 
more, if they doe so place all thynges, whiche 
they shall either saye or do and also whatsoeuer 
they heare in communication or talkinge. And 
they must lykewise paynt and graue the maners, 
gestures and tymes. For in so doynge they shall 


ill a sliorte space be notably wel exercised. It 
profvteth also to playe one with another, and to 
goe about to excel! hym that shall recyte many 
thynges, more clearlye, orderlye, and spedely 
then other. 

" The fourth is that (in euery quinary or 
fyft number of those thynges that are to be 
marked) we repeate agayne from the beginninge 
all such th}niges as are alreadye noted for the 
repeticion of things coramonlye bryngeth greate 
utilitie and profyte. 

" The fyfte is, that wee should represent 
thinges compounde with the scimilitude of simple 
thinges. As for example. Hee that will re- 
member this sentence : Cicero contendeth with 
Hortensius, shall immagine the pease called 
C/c^7' whiche complayneth of the barenes of the 
garden : for so doth Cicer resemble Cicero and 
the Garden called Hart us doth represent Hor- 
tensius, and the complaynte the contention, 
etc. etc. 

" Agayne you shall not forget that in placyng 
or setting of the images or fygurts in their places 
the thynge is alwayes to bee placed with a merye, 
a merueylous or cruell acte, or some other unac- 
customed mauer : for merye, cruel), iniurious, 
merueylous, excellently fayre, or exceedinglye 
foule thynges do chaufige and moue the sences, 
and better styrre uppe the memorye, when 


the myude is muche occupied about suche 

" Also the images are varyed by the transpo* 
sition and transumption of the letters : as if I 
vvoulde remember Nep,* I shall place a pen, 
and for a tyran, [Tyrant] a rauening wolf. It 
sufficeth therefore, that we have expressed a me- 
thode or compendious waye, the whiche whoso- 
euer foloweth shall easelye (so that exercise be 
not lackynge) get and attayne the certeine and 
sure remembrance, of manye and sundrye thinges, 
as due occasion shall require : but as for the 
sluggish and ydle, let them slugge and sleepe 
still, to whome all thinges are displeasing." 

At the conclusion of the seventh chapter ' is 
put an Epilogue of the foresayde thinges' 
This epilogue contains quotations from Erasmus, 
PJato, and Aristotle, and concludes thus : 

" It is verye good also to renewe and rehearse 
verye often suche thinges as are commytted to 
the memorye, with an elegant Oration or a sweete 
songe, as it is heretofore declared, for pleasure 
is the sauce of thynges, the foode of love, the 
quickening of the wyt, the nouryshynge of the 
affection and the strength of the Memorye. 

" The Soule also must be purged from 

* A Horbc so called. 


euill thinges, that it may be filled with good 

" And we must humbly desire of God with a 
faythfull prayer to grant us his spyryte of wyse- 
dome and knowledge, for our Lord Jesus 
Christes sake, to wliome wylh the father and the 
holy ghost be all honor, laud, and glorye for 
euer and euer. Amen." 

On the back of the last l*"af, Memory taketh 
leave of her disciples with the following admo- 

Memorie sayeth. 

To him that would me gladly gaine 

These three precepts sliall not be vaine. 

The first is well to vnderstand 

The tiling that he doth take iu hand. 

The second is the same to piace 

In order good and formed race, 

The thirdo, i^ often to repeat 

The thing that he would not forgeat. 

Adioyning to tliis castell strong, 

Great vcrtue comes cr it be long. 

A French translation of Grataroli's Treatises 
on the Memory and on Physiognoujv, is extunt; 
the following is the title as given by De Bure, 
and it is remarkable that this is the 07t/i/ book 
which he has admitted imder the head ol Natu- 
ral and Artificial Memory. 


16. Discours notables des moyens pour 

conserver et augmeiiter la memoire^ 

avec wi Traite de la PJiysionomie 

oil Jiigement de la nature des hom- 

mes tire des traits dii visage, et 

autres parties du corps; trad, dii 

Latiti de Guill. Gratarol, par 

Estienne Cope, 16'', Lyon, 1586. 

Of this book De Bure says, * Fetit Traite 

singulier, et assez recherche.' AndCAiLLEAU 

in his Diet. Bibliog. ' Petit Traite singulier 

et pen commun.' — * Onprefere cette Traduction 

a Voriginal Latin.' 

William Grataroli was born at Berga- 
mo in Italy, in the year 1510. He was educated 
at Padua, where he took the degree of Doctor 
of Physic, and afterwards became Professor of 
the same science, and gained considerable dis- 
tinction. But, having embraced the Calvinistic 
doctrines on the persuasion of Peter Vermilli, he 
fled from Italy through fear of the inquisition, 
and retired to Marpurg, where he taught medicine 
for a year. He was, however, leave 
that place also, and repaired to Basle, in the 
hope of a better fortune, and where, in fact, he 
taught and practised his profession with success 
until May, 1 5QQ>, when he died at the age of 52 
He was author of a great number of works, som- 


©f which are honorable to his talents, and 
evince a large share of knowledge, but in otliers 
he shows an attachment to the absurdities of 
the alchemist, much superstition, and opinions 
which do not imply a sound judgment. His 
works, besides those which we have had occasion 
to mention, were, I. A Treatise on the Preser- 
vation of the Health of Magistrates, Travel- 
lers, and Students, in Latin, published at Frank- 
fort, in 1591, in 12°. — II. Da Vini Natura. 
Cologne, 1(371, in B°. — III. He was the editor 
of a collection of various works of Pomponatius : 
Basle, 1565, in 8°. He had been the pupil of 
this celebrated man, and adopted some of his 
notions. — IV. Vera Alchijmice Artisque Me- 
tallic^ Doctrine, etc.fol. Basil, 156l. — V. De 
pradictione rerum naturarumque hominum 
etc. — VI. De Temporum omnimoda mutatione, 

" It cannot be denied (says Baylc) tlvat Gra- 
taroli was a public-spirited man, since he not 
only sought remedies that he might be useful to 
magistrates, but also those that are proper for all 
sorts of travellers. He did not forget studious 
men ; for he endeavoured to enable them to pre- 
serve their health, and strengthen their memory. 
A man, who would supply their necessities on 

• Bavle— Diet. Hist. art. GralarolL 


this account^ would deserve divine honors tit 
the republic of tetters, in which memory is 
almost as necessary as life." 

17. AriiJlcioscE MemoricB libellus, antore 

Joann. Spaiigenherg, Herd. 8°» 
Witeberg, 1570. 

18. Artis 3Iemoria:, seupotius Reminis- 

centicE pars secunda^ Autliore Joh, 
Sp, Herd. Franco/. 1603. 

This is a very useful mamiil, and is intended 
principally for tyros in the -dii. It unfolds, by 
question and answer, the principles of former 
writers on the jsufcject, and is equally remarkable 
for perspicuity and brevity, TJiis small tract is 
included in the Gazophylacium Artis Memorice, 
published in l6lO, under the title of Erotemata 
de Arte Memories seu Reminiscent ice, etc, 

J 9. Cosmi Rosselii Thesmirns Artifi- 
ciosce Memoriae, 4°. Venet. 1574. 

20. Jordano Sruno de nmhris Idearum, 

Paris, 1582. 

21. Artificiosce Memorise Libellus, Au- 

thore Thoma Watsono Oxonictisi, 


Juris Utriusque studioso. MS. 

This manuscript is No. 5731 in the Shane 
Collection, preserved in the Britisii Museum. It 
is divided into fifteen chapters, the titles of 
which are, 

1. yJutoris Prologomenon el Methodus, 2. De 
Memoria et Heminiscentia. 3. De Me- 
moria Nnturali. 4. De ArtificiGsa Memo- 
ria. 0. De Dup/ici locorum gene re. G. De 
Legibas locorum. 7- De Imaginibus. 8. 
De Imagine rei aimplici. 9- De Imagine 
rei composita. 10. Qnales esse debeant 
imagines. 11. De Cathena. 12. De Fer- 
boruin memoria. \3. De praxi artis me- 
jHorativae et ofijectornm tarietate. 14. De 
U til it ate localis memorirt. 15. De Imjus 
artis acqnisitione, 

( If I wish to remember five objects, (says Mr. 
Watson) as a stone, a tree, a fish, a bird, and a 
horse, I take some spacious wall well-known to 
me, and make five great divisions ; in the inst, I 
see a door ; in the second, a window ; in the 
third, a chest ; in the fourth, an iron book ; in 
the fifth, a large crack, or fissure. The stone 
, must be large enough to fill up the whole door- 
viay ; the tree has taken root, and almost con- 


ceals the window by its branches ; the iish is ly- 
ing hid in the chest ; the bird is seizing the iron- 
hook with his beak, and is endeavouring to tear it 
from the wall ; the horse has put his tail into the 
fissure, and is fixed there. By these means, the 
objects, and their numerical situation are perma- 
nently remembered: other divisions of a wail 
are given: one into 3C, and the other into 100 
compartments; the first is reckoned by eights, 
and the latter by tens. 

The connection of the different images is con- 
sidered of great importance, and the following 
illustration is given. If 1 wish to remember 
(continues the auihor) a man, a horse, a stone, 
a fire, a hog, and a tree, 1 must say, that the 
man finds a hoise and seizes it by the tail ; the 
horse is biting a large stone, from which fire is 
elicited by the teeth of the animal; this fire 
burns a hog, which had approached too near the 
horse ; the hog, mad with pain, runs against the 
tree, and overthrows it. 

Anthony Wood, in his Athencc OxonieU' 
ses* affords some information respecting this 

" Thomas Watson, a Londoner born, did 
spend some time in this University, not in Logic 

Vol. I. col. 262, 263. 


and Philosophy, as he ought to have done; but 
in the smooth and pleasant studies of poetry and 
romance, whereby he obtained an honourable 
name among the students in those faculties. Af- 
terwards retiring to the metropolis [he] studied 
the common law at riper years, and for a diver- 
sion wrote, Echgn in obitum D. Francisci 
Wals'mgham Esq. aur. Lond. loQO. yJminta, 
Gaudiu, Loud. 159'2, written in Lat. Hexa- 
meter, and dedicated to the incomparable Maty 
Countess of Pembroke, who was a patroness of 
his studies. He hath written other things of that 
nature, or strain, ami something pertaniing to 
pastoral, which I have not yet seen, and was 
highly valued among ingemous men, in the latter 
end of Q. Elizabeth." 

22. Jordano Hfuno de Imaginum, et 
Idearum compositioue ad omnia in- 
venlmiem, et iMemorice genera tres 
lihri, 8°. Franc. 1591. 

55. Joan. Mich. Alherti de omnibus in- 
sreniis ausrendce nwmoria libera 4". 
13onon. 1591. 

24. F. Philippi Gesvaldi Plutosojia, 
Patau. 1600. 


25. Ars Remiuiscendi Joan. Bapiista; 
Porta; Neapolitan i, i'^.Neap. 1602. 

Porta, like the authors aheady noticed, treats 
of pUices and images ; he also advises the pupil 
to commit poetry to memory, by forming ideal 
representations of the language, and placing them 
in order. He exchanges iigines for symbols, 
and represents a cipher for a globe ; 1 by a knife ; 
2 by a sickle ; 3 by a bow ; 4 by a chopper ; 5 
by a serpent ; 8 by a pair of spectacles ; 9 by a 
crosier, etc. etc. Letters are also represented 
by symbols, and two aljihubels are given ; in 
the one, the letters are formed from vaiious ob- 
jects ; and in the other, from different positions 
of the human body. 

John Baptist Porta was a Neapolitan 
gentleman, who acquired celebrity by his appli- 
cation to polite literature and the sciences, espe- 
cially those of mathematics, medicine, and natu- 
ral history. He often held at liis house meet- 
ings of literati, when they discussed the chi- 
merical secrets of magic. The Court of Rome, 
apprised of the object pursued by this little aca- 
demy, prohibited him from holding its meetings. 
Porta then cultivated the Muses, and composed 
several tragedies and comedies, which were re- 
ceived with some success. His house was al- 
ways the retreat of men of letters, and of foreign- 


CIS, who admired the merit of Porta. He died 
in 15\5, aged 70 years. We are indebted to 
Porta for the invention of tlie Camera Obscura. 
His works are, 1. A Treatise ou Natural M;gic. 
2. A Treatise on Physiognomy. 3. De occultis 
Litterarum notis ; a treatise on the art of con- 
cealing our thoughts in writing, or of discover- 
ing those of others. 4. P hi/tognomonica, seu 
Methodus cognoscendi ex inspectione vires abdi- 
tas cujmcumque rei. 5. De Distillationihus,* 

26. F. Hieronymi MarafiotiPoUstinensis 
Calabri Theolou'i J^e Arte JRemi- 
niscenticBy per Inca^ et imagines^ ac 
per 7iotas etjiguras in manibus posi- 
tas, Q\^Franc. 1602. 

Places and images are the basis of Marafioti's 
system, but instead of putting tiie images upon 
the walls of a house, they are placed in different 
parts of the hands, both on the back and in the 
palm of the hand. By this mode a high number 
of places and images is obtained. This tract 
was reprinted in KJIO, in the Gazuphylaciam 
Artis Memorice. 

* Diet. Hist. art. Pvrtn. 


37. Specimma duo Art is 3femoria ex- 
hibita Lutetice Parisiorum, 8°. 

Paris, 1607. 

This tract we have not seen, but suspect that 
it contains an account of Schenckel's experiments 
in Mnemonics at Paris ; of whose system some 
accuunt will be found in the next article. 

28. Sckcnckelii 3Ielkodus de Latina 

Lingua intra 6 menses docenda, 
&\ Arsrerd. 1609. 

29. GazopJiylaciiim Artis Meynori^e ; in 
quo duohus lihris omnia et singula 
ea quae ad absolutam hujns cogni- 
tioneM iuservimd, recondita haheii- 
tm\ per Lambertum Sc/ienckelium 
Dusilviiim. His accesserunt de 
eadeni Arte MemoriiB adkuc 3 
opnscuJa; quorum 1. Joannis Aus- 
triaci. 2. Hleronymi 3IuraJioti. 3. 
Joh. Sp. Herd. 8". Argent. 1610. 

30. Sckeuckclins delectus : sen, Blemoria 

Arfijicialis hactenus occultata ac 
a multis quamdiu desiderata : nunc 


primiim in gratiam optimarum ar ■ 
tmm, ac sapieuticB studiosorum luc' 
douata, a J. P. G. \Joh. Paep 
Galhaicus] S. P. D. Heme artem 
principes et alii ?iobiles, cum Eccle- 
siastici, turn seculares addidicerunty 
exercuerunt et tnirijice probarunty 
ut ex sequent ihus notum Jiet. 8". 
Lugduni, 1617. 

3 1 . Brevis Delineatio de utilitatihits et. 
effectihus admirahilihns Artis Me- 
moricBy 12°. Venet. \circ. 1610.] 

32. 3Iemoria artificialis Lamherti 
Schenckqly . Omnibus literarum et 
sapientice amantibus luci donatay 
vnacum clauicula Illam legendi,mo- 
diim aperiente. Arnoldi Backhusy 
Lubece?isiSy 12". Colon. — Agrip. 

No. 28, ochenckel's method of learning the 
Latin language in six mouths, we have not seen. 
No. 29, contains Schenckel's Ait of Memory, 
and very considerable prolegomena which are 
not inserted in any subsequent reprint. No. SO, 


is Schenckel's system only, without any intro- 
duction. The two last treatises are perfectly 
ueless to the uninitiated, on account of the arbi- 
trary signs and marks employed in them.* No. 
31, is a reprint of No. 30, wish the addition of a 
kej/ which explains the arbitrary signs used in the 
work. It also contains a dedication to the learned 
Meibomius, and an address to the reader. This, 
consequently, is the most useful edition for prac- 
tical purposes. No. 31, is a treatise by Mar- 
tin Sommer, a contemporary and delegate of 
SchenckeJ. It is reprinted in No. '29, the 
Gazophylacium, and forms a part of the intro- 
duction to that work. 

Lambert, or Lcrmprecht Schenckel, 
born at Bois-le-Duc, in 1547, was the son of 
an apothecary and philologist. He went through 
his academical course at Lyons and Cologne, 
and afterwards became a teacher of rhetoric, 
prosody, and gymnastics, at Paris, Antwerp, 
Malines, and Rouen : not forgetting, as the 
custom of the age required, to claim his title to 
scholarship, by writing Latin verses. From 

• The Gazophylacium, liowcver, is valuable on account 
of the prefatory matter, and tlie thi ec tracts which it con- 
tains ; more particularly, as the original editions of the 
tracts are extremely rare. — See Monthly Slaguzine, fer 
Feb. 1810, for some part of this accovnt. 


tliese, however, he acquired no celebrity propor- 
tionate to that which was reared on his disco- 
▼eries in the Mnemonic Art. The more efFec- 
tually to propagate these discoveries, he travelled 
through the Netherlands, Germany, and France ; 
where his method was inspected by the great, 
and transmitted from one university to another. 
Applause followed every where at his heels. 
Princes and nobles, ecclesiastics and layniCn, 
alike took soundings of his depth ; and S, ' "i- 
ckel brought himself through every ordeal, to the 
astonishment and admiration of his *'idges. The 
rector of the Sorbonne, at P;in , < g previ- 
ously made trial of his merits, peuiiitted him to 
teach his science at the university; and Marillon, 
Maitre des Requetes, havitig done the same, gave 
him an exclusive privilege" for practising Mne- 
monics throughout the French dominions. His 
auditors were, however, prohibited from com- 
municating this art to others, under a severe 
penalty. As his time now became too precious 
to admit of his making circuits, he delegated this 
branch of his patent to the licentiate Martin 
Sommer, and invested him with a regailar diplo- 
ma, as his plenipotentiary for circulating his art, 
under certain stipulations, through Germany, 
France, Italy, Spain, and the neighbouring coun- 
tries. Sommer now first published a Latin trea- 
tise on this subject, which he dispersed hi every 


place he visited. [No. 31.] In this he announces^ 
himself as commissioned by Schenckel, to in- 
struct the whole world. 

'* A lawyer, (says he) who has a hundred 
causes and more to conduct, by the assistance of 
my Mnemonics, may stamp them so strongly on 
his memory, that he will know in what wise to 
answer each client, in any order, and at any 
hour, with as much precision, as if he had but 
just perused his brief. And in pleading, he will 
not only have the evidence and reasonings of his 
own party, at his fingers' ends, but all the grounds 
and refutations of his antagonist also ! Let a man 
go into a library, and read one book after ano- 
ther, yet shall he be able to write down every 
sentence of what he has read, many days after at 
home. The proficient in this science can dictate 
matters of the most opposite nature, to ten, or 
thirty writers, alternately. After four weeks' 
exercise, he will be able to class twenty-five 
thousand disarranged portraits within the saying 
of a paternoster : — aye, and he will do this ten 
times a day, without extraordinary exertion, and 
with more precision than another, who is igno- 
rant of the art, can do it in a whole year ! He 
will no longer stand in need of a library for re- 
ferring to. This course of study may be com- 
pleted in nine days, — and an hour's practice 
daily, will be sufficient : but, when the rules are 


once acquired, they require but half an liour's 
exercise daily. Every pupil, who has afterwards 
well-grounded complaints to allege, shall not 
only have the premium paid in the first instance, 
returned to him, but an addition will be made to 
it. The professor of this art, makes but a short 
stay in every place. When called upon, he will 
submit proofs, adduce testimonials from the 
most eminent characters, and surprise the igno- 
rant, after four or six lessons, with tlie most in- 
credible displays." Here follow testimonials from 
the most celebrated universities. Nine alone are 
produced from learned men at Leipzic, and pre- 
cede others from Marpurg, and Frankfort on the 

On the 29th and 30th of Sept. and on the 1st 
of Oct. [O. S.] 1602, Schenckel exhibited 
some specimens of his art at Marpurg in Hesse.* 
the first experiment took place on the 29th of 
Sept. at eight o'clock in the morning, before a 
large assemblage of Divines, Lawyers, Physi- 
cians, and Philosophers. Schenckel having re- 
quested some one to dictate 0.5 Latin sentences, 
he wrote them down with a pen, and numbered 
ihem. He next read them aloud tv\'ice, with 
scarcely any pause, and having sat for a short 

* This account of Scbenckel's experiments is taken from 
his Memoria urtijiciality edited by Buckliusy. (See No. ,"2.) 


time in silence, he repealed the tvhole, from 
beginning to end, backwards and forwards, and 
in any order desired, without the slightest hesita- 
tion. It happened, however, that once or twice, 
Schenrkel substituted one word for another, as, 
lithits for ends; but being reminded of this, he 
immediately gave the word required. After- 
wards, any particular number being given, he 
repeated its appropriate sentence; and, on the 
first word of a sentence being named, gave the 
proper number. Schenckel being asked to re- 
peat 25 doctrinal sentences, replied, that he 
thought 15 would be sufficient; and, according- 
ly, that number having been dictated, written 
down, and read, he united them to the former 25 
■entences, and answered to the whole 40 in any 
order desired. 

On the 30th of Sept. another meeting was 
held at the house of a medicine-vender, when 
Jifty words were given and numbered from 1 to 
50. Schenckel having considered for a short 
time, repeated the whole from beginning to end, 
in regular order, — from the last to the first, and 
in any order required. On any number being 
given, he named the appropriate word, — and 
vice-versa. Havnig asked the persons present to 
double the number of words, some of the literati 
replied, that he had given sufficient proof of his 
abilities, and that they had no doubt he would 


be able to repeat many more words by the same 
method. A learned auditor expressed his regret 
to Schenckel, that he was not allowed to repeat 
Jifty sentences, and a It unci red words, being fully 
persuaded that he was capable of greater things. 

Schenckel having presented to his auditory 
two hundred sentences, in which a pupil of his, 
taken from the last meeting, had been exercised, 
together with the 40 sentences then given, the 
pupil, on any number being asked, repeated the 
appropriate sentence, and vice-versa, to the asto- 
nishment of all present : — more especially at the 
unconnected manner in which the numbers were 
proposed; as 235, 27, 9, 240, 128, 19, iB4, 3, 
22.3, 2, 170, SQ, 7, etc. etc. This same pupil 
offered to the assembly 250 written words, which 
he had learned by some tuition from Schenckel, 
and by his ow n application. To these 250 words 
were added 50 others ; and, in a short time, the 
pupil answered to the whole 300, in the same 
manner as had been done before by the professor 
himself. In repeating the sentences, the pupil, 
once or twice, did not give the words regularly : 
— when this was intimated to him, he immediate- 
ly corrected himself, and repeated the words in 
their appropriate order. 

On the folio wing day, the 1st of October, similar 
experiments were tried, greatly to the satisfaction 
of all present i and, in consequence, Schenckel 


received (without asking for it) a certificate of ap- 
probation, under hand and seal, from a learned 
physician, and some professors. This certificate 
concludes by observing, that ' the deponents^ 
were present at the different examinations, — that 
there was not a possibility of fraud or collusion — 
that they thought it but justice, thus, unsolicited, 
to express their approbation, — and to bear wit- 
ness to the truth of the facts stated in the docu- 

The student, destitute of oral instruction, can- 
not expect to reap much benefit from a perusal 
of Schenckel's system in the Gazophylacium, or 
in Schenckdius delectus : he might as well seek 
for a knowledge of Mnemonics, by gazing at 
the hieroglyphics of an Egyptian obelisk. It is 
pretty evident that this Gazophylacium was 
designedly intended as a labyrinihal series : the 
author indeed closes his labors by confessing, 
that the work was to be entrusted only to his 
■scholars, and referring for further elucidation to 
oral precepts. The very basis of his art is con- 
cealed beneath a jumble of signs and abbrevia- 
tions : thus, sect. 9. d. a sect. 99 ; " videlicet, 
locus, imago ordo locorum, memoria loci^ ima- 
gines." And further, in setting forth the most 
important points, he amuses himself by evinc- 
ing a multitude of jingling, and unintelligible 



In proof of this assertion it will be sufficient 
to give the ki'y from Backhusy's edition of 
Schenckel : it is a fair specimen of the obstacles 
which are presented to the student. 

Clauiculaseu cxplicatio libri. 


1. Lcf^endum serom a focis barbaeho. 
t. Alplia & oincgd sunt lasos vitor. 
.1. Idqae etiam in diet, osi^is oiiiui. 

4. Si in doliibacoui q. itaro cniccos 1 reg. amucoli no« 

habet, sed cygaus in ilia tantnna caballyso. 

5. Hacbaei-etila singula sing. num. denotant. eaedem gemi. 


6. Gen. ca. mod. temp. & alia datus obirttas, ex lusncsi 

facile collignntur: 

a amnlube niacoue 

b osias 

c codrot 

d emuliica sibuco. 

e daitnem etnesi. 

f anuiit ecapso. 

g boganiin 

li aseirape: 

i vanosrcpo 

k emnsrodi 

1 asumodi 

in imnis ftice orexes 

n asulugnas. 

e lairomemi 

p dannofc 

q osedesi 

r asiiarpe ' 

6 asucoli 

t bogamiu 

II rogamis 

V usucolae! 

X farreto. 

y amnitios 

I amulucato epecera 

A efucis itcmhtiras. 

C emurtsaca 

D emiioite ocnita istdo 

E parti esenefa 

G. & Gr. facitamo emar- 

I asuirano bigamie 
K emuxi fennoca 
« omutnemi badnufa 



N. asuremuiii 

P. Omuite galapo. 

R. boitis otcpera. 

T. asuruase hti 

V. aniuiiato euuloni. 

Adi. cimitac onuidas 

ct. foitatica. 

dct. roitato scidos 

diu. poisis euido 

cp. galoti osipcs 

L G. afiicigoli 

Mpli. asucisyiio epatem. 

Or: roitaros 

Ph. csHcisylipo 

{amPHOs enerpo 
laidos esorpo 
L asutali 
Rh. Laciros ethere 

<.Ru. satueinis eduro 
Sy. esisato anysi 
Ve eimibieui. 

1. < salednaca 

L vanlns 

2. asmigyco. 

3. esuliige onaiite. 

4. asnluga inaido 


5. esunanii. 

6. falktsc. 

7. lamtor i vcl asiruceso. 

8. txilacu 
i*. diinroca 

0. < ext'inoia 

Reliqu* sludiosus Lector facile colliget. 


1. Lcgcndum haebraico more. 

2. Prima Sc vltima litcra sunt otiosae. 

3. Idque etiani in dictionibiis diuersis. 

4. Si in vocabulo Q occurat, prutia regula locum non ha- 

bet, sed prinium in taiitnm illasyllaba: cxcmphim sit 
in asnluga inardo aquas: hoc est Quadrangulus, quas 
vox nimierum quatcrnarium significat. > 

5. Litera; singulae singnlarcm numerum denotant, easdem 

gcminatae, pluralem, 
€. Genus, casus, modus, tempus & alia attvibttta ex semn, 
facile colliguntur. 



Literx signijUanf. 

a. Voca1)nIum 

b. Ars 
€. Ortlo 

d. Cubiculuni 

e. Sententia 

f. Spacium 

g. Imago „ 
b. Partes ' 
i. Persona 
k. Dorsum 
1. Domus 

in. Exercitinm 

B. Angulus 

0. Meiuoria 
p. Forma 
([. Sedes 

s. Locas 

t. Imago 

u. Imago. 

V. Locus 

■X. Terra 

y. Ostium 

8. Reccptacnlum 

A. Aritbmeticiu 

C. Castrura 

D. Distinctio 

F. Fenestra 

G. Gr. Graminatica 

1. Iniagiiiarius 
K. Couuexum 

N. Numerus. 
P. Palatium 
K. Repetitio 
S. Fundamentura 
T. Thesaurus 
V. Voluntarium 
Adi. Adiunctum 
(J). Citatio 
Diet. Dictatio 
Din. Diuisio 
Ep. Epistola. 
LG. Logicus 
Mpb. Metaphysicns 
Or. Oratio 
Ph. Physicus 
Pr. Pronomen 
La. Latus 
Rh. Rhetorica 
Ru. Rudimenta 
Sy. Syntaxis 
"Ve. Verbum. 

1. Cadela, Cerea, Vina 

2. Cygnus 

3. Triaiiguhis 

4. Quadrangului 

5. IManns 

6. Stella ' 

7. Norma vel SecurU 

8. Calix j; 

9. Coniu. 11 

10. Anulus, Reroex, Circulus. 


The work of Schenckel is a singular produce 
tion. His development of the art does not con- 
fine itself to mechanical ideas alone. It sets 
the technical, symbolical, and logical faculties of 
the memory, in equal activity ; and requires that 
its powers should be at once ingenious and per- 
ceptive. Its acquirement is founded on the asso- 
ciation of ideas : nor does it fail to call wit and 
imagination in aid of natural memory. Som- 
mer's Compendium, consisting of eight sections, 
was printed for the use of his auditors. After 
his departure, permission is given to his scholars 
to communicate their mnemonistic doubts, ob- 
servations, and discoveries, to each other ; but 
no one can be present without legalizing himself 
previously, as one of the initiated, by prescribed 
signs: and he who fails in this, is excluded as a 

As Schenckel's work, besides being a literary 
curiosity, had, of late years, become extremely 
rare, Dr. Kliiber, in 1804, published a Ger- 
man translation of it, entitled, * Compendium 
der Mnenionikf etc' or, * Compendium ofMne' 
monies, or the Art of Memory, at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, by L. Schenchel, 
and M. Sommer. Truyislatedfrom the Latin, 
Tenth a preface and remarks, by D. Kluber, 8°. 
Erlamien. 1804. 


33. De Memoria, ac Reminiscentia Dis- 
cerptafio Sempronii Laucioni Ho- 
mani ad went em Philosophorum. 
jyrincipum Platonis et • Aristotelis 
concinnata. Yerona, 1608. 

In this tract, are exhibited passages of divers 
authors, respecting the system of local memory as 
practised among the Greeks. 

34. Joh. Henr. Alstedii Theatrum Scho- 

lasticum, 8°. Herborn. 1610. 

In this work is contained the Gymnasium 
Mnemonicum, or, treatise on the Art of Me- 

3-5. Jo7i. Henr. Alstedii Si/ sterna Mne- 
monicum^ 8". Franc. 1610. 

36. Joh. Henr. Alstedii Triga; Cano- 

niece, S°. Franc. 1611. 

The first of these trigae is Artis Mnemonics 

37. Simonides redivivns; site Ars Me- 
moricE et ohlivionis (qnam hodie 
complures penitus ignorari scripse- 


runt) tahulis expressce^ Authore 
AdamoBruxio Sproffasilesio Doct. 
et 3Ied. cut accessit nomenclator 
mnemonicus ejusdem aufhoris, 4°. 
Lips. IGIO. 

A gieat part ©f the Simonides Redimvus 
was reprinted at Leyden, by H. Herdson, in the 
year l65l, under the title of ^rs Mnemonicaf 
sive Herdsonus Bruxiatiu ; vel Bruxus Herdso- 
niatus. To this was appended a treatise in Eng- 
lish by Herdson, on the same subject, the whole 
of which may be seen at Nos. 51 and 53. 

After the title of No. 37, there is a wood-cut 
nearly the size of the page, very tolerably exe- 
cuted. It represents a tree loaded with fruit, — 
a man mounted on a ladder plucking the fruit,— 
a boy in a go-cart, — and a venerable figure (we 
suppose the magister) looking very attentively at 
the boy. Underneath the cut, are the following 
verses : 

Scala riro, currvs puero, quod scipio Acestce ; 
Hoc memorativa prasiat in arte Lociis. 

Brux has treated the subject in a very compre- 
hensive manner, and has subjoined a complete 
nomenclator mnemonicus. He also directed his 
attention to an art on which much less has been 
written : — the an ohlivionis, or art oi forgetful- 


ness, for the acquisition of which very full and 
minute directions are given. Were this art 
' eliminated out of the thick fog in which it is 
enveloped' many a candidate would be found for 
the srceet oblivious antidote. In this (says the 
great moralist) we all resemble one ai;other ; the 
hero and the sage are, like vulgar mortals, over- 
burdened by the weight of life ; all shrink from 
recollection, and all wish for an art of forget~ 

Before we take leave of this interesting art, 
the ff'liowingy^M d'e'<prit will be given from one 
of the daily papers,* as it deserves to be rescued 
from the usual oblivion of such repositories. It 
was written uu the occasion of some lectures 
delivered mi Mutnionics in the ciiyof DubUn. 

** Svi-LABts of ih«i Public Expernnents on 
the new system of .'tnti-muemonics, to the per- 
feciionation of whicii the Chevalier de sans Seu- 
veiiir I'.as devoted the last fifty years of a long life, 
fully verifying from the toila he has encountered 
and surmounted iu the pursuit, the assertion of 
Pope, — - 

" Of all the lessons taught to mortals yet, 
Tis sure the hardest scieTite—to forget." 

• Morning Chronicle for Nov. 21, 1815, 



" The Chevalier will produce before the com- 
pany one of the Members just returned to Par- 
liament, and whom he shall have instructed not 
one quarter of an hour ; he will present to him 
fifty of those Constituents, with whom but a 
week since he was on the most familiar terms, 
when to the astonishment of all present it will be 
found that he does not remember the face of one 
of them, nor retains the slightest remembrance 
of the pledges he gave or the promises he uttered, 
notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the above- 
iiaentioned fifty promisees to recal them to his re- 


*' The Chevalier will present to the company 
an elderly Widow Lady, of demure aspect, and 
sedate appearance ; she shall have a smelling- 
bottle in one hand and a white handkerchief in 
the other, which she shall respectively apply to 
her nose and eyes, and exhibit every other accus- 
tomed symptom of grief, when, by virtue of ten 
minutes' influence of the anti-nmemonic system 
she shall furl her flag of sorrow, pocket her bottle 
of disconsolation, dance a favourite Irish jig, box 
the ears of her seven children by her first hus- 
band, and loudly declare the impossibility of 


managing a large family wiUiout the aid of a 


" A certain Viscount has graciously promised 
to be present at the first exhibition, and to permit 
the efilvacy of tlie art to be tried upon his recol- 
lection. Twelve Members of Parliament have 
likewise consented to attend, and severally to ask 
him twelve questions upon various topics of 
foreign and domestic l%licy — Unions — Swamps 
— Catamarans — Cat-o'-mue-iaih — Beds of roses 
— Triangles— Italian Music — The Penal Code 
— The Orders in Council — and, the Emaficipa- 
tion of the Catholics, — by all which interroga- 
tories, amounting to 144, he shall evidently ap- 
pear quite unmoved ; nay, during the whole time 
he shall smile, and preserve the most inviolable 


" Many elderly persons having, since the Che- 
valier's arrival, complained to him of the intole- 
rable tenacity of the memories of their children 
and dependants, who actually exhibit symptoms 
of impatience at the fiftieth or sixtieth repetition 
of the same story, and aiidaciously either yazon 
or anticipate the denouement, to the great mor- 
tification of the nairator. Now the Chevalier 


invites any one of the said respectable characters 
to his exhibition, accompanied by seven or eight 
of his most refractory family hearers, and he 
engages, that after but ten minutes' instruction,' 
they shall listen, not merely composedly, but 
with something like curiosity, to the most thread- 
bare tales, laugh in all the proper places, an^ 
exhibit every other symptom of being entertained 
and gratified. 


" A venerable Pluralist shall be brought for- 
ward for examination, and shall be asked. What 
promises he made at his ordination ? — or whether 
he made any ? — which of his three livings he last 
visited ? — from what well-known author he tran- 
scribed his last sermon ? — with how many persons 
amongst his several flocks he was acquainted r 
Not one of which interrogatories he shall be able 
to answer. 


" The Chevalier will next present to the pub- 
lic a Lady of cold affections and morbid vanity, 
inoculated with the love of the great, possessed 
of a little smartness, which the superficial might 
mistake for wit, and deeply versed in what is 
termed knowledge of the world. She shall in 
early life have given the most unequivocal pro- 


mise of lier affections to an unpractised heart, 
that trusted her with all the unlimited credulity 
of confiding love — 'pledges shall have been niutu- 
alized, and those solemn assurances reciprocated 
which indissolubly bind the faithful, and can only 
be violated by the unprincipled, — ^yet by the in- 
fluence of this miraculous science, she shall for- 
get her vows, deny her attachment, and finally 
marry another person ; and when the parties after- 
wards meet, no feeling shall arise in her mind 
but a kind of aukward flutter, nor in his but the 
most contemptuous indift'erence, 


" An eminent Luwycr shall also be produced 
in testimony of this wonderful ait, who will be 
found to be proof tven against a Refresher, and 
this is supposed, with one illustrious exception, 
to be the 7ie plus ultra of atiti-mnemouic in- 
fluence, if circumstances did not imperiously 
prevent, the Chevalier ccnild produce this Exalted 
Individual, and triumphantly display him as one 
of the singular prodigies of the anti-muenionic 
system. It is asserted by a celebrated crauiosco- 
pist. Dr. Gall, that earli/ friendships make the 
deepest impression upon the human brain, and 
are with the greatest difticu'ty effaced — that they 
linger there, the last and most tenacious inmates, 
when other recollections have been weakened by 


years, or absorbed in selfishness. To triumph 
over a radicated feeling like this was reserved for 
that science which can pervade the cottage as 
well as the palace, and while it steeps the 
peasants mind in balmy forgetfulness, can equally 
relieve the Prince from the pangs of reminis- 

" The Chevalier sans Souvenir having thus 
far developed his plan, will not for the present 
enter into further details. To the Irish Nation, 
whose characteristic it is to forgive, he begs 
leave particularly to recommend his system, which 
will a!so enable them to forget their manifold 
wrongs and injuries, and only to remenihtr, that 
an united f are ever a happi/, and a prosperous, 
people; that to Religious and Political opinions 
perfect freedom should be given, if we wish to 
be happy at home or formidable abroad ; that all 
irritating retrospects should meige ?w the love of 
country, and that our endeavours should zealous- 
ly and exclusively be directed to the Reform of 
internal abuses, and the extension of public liber- 
ty, that so the glorious fabric of our Constitution 
may be enabled to resist the aggression to which 
it is exposed, and to survive the storm which has 
made shipwreck of other Governments." 

38. Fr. Alart. Ravellini Ars Memoriir, 
8". Franc. 1(517. 


The principles of the art according to Ravel- 
lin, are four ; — place, image, order, and practice 
or use of the images. He takes houses, cham- 
bers or rooms, and walls, in the following 
order ; on entering the room, and standing with 
the back to the door, the first wall is to be on 
the left, the second before us, the third on the 
right, the fourth behind us, and i\\e Ji .or is to be 
reckoned as the fifth wall. The letter M is to be 
supposed on each M'all, and to be divided thus : 

3 4 

2 5 

In each of these divisions a hand is to be placed, 
consequently 2a places will be gained, if we 
count one for each of the fingers and the thumb. 
By taking ten hands and disposing them in the 
same nianner, fifty places are obtained, and if 
each wrist be accounted as one place, 60 com- 
partments will be found. In these compart- 
ments the image of what is intended to be re- 
membered is to be placed. Ravel) in afterwards 
divides a wall by tens, precisely in the same way 
as Mr. Watson has done in the Shane MS. be- 
fore noticed. The tract of llaveUin was re- 
printed in 1678, with five others, in an octavo 
volume, entitled; Variorum de Arte Memoria 
Tractatm Sex. 


39. ZHriusfpie Cosmi, innjoris scilicet, et 
minoris Mefaphysica, Physica et 
Teclmica Historia, anctore Iloberto 
Fludd, It-om.fol. Openh. et Franc. 

A few pages of tins curious and expensive 
work are devoted to an explanation of the author's 
system of Jtlnenionics. This seems to be an 
attempt to combine tlie ' Ars Magna' of Lully, 
Avith the local memory of the antients, as improy- 
ed by the modern memorists. Some curious 
wood-cuts accompany the description ; and thers 
are, on other subjects, many extremely singular 
prints in this rare work, which are intelligible 
only to an adept. The portrait alone of Fludd, 
prefixed to the first volume, has been valued at 
four guineas ! ! ! 

Robert Fludd, or as he styled himself in 
Latin, de Jiuctibns, was the second son of Sir 
Thomas Fludd, Treasurer of War to Queen Eli- 
zabeth. He was born at Milgate in Kent, in the 
year 1574, and was educated at St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford. He was a very voluminous author 
in his sect, diving into the farthest profundities, 
and most mysterious obscurities of the Rosycrucian 
philosophy ; — and blending in a most extraordi- 
nary manner, divinity, chemistry, natural philoso- 


pby, and metaphysics. He was made Doctor of 
Physic in l605, and died 1637. 

40. Apsinis Grccci RJietoris, de 3l€mo- 
ria liber singularis latine nunc pri- 
mum vertit. Fed. 3IoreU. Paris, 

41. IncostimabilisArtisMemorandi The- 

smirus, ex variis optimisque autho- 
rihus dcpromptus, ab Adamo Nau- 
lio, Rheto. Sacerd. et S. Theol. 
Doct. 8". Paris. 1618. 

Naulius has compiled a useful and well- 
arranged digest of the different authors who have 
written on this subject, and has devoted a chap- 
ter, treating of the application of the art, to 
each of the following persons : — divines, con- 
fessors, lawyers, linguists, rhetoricians, astrolo- 
gers, geometricians, kings, princes, aud noble 

42. 3Inemonica ; sive Ars Reminiscen- 
di : e puris artis naturoequefontihus 
hausta, ct in ires libros digesta, ac 
non de Memoria vatiirali fovenda 
libcUus : e variis doclissimorum ope- 
ribus, sedulo collectus : jam primuni 


in lucem edita author e Johan. Wil' 
lisw, SacrcR Theolo. Bacch. 8°. 
Loud. 1618. 

Tlie treatise de Memoria vaturali fovenda, 
was reprinted at Frankfort, in the year 1678, 
wit!i five other tracts, in an octavo volume, en- 
titied, Variorum de jirie Memoria Tractatus 
Stx. 'i'he whole work was translated by Leonard 
Sozvershyj a bookseller * at the Turn-stile, near 
New-market in Lincoln's Inn Fields,' and printed 
in (he year 166], with the following title : 

43. Mnemonica; or, the Art of Memo- 
/7/, dramed out of the pure fountains 
of art and nattire, digested into 
three books. Also a phi/sical trea^ 
tise of cherishing 7iatural Metnory ; 
diligent/)/ collected out of divers 
learned mens writings. JBy John 
Willis, JBatchelour in Divinity. 8". 
Lo?id. 1661. 

As this book has become rare, and developea 
many of the principles of the local memory in 
an apt and ir.tcUigihle n)anner, our extracts will 
be more copK)iis than usual. 

The worthy translator seems to have been a 
man of very unassuming manners. The dedica- 


tion, which we recommend all booksellers of the 
present day to peruse and imitate, has not its 
parallel for diffidence and humility. 



" Honored Sir, 

" If Lines were capable of Humane affec- 
tions, these would blush, they are so mean a 
present to so Illustrious a person ; at least con- 
scious of their Masters presumption, they would 
condole his unhappiuess, that had not greater 
ability to accommodate some more worthy Fabrick 
to so fair a Frontispiece. The Original compiled 
by a learned hand, among some vulgar things 
and trifles, coutainetti very excellent and profit- 
able matter ; I hope it hath not lost its utility 
(though Grace) in English. 

" Honored Sir, I fear, good intentions are no 
sufficient Plea for temerous Enterprises, espe- 
cially the Undertaker being privie to his own 
imperfections ; Therefore like a Criminal ac- 
knowlediiing my vanity in ambitiously affecting 
things ab(»ve my Sphere, I humbly re-implore 
your Honors pardon and admittance to be what 

I was before, 

Your Honors most 

humble Servant 

Leonard Sowersby." 


The author, in tht- preface, having compared 
his Art of Memory to a new-born infant, be- 
cause it was then first prestnted to the world, 
proceeds to show the advantages attendant upon 
it. Ths Jirst book treats o( remembering com- 
mon affairs, words, phrases, sentences, and 
speeches, by means of notes and writing 

Having despatched these vulgar ways of me- 
mory, our author proceeds to speak in the ^rst 
chapter of the second book, * of remembring 
without writir,:i;,' and says, " I descend to helps 
conducing lo the same purpose without Hand- 
writing, vhich is then most pleasant, when we 
are destitute of the aid of Paper, Ink, or Table- 
Books, or when by sume obstacle we are debar- 
red the free use of them. This consisteth of two 
operai)or.s, Reposition and Deposition. 

" Reposition is the maimer of charging Me- 
mory v\ito Note-vvo'thy things; herein it is not 
to be expected th<>t each particular word of cvrry 
senterice be rttai!'* d ; but onely, thut the general 
sence be fasiened m mind. At -all times wijen a 
man is about to commit any thing in custody to 
his Memory, first let him study to drown all un- 
necessary ihvjughts in oblivion, that he may per- 
fectly Hitend the tlungs he is to learn. * * * * 
A ready re>nembrance most commonly procced- 
eth from right understanding the thing in hand; 
therefore a man must prepare himself diligently, 


and so unite the force of his imagination, that ho 
may as it were engrave and imprint occurrent 
things in his niemory. Lead doth facily receive 
impression, because it is tenacious, which Quick' 
silver cannot admit, by reason of \isFluxibility : 
In like manner fleeting inconstant minds continu- 
ally hurried into new & strange cogitations, is far 
from gathering fruit by any thing heard. The 
method of a speech is chiefly to be observed, re- 
garding seriously what is the general subject 
thereof; Secondly, the greater parts, and with 
what Logical Arguments each part is handled ; 
the perfect Mtthod of a speech doth much con- 
duce to remember the whole ; or if the Contex- 
ture thereof be inartiflcial, imperfect, and unsa- 
tisfactory, comprehending many things forcibly 
applied, rejecting things of a like kind, yet a 
strong Memory will retain the same by observa- 
tion of the absurdities and rude Artifice of the 

" Deposition is when we recollect things com- 
mitted to memory; and having transcribed or 
transacted them, discharge our memories of them, 
which is alwayes to be practised at the first 
opportunity : Things charged in Memory by 
day, are to be deposited at least before sleep, if 
not sooner ; things charged by night, are to be 
deposited immediately after sleep, that the mind 
be no longer burthened than is convenient, and 


that things negligently laid up in mind, be not 
forgotten, Writing being the faithfullest Guar- 
dian of Memorandums. If in dis-burthening 
your Memory, something charged happen to be 
forgotten, shut your eyes, that no external obiect 
may divert your mind, and try to recall it by im- 
portunate scrutiny ; which operation may be 
called Revocation, and is an Art that by help of 
certain Rules teacheth the investigation of things 
lapsed out of memory. 

" To conclude, Deposition, or discharging 
things committed to mind, is not unlike expung- 
ing writing out of Table- Books : If therefore 
there be any Art of Oblivion (as some affirm) it 
may be properly referred hither. So much in 
general ; now to explicate the particular species 

The second chapter treats of * remembring by 
certain verses purposely born in mind,' the third 
* of remembering by extempore verses,' and the 
fourth ' of exonerating things charged on memo- 
ry ex tempore.' The manner of remensbering 
by verses already composed, says Mr. Willis, is 
when a man doth excogitate or rt tain remarkable 
things by repetition of verses provided to that 
purpose. Suppose an attorney, be to wait upon 
Judges riding the Circuits from one County to 
another, it may be vvorth his labour to repeat 
these verses at leaving his lodging, lest he forget 


some necessary thing, which we may imagine 
formerly framed by him to this end. 

Scalpellum, calami, comttgraphiumq; libcUi, 
Charta, pugillares, vapilalia, ceia, aigiUum, 
Sic aepiJe, gla<liu.s, cultellus, pu^io, burssu, 
Muccinium, indtniumq ; monilia, penula , pecten 
Fascia cruralis, cruralia, dactylethece. 

These useful hexameters are thus done into 
English, by the worthy Mr. Sowersby. 

Pen-knife, Quills, Ink-horn, Book, Paper, Table-Book 

Caps ; Take 
Wax, Seal and Slippers, Swoni, Knife and Dagger, safe 

Purse, handkerchiefs, Shirts, Rings, Coat, and^ for your 

own sake, 
Combs, Gai-ters, Stockius, XJloves. 

The following memorial verses for a traveller, 
from FiTz Herbert's Husbandry, will 
form a suitable companion to those of Mr. 
Willis. They are hexameters, but were by -the 
Printer jumbled into prose, and have been res- 
tored by a correspondent in the Gentleman^s 
Magazine foj- October 1767, vol. xxxvii. 
p. 487. 

Purse, dirk,* cloak, nightcap, kerchief, slioeing-hom, 
bugetjt and shoes ; 

• Dirk is a word of the same age. Diigger will not 
scan quite so well, 
t Bu"<it, budget. 


Spear, nails, hood, halter, sadle-cloth, spurs, hat, wi thv 

horse comb : 
Bow, arrow, sword, buckler, horn, 'brush, gloves, string, 

and thy bracer ; 
Pen, paper, ink, parchment, red wax, poms,* books, then 

remember : 
Pe-i-knife, comb, thimble, needle, thread, point, lest that 

thy girUi break j 
Bodkin, ki.ife, Iingel,t give tljy horse meat : see he be 

stowed well. 
Make merry, sing an thou cansty.take heed to thy geer, that 

thou lose none. 

Having recommended the carpenter to apply 
himself to the Muses and register his tools in the 
day-book of Parnassus, Mr. Willis introduces 
the following verses composed by himself. 

ilN? quisquid^ eujus? cut? qtio? qvibus? muxilijs? tur? 
Quemodo? circa quid? quulis? quantum? ex, in eta 9U0? 
Quamdiu'i ubi? quandol quotiesl quotufUxl quotetundtl 

These quiddities are thus translated by Mr. 
Sowersby for the benefit of the English reader, 
and more particularly for the ladies, whose natu- 
ral curiosity might well be excited by so formid- 
able a list of quaeres. 

* Poms, perfumed wash-balln, pf^waniii <«. 

* Lingel, an awl. 


If? who? what? whose? to what? whether? why? about 

what ? 
How? what fashion? how much? by, of, in, and from what ? 
'How long? how often ? how manifold ? whence catne that? 
Where, when, how many ? 

*' These Verses (craving the Readers pardon 
for the rugged iiess) contain twenty two Questions 
of excellent use to invent, retain, as also to recall 
to minde things of great concernnjent and worthy 
memory in urgent affairs. 

# * # * 

The most curious and interesting part of these 
" drainings out of the pure fountains of art and 
nature," is to be found in the third book ; a large 
proportion of which we have reprinted. 


** Repositories, 

" The Art of Memory, which we now treat 
of consisteth of Ideas, and places, wherein we 
will first handle the Repo!>ition of Ideals, and 
afterward their Deposition. 

" Reposition of Ideas is, when things to be 

remembred, are charged upon Memory h\ Idea's, 

disposed in certain places of a Repository ; but 

before 1 discend to the manner of Reposition, it 

Y 3 


is necessary for better explanation, to speak of JK«- 
positories, Places, and Idea's in distinct chapters. 
** A Reposiiori/ is an imaginary fabrick, fan- 
cied Artificially, built of hewen stone, ia form of 
a Theaf^er, the form whereof followeth ; suppose 
the Edifice to be twelve yards in length within 
the walls, in breadth six yards, and in height seven 
yards, the ruof thereof flat, leaded above, and 
pargetted underneath, lying wholly open to view, 
without any wall on that side supposed next us : 
Let there be imagined a Stage of smooth gray 
Marble, even and variegated with a party colour- 
ed border, which Stage is to be extended over 
the whole length and breadth of the building, 
and raised a yard high above the Level of the 
ground on which the said Edifice is erected : Let 
all the walls, that is, the opposite wall, & two 
ends ba wainscotted with Cj/presse boards, so 
artificially plained and glewed, that the Joynts be 
indiscernahle ; suppose also a Groove or Gutter 
cut in the middle of the Marble Stage, three 
inches broad, extended from the opposite wall to 
the hither side of the Stage, whereby it is exactly 
divided into two equal parts, and that upon the 
further end of the said Groove, therr is erreared 
a Column, a foot and half thick, arising up to 
the Roof of the building, almost touching the 
opposite wall, and deviding it iuto two equal 
parts, as the Groove divideth the Stage ; so that 


by the Groove, and the Pillar, the ^hole RepO' 
sHory is parted in twain, and consisteth of two 
Rooms, siding each other, each of them being 
six yards long, six yards broad, and six yards 
high. For the better understan»ling this inven- 
tion, I liave caused a J'j/pe of the Repository to 
be here dehneated, the explanation whereof im- 
mediately followeth."* 

• That nothing might be wanting to ehicidate tliis cu- 
rious description, we have given a fac-simile of the original 
we^d'Cut. See p. 348. 



O ^ 


" The letters, a, b, c, d, shew the length of the 
edifice, a, c, b, d, the height, a, e, b, f, the 
height of the stage, g, i, k, k, are boundaries of 
the opposite wall, e, c, i, g, the side wall upon 
the left hand, h, k, d,f, the side wall of the right 
hand, c, I, m, d, design the Roof, g, i, n, p, the 
opposite wall of the first Room, e, g, o, p, the 
stage of the first Room, r, q, k, k, the opposite 
wall of the second room, s, r, h,f, the stage of 
the second room, n, o, the pillar dividing the 
opposite wall, o, p, the groove wrought into the 

" A Repositori/ according to this fashion, is to 
be represented before the tyes of our minde, 
wheresoever we are, as oft as we intend to prac- 
tise this Art ; supposing ourselves to stand about 
two yards distant, against the midst thereof. 

" Of Places, 

" A Place (as to our consideration) is an apt 
space in a Repositori/, designed for reception of 

" There are onely two places in every reposi' 
^ory uf equal fsrui and magnitude, that is the 


twe rooms of eacii repositaii/ determinated as 
aforesaid by the pilar air(i groove. 

** That place is .-^aui io b the former, which 
is on the right luuid of the repository/, that 
which IS on the left hand, the latter ; that part 
of the repository/ is said to be on the right hand, 
which is opposite to the left hand of a man 
standing against the middle of itie repository, 
that on the ieft hand which is opposite to the 

" Thus in the scheme exhibited in the former 
chapter, tlie letters, g, i, n, o, demonstrate the 
opposite wall of the right hand part, or first 
place or room of the repository, and the letters, 
e, g, 0, p, the stage thereof ; so r, q, k, h, are 
indices of the opposite wall of the left hand part, 
or second place or room of the repository, and 
s, r, h,J\ the stage of the same. 


" Of Idea's in general. 

" An idea is a visible representation of 
things to be rememhred, framed by a strong 
imagination, by help whereof the minde by re- 
flexion calleth to memory, together with the idea, 
the thing represented. Idea's are to be vested 


with their proper circumstances, according as 
their natures require, for like as tvritings, the 
fairer they are, are more facilly read ; so ideas, 
the more aptly they are conceived, according to 
the exigency of their nature, are more speedily 
recalled to minde ; and also consequently the 
things by them signified. Motion is to be attri- 
buted to ideas of moveable things; quiet to 
ideas of quiet things, and good or evil savours, 
to ideas representing things so qualified. Exam- 
ples of moveable idea's, are artificers at work in 
their shops, women dauncing, trees shaken by 
the wind, water running from cocks, and such 
like. Idea's of quiet things, are henns laying in 
their ne^ts, thieves lurking under bushes, &c. 
Idea's to which sound is ascribed, are a lion roar- 
ing, a bell ringing, whistling, rnuruiure of trees, 
a quirister singing, a huntsman hollowing, &c. 
Moreover, if perfume, burning in a chafing-dish, 
be used for an idea, a sweet and pleasant odour 
must be attributed thereto, on the contrary to 
vaults under ground, a filthy, unwholesome stink, 
is to be assigned ; so idea's of merry men, require 
cheerfulness of countenance, of sicknien, pale- 
ness and sadnes:>e. After tbis manner idea's of 
edifices, macliines, aud all artificial things whatso- 
ever, oughi to be signalised ;^ proportion of form, 
and splendour of colours, must be attributed to 
pictures, grace and livelinesse of letters, to 


writings, glory and excellency of workmanship, 
to engravings; finally, every idea must have 
such illustration as may render it most notable 
and conspicuous, and seem principally coherent 
to its nature. 

" But before I proceed further, it is expedient 
to take into consideration, the common affection 
of ideas, their species shall succeed after, in a 
more proper place. 

The common affections of idea's are three : 
quantity, position, and colour. 


" Of the Quantitie of Idea's. 

"An idea in respect oi quantity, is either 
equal, greater, or lesser then the thing repre- 

" An equal idea is, when the thing repre- 
sented, is bestowed in a place of the repository, 
in its proper and due magnitude, as being neither 
too great to be contained therein, nor so small it 
cannot be discerned by one standing before the 
repository; such are chairs, pictures, tables, 
beds, heaps of stone, piles of wood, two comba- 
tants in a single duel, and the like. 

" An augmented, or greater idea, is when the 
thing to be remembred, is increased to a multi- 


tude, that it may be better viewed at a distance, 
which else being small, would not fall under 
cognizance ; as if the tlwng to be deposited in 
the repository, were a penny, a pearl, a grain of 
mustard-seed, or a spider, which are so, small, 
that disposed in a room of the repository, they 
escape the sight of a man standing before the 
repository : in such cases, instead of one penny, 
imagine a heap of pence new coined ; instead of 
one pearl, a multitude of pearls ; instead of one 
grain of mustard-seed, fancy eertaiv bushels 
scattered about the stage ; and ' for ' one spider, 
suppose a multitude creeping about the opposite 

" A contracted or lesser idea is, when the thin^ 
to be remembered is so great, that it cannot be 
comprehended in its proper natural quantity, 
within such narrow limits of a room of a reposi- 
tory, and is therefore imagined to be pourtrayed 
with elegant lively colours, in a picture fixed to 
the opposite wall. Thus space of places how 
far soever distant, and all great things, may be 
facilely represented in a picture : as if the thing 
to be remembred were a battel, a triumphant 
spectacle, hunting or hawking through woods 
and groves, a naval conflict, large territories, 
castles, a mountain, or church, &c. whose idea's 
cannot be contained in the memorial places, un- 
less contracted, and aptly and artificially com- 


prized in a picture, conceited by imagination 
hanging against the opposite wall, that so it may 
be fully comprehended. 


^* Of the Position of Idea's. 

'* Let the position of every idea be such as in 
vulgar use doth most commonly appertain to the 
thing signified ; let the ideas of things usually 
hanged against a wall, be so disposed in the re- 
pository, as musical instruments, arms, looking- 
glasses, pictures, brushes, written tables, &c. 
Such things as are customarily fastened to, or in 
a wall, imagine them accommodated in the re- 
pository in like manner, as title pages of books 
pasted against the pillar, proclamations, or 
printed pages nailed to the wall, funeral-stream- 
ers, or pendants, in the higher part of the oppo- 
site wall, as you see in churches : such things as 
are commonly set upon shelves, fancy them so 
placed in the repository ; as vessels of gold, sil- 
ver, glasses, books, mercery wares, &c. Such 
things as are usually placed on a table, conceive 
them so marshalled in the repository, as victuals, 
sums of money, table-boards, &c. such things 
as Jye, or are any ways situate on grounc^ must 


be so placed in the repositoi-y, as heaps of wheat, 
a cradle, chest, table, living creatures, whether 
standing, sitting, or l^ing, &c. Such things as 
are frequently under ground, are to be supposed 
under the marble-stage ; for though they escape 
the eye of a man standing before the repository, 
yet they cannot be concealed from the eyes of his 
mind, which are only exercised in this matter ; 
of this sort are graves, wells, wine-cellars, met- 
taline-mines, subterranean passages, through 
which streams have their course, as blood in the 
veins, &c. Like method is to be observed in 
site and position of all other things 


** Of the Colours of Repositories and Idea's. 

" Here you are to be admonished, that 
though every repository is supposed to be uni- 
form in building ; yet they are distinguished from 
one another by tiie pillar in the middle of every 
repository, which nmst be imagined of several 
colours ; as if you use ten, that which you design 
for the first, must be conceived to have a golden 
pillar; the second a pillar of silver; the third 
of black stone ; the fourth of blew stone ; the 
lift of red stone ; the si\th of yellow stone ; the 


seyenth of green stone ; the eighth of purple 
stone, the ninth of white stone, the tenth of ci- 
namon colour. New for distinction sake, gold 
is called the colour of the first repository ; silver 
the colour of the second repository ; black of 
the third repository ; and so successively as be- 
fore. If you use more than ten repositories, you 
must repeat the same coloirs over again, as be- 
fore; so that the eleventh is imagined to have a 
golden pillar, the twelfth a silver pillar, the thir- 
teenth a black pillar, th^^ fourteenth a blew pil- 
lar, and so the rest in ocder. After the same 
manner every idea must be conceived cloathed, 
adorned, or some way illustrated with the pro- 
per colour of the repository, wherein it is ima- 
gined to be placed. Take an example or two 
for better explanation : suppose a saylor in a 
canvase suit be retained for an idea in the first 
repository, { represent him standing there with 
a golden chain over his shoulder like a belt ; if 
n tlie second , imagine he weareth a silver chain 
iabout his neck, with a whistle fastened thereto : 
*f in the third, that he hath black boots on his 
legs : if in the fourth, that he hath a blew skarf 
on his arm, tyed in a rose-not : if in the fifth, 
that he wears a Red Monmouth Cap on his 
head : if in the sixth, that he swaggerelh with a 
yellow feather in his cap : if in the seventh, that 
he hath a green silk garter on his right leg : if in 


the eighth, that his canvase coat is imbellished 
"with a border of purple velvet : if in the ninth, 
tliat his neck is beautified with a very white 
orient pear! ; if in the tenth, that he hath a pair 
of cinnamon coloured breeches. 

" Howbeit, if the idea of its own nature be any 
ways rehited to tlie colour of its repository, 
wliereby it may be presently understood to have 
the colour thereof, it will need no other attribu- 
tion : for example, if a mayor of a city, (who in 
regard of his office is dignified with a purple 
gown, and gold chain) be placed as an idea in the 
first or fift repo<>itori/, there will be no need of 
attribution of colour, because the golden chain 
doth manifestly represent the colour of the first 
repository, the purple gown of the colour of the 
fift. In Uke sort, if a black bull be placed as an 
idea in either room of the first repository , his 
horns must be conceived gilded with gold ; if in 
the second, with silver ; if in the third, black, 
being the proper colour of that repository, ex- 
cludeth any other addition : if in the fourth, let 
him be decked with a chaplet of the blew flowers; 
if in the fift, with a garland of red roses. See. 
So a picture imagined to be painted on the op- 
posite wall of the first repository y must be illus- 
trated w'iih gold in some convenient place; if in 
the opposite wall of the second repositorijj with 
silver ; of the third, with black, &,c. 


" This attribution of a repositories colour, is of 
marvellous use, bolh to keep in mind the idea's 
themselves, as also their order ; hereby the mind 
re-perusing ideas formerly bestowed, hath al- 
wayes some certainty to guide itself, and recol- 
lect any idea at present latent ; because it's un- 
questionable, that the missing idea is either 
wholly, or at least in part, illustrated with the 
proper colour of its repository. 

" Moreover, in attributing a repositories colour 
to an idea, (of it self not partaking thereof) you 
musi; be careful that the colour of the repository 
be accommodated to the most eminent part of 
the idea, or as near as may be : if the history of 
the prophet Jonah thrown into the sea by mari- 
ners, be used as an idea, it mu-)t be represented 
in -a picture according to the third chapter pre- 
ceding ; in which, though the whale, sea, ship, 
and land are to be poui trayed, yet the effigies of 
J^owaA himself is the most remarkable part of the 
picture, because Jonah is of the history there 
painted: if therefore this story be to be dej osited 
in the first repository, let the border of his gown 
be supposed of gold ; if in the second, of silver ; 
if in the thud, let the gown be fancied black ; if 
in the fourth, blew, t^c. so the top of a heap of 
wheat is the most ct)nspicu()us part ; therefore 
if a heap of wheat be placer! in the first reposi' 
tory, imagine a golden streamer two foot long, 


fixed In the top of the heap ; if in the second 

repository^ let the streamer he silv. r ; if in the 
third, black ; if in the fourth, blew, Sd'. 

" Thus much may suffice for common affec- 
tions of ideas, in quantity, position, and colour ; 
their species follow. 


" Of Direct Idea's. 

" An idea is simple or compound : a simple 
idea is uniform, and is fourfold, direct, relative, 
fictitious^ and written. 

" A direct idea is when a visible thing, or con- 
ceived under a visible form, is bestowed in the 
repository, according to the same form, under 
which it is naturally apprehended : so a goat is 
the direct idea of a goat ; a rhinocerot of a 
rhinocerot ; a peacock, of a peacock ; a dove of 
a dove. Tims a majc stical man adorned with a 
scepter, iipperial diadem and robe, is the idea 
of a king : a person arrayed in academical habit, 
of a schoUar ; an ancient woman in mourning 
weeds, weeping and wiping her face with an 
handkerchief, of a widow : a virgin apparelled 
like a nun, of a nun : a satyr, as the poets de- 
»cribe ihem, of a satyr : so a temple is the direct 
idea of a temple, a book of a booke, a bed of a 


bed, a shealh of a sheath, an image of an image, 
a picture of a picture, an epistle of an epistle, a 
bond sealed, of a bond : so good angels and spi- 
rits, though they be incorporeal and invisible, 
(seeing they are commonly conceived under visi- 
ble forms) may be reposited as the otlier. To 
conclude, the minde of man doth naturally and 
immediately present direct idea's of all visible 
thiug3, or such as are conceived under a visible 
form, that it is in vain to excogitate any, but ra- 
ther use those diat offer themselves. If a man 
he^rs the relation of a naval battel, doth not he 
presently seem to behold the sea, ships, smoke 
of great ordnance, and other things obvious in 
such matters. If speech be made of mustering 
an ar?ny, doth not the hearer form in his minde 
the effigies of the field, replenished with soalders 
marching in military postures No precept in 
this kind is delivered, which nature it self hath: 
not dictated ; but onely to imprint these idea'^ 
more dei^ply in meniory, we bestow them me- 
thodically ni some place, lest otherwise they be 
forgotten through light apprehension. To ex- 
plain this more evidently, I will use an ex- 

" Jin Example of remembring a History. 

" Diogenes the Cynick entering Plato's hall^ 
when he saw the table covered with a rich car- 


pet, the shelves glittering with silver, gilt cups, 
vessels, and other sumptuous furniture, laid hold 
of the carpet with all his might, threw it to the 
ground, and trod thereon with his feet, saying, 
/ tread upon Plato's pride : to whom Plato re- 
plied, But with greater pride. 

" The idea of this story is not so great, but that 
it may admit reposition in its equal quantity : 
therefore I suppose in the place of the repository 
where it is to be bestowed, that there is a table 
covered with a rich carpet, which a sordid fellow 
in beggarly raiment, throws on the ground, a grave 
man clothed in honest sober apparel looking on. 
The attribution of the colour of the repository is 
not to be forgotten : if therefore it be the first 
repository in which this idea is to be placed, I 
imagine the carpet to be imbellished with a fringe 
or border of gold : if in the second, of silver : if 
in the third, of black : if in the fourth, of blew, 
and so forth in the rest. 

" An example of a Sentence to be remembredy 
the Subject being visible. 

" An ant is a small insect, the coldestand dryest 
of all creatures, and therefore the wisest ; for 
cold and dry do chiefly contribute to wisdom. 
The idea of this sentence ought to be augment- 
ed ; for the magnitude of an ant is so inconsi- 


derable, that being bestowed in a memorial 
place, it escapeth sight : therefore I suppose an 
tfnMieap in the middle stage of the memorial- 
place, seeming almost black with antSj swarm- 
ing hither and thither ; as for assignation of co- 
lour if this idea be placed in the third Repository , 
the colour of the Repository j is sufficient!}' noted 
by the blackness of the ants; if in the seventh, 
by the greenness of the a«^-hill ; so that there 
needeth no addition of colour, if placed in the 
third or seventh Repository : But if it be designed 
to the first Repository, 'et a triangular golden 
streamer be supposed fixed in the an?-hill, a foot 
high; if in the second, a silver streamer ; if in 
the fourth, a streamer of blew silk ; if in the 
fifth, of red ; if in the sixt, of yellow ; if in the 
eighth, of purple ; if in the ninth, of white ; if 
in the tenth, of cinnamon colour. 

" All Histories, Actions, F.ibles, common 
Affairs ; all visible things, or conceived under a 
visible form ; finally, All sentences whose subject 
is visible, may be disposed in Repositories by Di- 
rect Ideas, in equal, augmented or contracted 
quantity." • 

Chap. vlii. and ix. treat of relative and ficti- 
tious ideas. Chap. x. of written Ideas, and chap, 
xi. of c()n)j)ound Ideas. 

[n chap. xii. Mr. Willis gives the following 
rules for the * choice of ideas.' 


" Rule 1. All Histories, Actions, Fables, 
Apologies, common businesses, visible things, or 
conceived under a visible form, all sentences 
whose subject or matter is visible, and without 
any dependent written illustration, ought to be 
laid up in the Repositories by a Direct Idea, in 
quantity equal, augmented or contracted. Cap. I. 

" Rule 2. All Histories, Actions, Fables, 
Apologies, Morals and Similyes, remarkable for 
some coherent Verses or Writings, as all Epi- 
grams, Epitaphs, Anagrams and Impresses are 
generally to be expressed by a compound Idea, 
consisting of a Direct and Scriptile, Cap. 2. 

" Rule 3. All Emblems and Sentences illus- 
trated by some notable Example, or expressed 
Hyeroglyphically, are to be bestowed in Repo- 
sitories by a compound Idea, consisting of a 
Relative and Scriptile, Cap. 2. 

" Rule 4. All Characters, single Letters* 
naked Numbers, Calculations of Nativities, Cos- 
mographical descriptions and citations, are to be 
always disposed in Repositories by a Scriptile 

" Rule 5. All single words signifying no vi- 
sible thing, whose Idea either relative, fictitious, 
or compound of fictitious and scriptile, doth pre- 
sently occur, is to be so placed in the Repository, 
either relatively, fictitiously, or compoundly : If 


no such Idea occur, then it is to be represented 
by a Scriptile Idea. 

" Rule 6. All Phrases and Sentences inex- 
pressible by a Direct Idea, may be conserved by 
a Relative Idea, or compounded of a Relative 
and Scriptile, if any present it self commodious- 
ly, or if no such offer itself quickly, by a Scrip- 
tile Idea." 

In chap xiii. the following rules are given for 
' reposing ideas,' 

" Rule 1. Every Idea is to be placed in its 
order, tiz. that which first occurreth in the first 
place ; the second in the second place of the first 
Repository; the third in the first, the fourth in 
the second place of the second Repository ; fift 
in the first, the sixt in the second place of the 
third Repository ; the like method is to be used 
in all the Repositories, till all the Idea's be 

" Rule 2. Due quantity, convenient site, co- 
lour of the Repository, and peculiar attributes, 
are to be imposed on each Idea, and very care- 
fully minded. 

" Rule 3. After you have rightly disposed the 
first Idea of any Repository, note it very diligent- 
ly with the eye of your mind, as if it really stood 
there, observing its kind, subject, <iiiantity, site, 
attribution of the Repositories colour, and other 


such like peculiar attributes, if it have any. For 
example, whether the Idea deposited in the first 
place of any Repository (as to the kind) be di- 
rect; as to the subject, concerning a man; in 
respect of quantity, equal ; in regard of sight, 
placed on the ground ; and as to peculiar attri- 
butes, whether moving or yeilding a sound ; go 
over all these things in your mind, saying, The 
Idea which I have here bestowed, is Direct, of a 
man, equal, placed on the grouad, moving smd 
yeilding a sound : For by such considerations an 
Idea is more firmly graven in mfemory. 

" Huh 4. After you have fitly disposed the 
second Idea of any Repository, you must: exco- 
gitate some apt relation thereof to the former, in 
respect of likeness or unlikeness of site, likeness 
or unlikeness of subject ; or else in n;gard of the 
action of the latter Idea referred to the fonper ; 
you can pitch upon no Idea which may not be 
related to the former by on* of these five vv»yes, 
which shall plainly appear by example : if both 
Idea's of one Repository, precedent and subse- 
qi'.ent, be fixed to the wall, placed on a table, 
the ground, or under ground, 4'c. they agree in 
site : But if one be fastened to the Wall, the 
other placed on a Table, on the ground or under 
ground, they are unlike in site : When the sub- 
ject of both Idea's is Justice, Sin, a Man, War, 
or Sleep, S^c. they agree in subject ; but when 

A A 


the subject of one Idea is Justice, of the other 
Drunkenness, the one of a man, the other of a 
stone, or any other opposite thing, they disagree 
in subject. Take an example of transferring the 
action of a latter Idea to a former : Suppose that 
a man in a Gown, sitting at a Table, and over- 
looking some Books of Accounts, with Counters 
lying ready to compute the total sum, be an Idea 
disposed in the first place of a Repository ; and 
the Idea to be placed in the second room of the 
Repository, be a Farryer giving a Horse a Drench 
with a Horn : In this case, that the action of the 
latter may have some dependance on the former, 
imagine that the Horse (as soon as the drench is 
poured into his mouth) leaps back and disturbeth 
the man in his reckoning, who sits at the Table 
in the first place of the Repository. This mutual 
Relation of Idea's placed in the same Repository, 
is as it were a linking of them together, and doth 
admirably conduce to the remembrance of both. 
" Rule 5. If two or more distinct idea's con- 
cur, whose relation to one another is found so 
near, as if they were combined together ; bestow 
them in one same Memorial Place : As if the 
Idea immediately preceding be a Silver Bason 
full of fragrant Water, set upon a joyned Stool, 
and the subsequent Idea be an idle man doing 
nothing ; you may conjoin these two Idea's in 
one, imagining that this man washeth his hands 


in that odiferous water ; so if the former Idea 
be two Virgins talking together, the latter a Skein 
of Green Silk, to join these two Ideas by a pro- 
per connexion, you may fancy that one of the 
Virgins holdeth the Skein upon her wrists, whilest 
the other windeth it off her hands into a bottom. 
In like manner if the Antecedent Idea be Scrip- 
tile, and the Consequent likewise Scriptile, if so 
be you ailow space enough in the Table, tiie lat- 
ter may be subscribed under the former in a 
convenient distance from one another. Thus 
three Scriptile Ideas concurring together, if they 
be not too large for one Table, may be supposed 
written therein ; the first in the highest place, the 
second in the middle, the third in the lowest, al- 
lowing nevertheless a fit distance. But alwayes 
when you comprize two or three Ideas in one 
place, you must remember carefully, that so 
many Ideas were constituted in such a place. 

" Rule 6. W hen you have laid up any Idea in 
its Place (whether it be in the first or second 
Room of the Reposiforj/) peruse all the foregoing 
Idea's in their order, if you have time, that they 
may reside more deeply in Memory, and make 
the stronger impression in minde. For as a 
School-boy by often reading over his lesson, 
learneth it by heart, so the more frequentlv you 
peruse Idea's, the more firmly you will retain 


'* Rule 7' Lastly, have a care not to load 
jour Memory wiih a more numerous multitude 
of Ideals t\r<\n is fit, for as it is unwholesome to 
burthen the stomach above its strength, so also to 
overwhelm the Memory with multiplicity of 
Idea's, doth lead into great confusion. Tem- 
perate men admit only so much meat as they 
think they can well concoct ; so do you only 
commit such things to Memory, as you trust 
faithfully to remember ; for it is better firmly to 
retain a few remarkable things, than many of 
mean base nature. 

In chap. xiv. which treats " of the practice of 
the Art of Memory," we have the following 

" Examples of ordinary business. 

** I. Suppose (as taking it for granted) you 
were to go to some great Market Town, it con- 
cerns not our purpose whether the place be known, 
or unknown, and intend in the first place to en- 
quire the price of Seed Barlie : imagine then in 
the first Place of the first Repositorie (that is the 
part on the right hand) you see a man measuring 
Barlie out of a Sack into a Bushel, with a com- 
pany of men standing about liim, as is the usual 
manger in Maikets, not forgetting to fancy the 
Bushefl handles to be Gold, that so the Idea in 
some .part may be related to the Repository is 
colour, as is required in the sixdi Chapter : 


" 11. Moreover, That in tlie same Town liv- 
elli a Labourer wliom yon know, and must en- 
quire out to work in your Ilay-harveit ; fancy 
him to stand in the second place (on the left hand) 
of the first Repositori/, sharpening his Gulden 
, Sytlie on a zchetsfoiie, as it were preparing for 
such Rustical imploynient: I say Go/den St/the, 
that it may participate of the colour of the Repo- 
sitory ; this Idea agreeth with the former in sight 
and subject, for both Idea's of this llcpository 
are of men, and placed on the ground. 

" III. A while after you niinde some 
jdromutical Spices you are to buy : To remem- 
ber which, fancy the second place of the second 
Repositorie converted into a Grocers Shop, the 
opposite wall garnished with Nests of Boxes full 
of several Spices, with Tiiles writ upon the 
Boxes, after the usual mode ; two foot on this 
side the wail, let iheje stand a Counter, the VV^ares 
exposed thereon you are to buy : as if the first 
thing you nominate to buy be Pepper, let a 5'//- 
ver box full of Pepper stand upon the further 
end of the Counter; if die second thing design- 
ed be Nutmegs, place a loose bagge of Sliver 
gilt Nutmegs in the oiiiddle of the Counter; if 
the third be Sugar, set a Sugar loafe on the hi- 
ther end of the Counter, with a Sf/rcr string 
tyed about the top, that it may in some part bear 

the colour of the Repositorie. In this case you 
A A 3 


must remember that three Idea's were bestowed 
ill one Place, whose coherence with the Idea in 
the other EeposUoiy, is taken from their unlike- 
nesse of site ; for that Idea was heaped on the 
ground, these three are placed upon a Counter. 
" IV. Your next incident businesse is to re- 
member to speak with a Counsellour of the same 
town (a man of a very great repute and credit for 
knowledge in the Law) about a friends sute de- 
pending in CImmery : Imagine that Counsellour 
in a Lawyers Gown, sitting in a Chair, overlook- 
ing some writings, in the first Place of the third 
Repository/ : seeing his Gown is black, you need 
no other attribution of colour of the Repositoyy. 
" V. If another new occasion present it self 
to minde, as that you are to buy "a piece of 
Blarh Vehit of a Mercer in that town ; the se- 
cond Place of the third Repository must be 
transformed into a Mercers shop, a piece of 
Black Velvet neatly laid in folds of equal length, 
lying on the Counter, which doth in like manner 
As well denote the Repositories colour, as the 
Gown of the Counsellor sitting in the former 
Place; whence also is deduced a manifest rela- 
tion to the precedent Idea, the Lawyers Govvn 
supposed to be lined with Velvet, 



" Of Dictation and Reposition, 

" Moreover, the practical part of this Art 
is perspicuously seen in the Exercises of Dictat- 
ing and Repetition, 

" The use of Dictating is, when a person is 
to dictate to several Scribes or Secretaries, what 
every one must write, so as to direct aid exercise 
them all at once, which is frequently incumbent 
upon Princes and Generals of Armies in peril- 
lous times : In such cases there must be assigned 
a peculiar Repository to every Scribe, wherein 
the affairs and sentences by him to be dispatched, 
must be reposited in order; that is, the first Re- 
pository to the first Scribe, the second Repository 
to the second, the tiiird to the third, the fourth 
to the fourth,.and so forth if there be more : All 
Idea's of things to be dispatched by the first 
Secretary, must have some attribution of Gold 
appertaining to them ; all Idea's of the secoiid 
Repository, something of silver ; of the third, 
something of l>lack, of the fourth, blew, S)C. In 
this case also it is permitted to place two, thre«, 
or more Idea's if it be necessary, in one place of 
a Repository : All businesses and sentences being 
thus reposited in order, & faithfully digested be- 
fore in mind, it is no difficult matter by the .first 


Idea of the first Repository, to dictate to the first 
Scribe what he siiust write first ; l)y thu first Idea 
of the second Repository, t.i tell the second 
Scribe what he sliall write; by the first Idea of 
the third Repository, to inform the third ; nnd in 
like manner all the rest in their order. Again, 
by the second Idea of each Repository, the se- 
cond sentence is facilely delivered to each Scribe : 
By the tiiird, every Scribes third bnsiness ; by 
the fonrih Idea their fourth, and so forward in 
the residue. This is the Exercise, which by 
some is called the Art of Dictating. 

*' Repetition is when a man repeateth sen- 
tences spoken by several persons, so as to return 
each persons sentence in order as it was deliver- 
ed ; as if six, seven, or more friends sitting toge- 
ther (to experience your happy memory) do every 
one in order speak some sentence, to have them 
repeated again, after the same or a retrogade 
manner, which way they please; dispose the 
Liea's of your first friends sentences in the first 
Repository ; of your second friend in the second 
Repository ; of your third friend in the third, and 
so forward in the rest. All which being rightly 
disposed, you may with little trouble restore to 
every friend his saying, either in the same order 
as they were spoken, or in a retrogade or invert- 
ed order. 

" I have not thought expedient to illustrate 


these with Examples, because I think them suffi- 
ciently explained by what hath been already said; 
as also, that this Exercise of Dictating and Re- 
peating have little or no use, but vain ostentation; 
though I have inserted them here, it was not 
done as necessary, but because the knowledge of 
them did not seem superfluous for such as are 
learned of this Art. 


" Of irregular Reposition. 

" I HAVE thought godd to annex a few words 
of irregular Reposition, which is onely one Rule, 
that is, a real Repository may be sometimes sub- 
stituted instead of a feigned, which irregiUarity is 
admitted upon a double occasion. 

" First, A thing itself being at hand, may be 
fitly used instead of its proper Idea : As if a man 
sitting in his Study, light on some Book whose 
sheets are transplaced, which he intendeth when 
he goes forth of l)is Study, to send to a Book- 
binder to be amended : That Book is to be cast 
at the threshold of the Study, that the sight there- 
of may admonish him departing, to get it bound : 
So also if Ink be wanting, an Ink-Glass or Bottle 
may be set by the Book. 

" Secondly, When a man must exonerate one 


or more Idea's, as soon as he hath reposited 
them ; as when something offers it self to a mans 
mind, talking to a powerful or rich man, which 
he judgeth convenient to be comuiunicated to 
him with the first opportunity, let him speedily 
reposite the Idea of that thing in the same house, 
field, plain, or wheresoever he then is, in some 
certain place conversant before his eyes, that he 
may be always put in mind to propound the 
same when occasion serves : As if he think to do 
some friendly office for a person absent, by pre- 
ferring some business of his to the rich man ; let 
him imagine that Friend always obvious in some 
determinate place in sight, not suffering the ob- 
ject to slip out of view, till he have curteously 
performed his officious enterprise. Or if there 
intervene some thought of buying fewel, whereof 
the rich man hath great plenty, let him suppose 
a great quantity of Wood piled up in some place 
not distant out of sight : This is all I have to say 
of ii regular Reposition, 


'' Of depositing Ideals. 

" Haying spoken copiously of repositing 
Idea's, now I will conclude with Depositing them. 


" Deposition of Idea's is, when tilings charged 
upon Memory by Idea's, are recalled, and the 
mind exonerated of them, the Memorial Place? 
after such Deposition, being left empty, and 
prepared to receive new Idea's. Now in this 
case, if it happen at any time that an Idea negli-. 
gently reposited, is lost or forgotten, when it 
should be deposited, the recovery thereof must 
be endeavoured by these ensuing considerations. 
" First, This is always assuredly known, every 
lost Idea did bear the colour of his Kepository, 
either in wliole or part; therefore the first thing 
to be inquired is, in what respect the colour of 
the Repository did agree with the Idea sought ; 
by this sole consideration, forgotten Idea's are oft 

" The Idea being not discovered thus, make 
diligent indagation for its relation to the Idea 
placed in the same Repository, in regard of site, 
subject or action. Cap. 14. Rule 4. One Idea 
of a Repository being known, doth easily call the 
other to mind, by mutual dependance whereby 
they were connexed together, unless there did 
precede very negligent Reposition. 

" If still you are disappointed, happily you 
may find it out by repetition of such things as are 
especially remarkable in laying up Idea's, of 
which I have spoken in the 13. Chapter. That 
is by enquiring whether the latent Idea's was 



. ^ i" L- J J Fictitious, 

In r«pect of kind, <Scriptile, ^ 

Double, treble, S^c. 

Of God, 
Of Christ, 
^ c t • * J Of the Holy Gh»$t, 
In Mspect of subject, <^o/^«g-e/*, 

^ Of Men, 
Of Animals, 

C Equal, 
In respect of quantity, < Augmented^ 
i. Contracted, 

r Under ground^ 
\ Upon ground. 
In respect of site, < Upon a Table ^ 
j Upon a Shelf, 
{^Against a wall. 

r Moving, 
In respect of attribu- J Quiet, 

tioD, i Giving a sound. 

V. Yielding 4 smel. 

, d 
" An Idea is oft recovered by discussing these 

ie\N questions in a mans thoughts. , 

" If it be certain the forgot Idea was Scriptile, 

but the inscription is in oblivion, the first' inquiry 

must be, whether it were a angle 'wordj proof, 

phrase, or sentence of one or more clauses ; a 

single word, proof, or principal word pf a sen- 


tence, may be regained by applying each Letter 
of the Alphabet in the same manner as is pre- 
scribed in the second Rule of Poetical Revoca- 
tion, in the second Book, Cap. 3. till you have 
obtained the first Letter ; the other Letters may 
be found by transcendencies and gilded Vowels ; 
the chief Word being obtained, the rest come 
easily to mind. 

'* If you cannot yet discover the Idea, have re- 
course to the third and fourth Rules of Poetical 
Revocation, '2. Book. S Chap, an Idea being 
revocable in the same manner. 

" Finally, if it continue irreparable by all 
these ways, let it pass, and be no longer sollici- 
tous irf search thereof: For as a Book carelesly 
laid up in a Study, is not many times to be found 
when it is sought, though you remove several 
Volumes ; yet afterward comes to hand beyond 
expectation, when another Book is reached that 
stands by it : So it doth oft happen in this busi- 
ness, though ijn Idea negligently reposited, can- 
not be, found when it is sought, yet at another 
time when a Notion reposited in the cell of Me- 
mory near it, is excited, that also of its own ac- 
cord dlscovereth it self. 

" If a man do prudently follow these Rules of 
recovering latent Ideas, as with Ariadnes thred, 
he will doubtless wind himself out of the Laby- 
rinth of blind Oblivion, and with admirable 

B B 


facility recall to mind forgotten sentences, and. 
vanished Idea's" 

A Treatise ' of cherishing Natural Memori// 
concludes the volume ; in which are considered, 
"J.. Of such [things] as debilitate Memory. 
2. Of things corroborating Memory. 3. Of a 
prescript order of life. 4. Of restoring a debi' 
litated Memory. 5. How to discern the tem- 
perame/ht of the Brain. 6. Of Dyet properly 
convenient to every temperament. 7. Of 
Diseases of the Brain." 

Among those things which debilitate memory, 
are enumerated bad air, particular drinks and 
decoctions, bad water, particular sorts of food, 
repletion, too much sleep, etc. etc. In the list of 
corroboratives are, wholesome air, sweet scents, 
and particular meats, among which are, the 
brains of sparrows, hares, conies, etc.; — herbs, 
bathing the feet in warm decoctions of camomile, 
etc. and * exercise in delightful places not sub- 
ject to wind.' The chapter concludes with this 
important admonition : " Finally, your apjyarel 
close fitted, walk leisurely abroad, if the winde 
breath a gentle gale, otherxi^ise within doors." 

In treating of the " prescript order of life" 
Mr. Willis, after very properly recommending 
frequent prayer for Divine assistance, in all our 
undertakings, which he enforces by a reference to 
the Epistle of James, chap. v. ver. 1 6, 17, di- 


rects the reader to " comb his head every day, 
backward, fasting" " to abstain from all evacua- 
tion by virtue of Physick except upon necessity" 
" to eat twelve Raisotis of the Sun7ie stoned, 
evert/ morning without drink, instead of break- 
fast" " to let his supper be larger than his din- 
ner"* " to observe accustomed hours of eating" 
*' to refrain from labour after meats" " to shut 
all the windows at bed-time^" " not to sleep under 
the moon-beams," and " not to lie out all night 
in the open air." The remaining rules are some- 
what more rational : they recommend the morn- 
ing as the best time for study, — the reading of 

* Mr. Willis seems to have entirely forgotten the aiitient 

Ex }}ut^na cccna stomuchofit maxima fcena ; 
Ut SIS node levis, si tibi ccena brevis, 

A correspondent in the Gentleman's Magazine tbv 
the year 1787, in answer to Immemor, who had been com- 
plaining of the weakness of his memory, advises him to 
follow this rule ; " Instead of eating suppers, leani by 
heart some passages of poetiy which please yoii, tJie last 
thing before yoii go to bed, and repeat them the first thing 
in the morning, at six in the spring and antumn, five in 
snmmor, and seven in winter. Study Watts' Logick, 
and his Improvement of the MiTid, Locke, and Ei'cltd. 
Let me knowtiie effects of this regimen, accompanied with 
plain food and constant exercise, and I will then prescribe 
fariiicr if it should be necessary." Gent. Mag. vol. Ivii. 
part i. p. 22. 


select authois, — a devotedness to the studies which 
we are pursuing, — a choice of fit companions, — 
and occasional relaxation. 

The symptoms of cold and hot brains are 
explained at large for the benefit of all those who 
are disposed to read such " phantasies." Under 
the article of " Dyet" we have the following 
singular paasage. " Strong sweet wine, as 
Muskadine, Ipocras, drunk temperately, is most 
restorative for old folivs, and co:d and sickly per- 
sons, more efficaciuusly gold (made red hot in 
the Jire) quenched therein, doth marvellously 
restore and exhiieiate the heart. Concerning 
this matter, Roger Bacon, a famous philosopher 
in his Treatise of old age, hath this story ; ^n 
ancient husbandman (saith he) wearyed with 
plowing f and thirsty with his hot labour y- drank 
water of a Cytron colour, and after he had 
greedily swallowed the same, was changed both 
in complection and strength like one of thirty 
years of age, possessing more excellent discre- 
tion, MEMORY and understanding, than ever he 
enjoyed before, jfrom which time, he lived eighty 
years in the Kings Court. Bacon, who recit- 
eth this, thought, that water or liquor received 
its yellow Tincture from Gold, as he there tes- 

After a long and fruitless search, the only par- 
ticulars which we have been enabled to glean. 


respecting John Willis are, — that he \vas 
author of the ' Art of Stenography/ an edition 
of whicli was published in 1628, and that he was 
a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Of 
this latter circumstance, a communication in an 
early volume of the Geiifleinans Magazine, is 
the only evidence,. The writer of this article 
mentions a system of short-hand, said to be in- 
vented by a Fellow of Magdalen College; and 
this system is the identical one published by 


44. Ars Memories localis, plenius ct lu- 
culejitius expositct, quani ante hac 
nunrjuam, una cum appUcatione ejus- 
dem ad singulas disciplhms ctfacul- 
tales, 8". Lips. l()-20. 

This book (says Morhof, in his Polyhistor) is 
to be preferred to all the treatises on Mnemo- 
nics, for perspicuity and arrangement. The 
anonymous author, as appears by the preface, 
was a Professor of Mnemonics in the University 
of Leipsic. 

45. D. Joannis Velasquez de Azevedo 

Feuix de Minerva y Arte de Memo- 
ria queenseuna sin maestro aprender 
y relenir, 4". Madrid, 1620. 

B B 3 


46. Artis Lullian^, seu Memorice Ar- 

tificialis Secretum explicitnm, Ora- 
torihiis et PrcBdicatorihiis uiilissi- 
mum per JR. P. F. Hugonem Car- 
honellwn: 8". Paris. 16*20. 

For an account of ' LuUy's Art' see No. .51. 

47. Lettera a Andrea Valieri ove si 
tratta della Memoria locale e del 
modo facile per acquistarla. MS. 

This manuscript is No. 2259 in the Slonne 
Collection pre-erved in the British Museum. It 
treats of the arrangement of different places on 
the walls of the rooms in a house or monastery, to 
the number of 173 ; and gives directions respect- 
ing the formation and combination of images. It 
is in folio, and is dated October 30, ]623. 

48. 3Iagazin des Sciences, on way VArt 
de 3Iemoire, par Adrian le Cuirot, 
12^ Paris, 1623. 

In this extremely rare volume, which abounds 
with curious plates, the system of Lambert 
Schenckel is given in detail ; but, with many im- 
portant additions and improvements. 


49. Tractatus de Memoria J oh. Conra- 
di Dannhaiveri D. Sf Pr. of Puhl. 
8". Arsrent. 1635. 

Of this work we have not been able to procure 
a copy ; the reader, tlierefore, must be contented 
with a memoir of the author. John Conraue 
Dannhawer, a Lutheran divine, was born at 
Brisgau in 1 603 : and he was raised to the chair 
of eloquence at Strasburgh, in 1 629- He died 
in this city, aged ,57. Befoie his death he was 
made preacher at the Cathedral church, and Dean 
of the Chapter; he was very zealous for the sen- 
timents he embraced, and entered into a severe 
controversy with those who contended for the 
union of the Lutherans and Calvinists. He has 
left behind him many theological works of con- 
siderable reputation.* * 

50. Meyssonerus in Perilagono Philoso- 
phico-3Iedico, sive Arte novcs Re^ 
miniscentim, 4°. Lugd. 1639. 

51. Ars Memorativa inventiva et appli- 

cativa Raimundi LuUii^ 12". Ca- 
dom. 1640. 

The system of Artificial Memory of that lu- 
* Diet. Hist. art. Dannhawer. 


miliary of science, Raymund Lully, was formed 
at a very ea'rly period ; and he was, perhaps, the 
first modern who practised this art ; but as the 
books on this subject have been noticed accord- 
in" to their dates, and we have not seen an earlier 
edition of Luily, he is placed among the writers 
of the seventeenth century. 

" By this system, any one was enabled 
mechanically to invent arguments and illustra- 
tions upon any subject, and thus to reach the 
summit of science, at a small expence of 
time and labour. This Great Art professes 
to furnish a general mstrument for assisting 
invention in the study of every kind of science. 
For this purpose, certain general terms, which 
are common to all the sciences, but prin- 
cipally those of logic, metaphysics, ethics and 
theology, are collected and arranged, not how- 
ever according to any natural division, but merely 
according to the caprice of the inventor. An 
alphabetical table of such terms was provided; 
and subjects and predicates taken from these, 
were respectively inscribed in angular spaces, 
upon circular papers. The essences, qualities, 
and relations of things being thus mechanically 
brought together, the circular papers of subjects 
were fixed in a frame, and those of predicates 
were so placed upon them as to move freely, and 
in their revolutions, to produce various combina- 


lions of subjects and predicates ; whence would 
arise definitions, axionis, and propositions, vary- 
ing infinitely, according to the dilierent applica- 
tion of general terms to particular subjects.;"* 
This is the general idea of Lully's mechanical 
logic, wliich would enable a person to hold a 
disputation for a who/e day upon any siihj^xt 
tohatever, zoithout knowing any thing of' the 

Morhofm his dissertation de Arte Lidliana ,-);■ 
has preserved an elaborate account of the system, 
and has given a tremendous list * ordine longo' 
of commentators on the art. The two principal 
expositors are Athanasius Kircher, in his Ars 
Magna Sciendi, [see No. 56] and Jean Helot, 
in his L'Oeuvre des Oeuvres, [see No. 54.] 

Raymunf) Lully was born at Majorca, 
in the year 1236, and on account of his great 
abilities, obtained the name of the Il/uminated 
Doctor. After excelling as a divine, he applied 
himself to physic and chemistry, that he might 
be enabled to cure the cancer of a young woman 
of whom he was enamoured. He was stoned to 
death in Mauritania, where he went as a mis- 
sionary in the year 1315, at the age of 80. His 

• Sec Enfield's History of Philosophy, vol. II. pp. 

t Polyhistor, Tom. I. Lib. II. cap. 5. 


works which ale in general very obscure, are 
written in a* style worthy of the barbarous age in 
which he lived. Tliey were collected and pub- 
lished at Mentz, and treated of theology, history, 
medicine, law, and philosophy. 

52. Ars 3Inemcmica, sice Herdsonus 
Uruxiatus ; vel JBruxus Herdsoni- 
atus, f^''. JLotid. 1651. 

o3. Ai^s 3Iemori(E: The Art of Memo- 
ry jnade plaine hy Henry Herdson, 
late Professor l^y PuMich Autho- 
rity, in the Ujiiversity of Cam- 
bridge, 8". Lond. 1651. 

No. 52 and No. 53 are printed and bound to- 
gether, consisting in the whole of ninety-two 
pages. The^Vs^ is in Latin, and is a republica- 
tion of a part of Adam Brux's Simonides Redi- 
vivus, before noticed, [See No. 37] A Latin 
dedication to ' his dearest mother, the University 
of Cambridge' follows the title, after which we 
have this singular address to the reader. 


" Covrteovs Reader, If any thing in this 
BOOK seemeth obscure unto thee, and thou de- 
sirest Instruction in the same, and clearly to 
game the full benefit of the Art, thou mayest 


repniie unto me at the Green Dragon, over 
against Saint A.ithohns Church in London, 
where I shall bee ready to give thee sufficient 
Testimonially and Satisfaction of the Art, that 
the plaj/nest and meanest Capacitt/ may appre- 
hend it. And so I rest thij Wel-zHsher in 
Christ lesus, 

Octob. 21, Henry Herdson. 

1661. . 

No. 53, the second article, being in English, in 
a small coMipass, and very scarce, we shall reprint 
the whole of it, verbatim. 

" To my dearest Mother, the Vniversity of 
" Cambridge, all the good of this life, 
" and eternall Life. 

" My dearest Mother, let the lovingest, 
though least deserving of your true sonnes, pre- 
sent you Zi'ith one sparkle of living fire, raked 
7ip in your ashes, O your own ashes ! The Phoe- 
nix of Christendome, that never shall be put to 
death : The Angels of Heaven may sooner be 
extinct, than this Phanix : Be not discomfort- 
ed ihut the Sunne is beclouded, the Clouds are 
but for a time. Bee not forgetfull, norfaith- 
lesse; but rather accept this my little Booke, the 
Prospective Glasse, 1 send you to view the Art 
of Memory by. If yon look on it at the zvrotig 


etid, unto the ignorant it will appear in a smal- 
ler volume, then in itspoore Octavo : But if you 
looke on it at the right end with the right eye, it 
will grow bigger than your Expectation. He 
that hath but one eye I know will almost love 
it : Hee that hath but halfe an eye cannot des- 
pise it : But hee teho by zoilfulnesse S^ malice, 
will put both his eyes out, may stare in his con- 
ceits; and the next messe of his own crooked 
Broaih, his hollozv throat sinkes downe: he can 
as well crum his porrage with his ei/es, as con- 
demne my Art of Memory: And let it bee 
enough to choak him, that Lumen ex ipso bono 
est, & bonitatis Imago. But you who are inge- 
nuous Academicks: The God of Heaven and 
Earth send you eyes, Ears, and all your Senses, 
with all sutable objects, that piously may delight 
you in them all. 

So pra^eth your true Lover 8c Servant, 

Henry Herdson. 


Explicalio Llbri: 
The Key or Explication of the Booke. 

(C C. Chambers.) 

(H. H. Houses.) 

(D. Door. (W. Wall:) (S. Sided.) 

(R. Repository.) 


(Angiile, Corner.) 

(Center, tlie Middle in the Qvadrangule.) 

(Quadrangnle, 4 Corners. 

(Coelum versus, ubove, towards Heaven.) 

(Juxta terrani, below tlie ground, or earth. 

(Paries, Wall or Side.) 

(P. P. Places. 


Partis Theorica. 

" Hee that desireth this art or any other, must 
bring along with him two things. 

" 1. Love of the Art. 

" 2. Desire of the Art, without which no man 
can learn or protit in any Art or Science. 

" And he must also resolve of a third thing, 
not to undervalue any Art or Science by the ex- 
ility and meanness of the grounds of the Art. For 
Divinity, Law, Physick, and the seven Liberall 
Arts, and all other Sciences are preserved in six 
and twenty Letters, and so traiwmitted to Poste- 
rity, from one Generation to another. Now how 
plain and mean the six and twenty Letters of the 
Alphabet be, every one knovveth ; so let us also 
consider, that most rich stones, and precious 
Gems are digged out of the earth, and the most 
c c 


stately trees doe grow out of the earth : but if art 
be not added, wee make no use of these. By 
Art the stones are separated from the chalk, and 
fitted by the Artificer for the most sumptuous 
buildings : the Diamond, Saphire, Rubie, by the 
hand and skill of the Artificer are inthroned in 
the purest Gold ; also the most harmonious and 
Ear-pleasing Musick that quicknelh up, and en- 
liveneth the drowsie vitals, consisteth but in three 
Keyes, and six Notes. We might instance the 
like exility in the Fundaments and grounds of the 
other Sciences and rarest Arts : Therefore if it 
be thus in these, he must needs be malicious and 
unworthy, that will contemne this Ait of Me- 
mory for the meanness of the Fundaments there- 
of, which be 

" 1. Repositories. 2. Ideas. 'J. Method, 
" 4. The Vse or Exercise of them. 
« I. The Repositories be C. C. in H. H. 
which be of two sorts : either, 

*' 1. Naturall, which we know : or, 
" 2. Artificial, which we imagine and make 
in our Fancie. And in both of them the Me- 
thod is according to this Figure. 


i 2 











" Enter in at D under tlie Center of the North 
W. or S. Then move as the Sun moveth, be- 
ginning on the left hand, which is the East side 
of this C. and imagine this II or C (call it which 
you will) in every of the 4 W W ; or S S. to be 
every way 10. yards square from Angule to An- 
gule, then make the R. as followeth, ivz. the first 
VV which is East C. and ten yards four square 
from angule to angule) hang'd or clothed with 
cloth of gold, dividing it into its parts, according 
to the Metliod of its figure ; in the first 10. yards 
square. Paries, which is l-'i-S 4 5. 2 W. also 
10. yards 4 square, which is South, and adorned 


with the purest white Linnen or Taffaty, and di- 
vided into its five parts also, viz. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 
The third S or W, which is West, of the same 
Latitude also, and clothed with rich Tapestry, 
and divided into its five parts, which be 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15. The fourth Paries which is North 
10 yards, foure square, also hanged with an hang- 
ing, beset full of Diamonds, Rubies, Saphires, 
and all manner of precious Gems, and divided 
also into its five parts, viz. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. 


Partis Theories. 

" When you are perfect in tliis, place in eve)7 
Angule of every of these Paries, and in their se- 
veral Centers so many large 4 square Tables, 
viz. In the first Paries of this Repository (which 
is East, and hanged with cloth of Gold) in the 
first Angule, Juxta terram, you have a large 
foiire square Table of Gold : In the North- East 
Angule which is Caelum versus) and the second 
place) you have a large foure square Table, Jet 
or Ebony (for alwayes let the Colour of the one 
Table contrary the Colour of the other:) In the 
fourth Angule, Juxta terrain, (which is also East 
by South) you iiave a large foure square Table 


of the purest white Alabaster polished : In the 
Center of this East Paries, you have a large 
square Table also made of Saphire, Marble, 
Cristals, Diamonds, or what you will : And thus 
distinguish the other three Paries, or S. S. of this 
R. in their severall Tables, three wayes. 

" 1 . By the matter they are made of, as Gold, 
Wood, Stone, 8cc. 

" 2. By the colour without a Carpet, as red, 
green, yellow, &,c. 

" 3. By Carpets and Coverings with their 
colour, as black Velvet, Scarlet, &c. and so they 
be distinguished, it mattereth not how they be dis- 
tinguished, so long as they be all large and four 
square Tables in every of their Angules and Cen- 


Partis Theories, 

" After you have this perfect, divide all 
these Tables in their several Places (as they stand 
in order) both in their Angules and Centers, into 
five parts in the lid or top &c. into five parts by 
the four feet, and Center below ; the top or lid 
aloft is like to the Scheam of the first Paries, and 
so are the four foot and Center below : Now the 
best method, is to leave out use of four feet and 
c c 8 


Center below, and to spare tliein on^ly for mat- 
ter of the same nature, that njay be added after- 
M'ard, upon furihtr study and serious deHbera- 
tioi^ : As no man can say so much at one time 
for his own or others satisfaction, but that he may 
say for his own content and others satisfaction, 
more and better at another time ; because every 
sence of man h regulated according to the sence 
of tasting. The pallat deliglueth hereafter some 
things both of dry and moist nourishmeiit, above 
some things it liketh for present : So always in. 
every thing what man can attain unto in all Arts, 
Sciences, and Languages It jnust be confessed 
that in these, alwayes Nos non sumus ti'js, what 
we heretofore approved, upon serious consult, 
we see (though that then did passe with us and 
others) yet now a better way is opened unto us. 
Exempli gratia, he that is in a tolerable bon- 
dage, and therewith contenttd, yet when his eyes 
are opened, will rntlitr throw himself in the 
armcs of his own Moilicr, than the unkindly nurs- 
ings of a fawning step Motlier. So then having 
divided all these Tables into ten parts, you have 
in the whole Repository twenty Tables, and in 
every Table ten places (diougli at fi-st opportu- 
nity vou make use but ui live ni the leafe of the 
Table, leaving the lower live parts for use as 
abovesait'.) so all ihe divisions of the twenty Ta- 
bles are one hundred places in the top, and as 


many in the bottome, and then you must place a 
Table in the (. enlt-r of the flue of this Reposi- 
tory, dividing tliat as y<>n did the other in which 
you have ten places more, but in the Center of 
this Table, tis your cheil care to place tl)e figure 
of 1 . and look upon it when you first come into 
this Repository. Now this figure of 1. is a 
burning Taper, placed in the Center of the top of 
this Table, and that you may the better remem- 
ber it, imagine it as it burnetii casting a sweet 
perfume all the room over ; for the five Sences 
of Hearing, Seeing, Smelling, Tasting, Touch- 
ing, are the five excellent Rules for imprinting 
things in the memory. \ 


" After you have thus done, in the fourth 
place, put so many of your acquaintance (I doubt 
I cannot say friends) in the severall Angnles and 
Centers of every of the tops, or lids, or leaves of 
the Table (call them what you will) and be sure 
you know what five friends are at the first Table, 
what five at the second, what five friends or ac- 
quaintance at the third, &c. in all four of the Pa- 
ries twenty Tables, are in this Repository, and 
five friends or acquaintance at every Table, for 


all the bottomes (viz.) four feet and Centers 
you leave empty and unused ; so you have 105 
friends or acquaintance in this Repository. 


" Then that you may proceed to the practick 
part of this Art of Memory without losse of time, 
take tlie severall characters of the figures, and 
place them in their order, in the right and left 
hand of every of your friends, as they are placed 
five by five, at every of the large four square Ta- 
bles, in every of the Angules and Centers of the 
abovesaid Paries of the Repository- 

" The Ideas of these you have in this Table of 
figures (adding according to your own fancy more 
Ideas of every figure, as your fancy and invention 

" As for the figure of 1. a Candle, a Fish, a 
Staf, a Dart, &,c. For 2. a Swan, a Duck, a 
Goose, a Serpent : For 3. a Triangle, a Trident, 
or any thing with three legs : For 4. a Quadran- 
gle, a die, any four square thing: For 5. a foot 
of a man, an Hand, a Glove, a Sickle, a Peircer, 
a Shoemakers Knife, &c. For 6. a Tobacco 
pipe : For 7. a Carpenters Iron square, a Rai- 
ser bent thus 7 ; For 8. a pair of Spectacles, a 


Sea Crab, Twin Apples, &c. For 9. a burning 
Glasse, a riding Stick made of a Reed, twisted 
at the upper end thus 9 long Peares, 8cc. 10,20, 
30, Sec. to a thousand, may be formed from these 
figures, taking any round for the ciphers 000. as 
an Orenge, a Ball, &c. for a Candle run through 
an Orenge is ten, a Swan with an Orenge in her 
mouth is twenty : But they may more profitably 
be made by single Ideas, as a Crosse of Gold, 
Silver, Wood, &c. for ten ; for twenty a Jug, a 
Dagger, or any thing you will fancy ; for thirty 
a Belclapper, or what you will fancy, so for ali 
the rest of the cardinall numbers what your fancy 
will put, because it will be better to have single 
Ideas for the cardinall numbers. 

This is the Theorick. 
Now for the Practick Part. 


The first Lecture of the Practick Part. 

" Now before we can come to the Practick 
Part, or exercise it selfe, 'tis necessary that we 
make some little Preface concerning Ideas. 

" An Idea is the figure of anything represented. 


now the Ideas of things visible are very facile and 
ready, but the Ideas of those things that be invi- 
sible, are to be found out by rule, whereby the 
Ideas of all things may be had in a readinesse ; 
and for this there is need onely of but one gene- 
rall rule (which in perfecting this Art I have 
found out.) 

** An Idea is twofold ; 

*' First, Proper. 

" Secondly, Improper. 

*' First Pioper, which is the Image of that 
thing it representeth, as if I put the Idea of Christ 
to represent Christ himselfe. 

** 2. Improper, as if I put the Image of Christ 
to represent a man; Logicians expresse this in 
few words ; when the Image (say they) of the 
Individual! is put for the Individuall it selfe 'tis 
proper ; but if it be put for the Species or Ge- 
nus, 'tis improper. This Division is brought to 
shew that oftentimes improper Ideas are as use- 
full to stirre up the Memory as proper. A se- 
cond Division of Ideas, is 1. Perfect. 2. Im- 

" 1. Ideas are perfect, and such be of rare and 
excellent things, as of Daniel in the Lyons Den, 
of Jo?tah in the mouth of the Whale, the fact of 
InditJi, Esther, loseph, &^c. 

*' 2. Ideas are imj»erfect, as of obvious and 
vulgar things, as the rising and setting of the Sun 


no man adiniretli, because it is daily, it raineth, 
it raineth not, &.c. The Idfaa of the»e be first 
imperfect, but they may presently be made such 
by some notable attribute, that they may become 
perfect; as for examp'e, the wind bloweth, the 
Idea is imperfect, but the wind bloweth with 
such a force, and so tearingly, that Trees are rent 
up from the ground, and Houses blowne downe, 
now the Ideas are perfect, it raineth, so imper- 
fect; but it raineth so thick that all the streets 
and wayes are of a swim : and filled with water : 
Now the Ideas be perfect; so the Sun aiiseth 
with a huge great body and red colour, so the 
Idea is perfect. And so wee come uow to give 
the Rules of the Practick part : Aud first de vo- 
cabulis intdlectis of words which we uader- 
stand, (for we shall appoint the lection for 
Words we understand not afterwards :) Words 
which we understand are remembred by Ideas, 
put in the places of the R. with some famous ac- 
tion attributed, received from Writers sacred, or, 
prophane, er invented, and feigned by our selves ; 
(for no intellect word can be spoken but of our 
selves) we may presently be able to fancy the per- 
fect Idea of it, aud apply unto it some notable 



Of the Practicke Part of Sentences. 

** Sentences, or continued Texts are com- 
mitterl to Memory, and retained : The principall 
Ideas of their Words being put in the Methodi- 
cal! places of the R. And these being made sure 
of, they bring the 'esse principal! Words of the 
sentence, or text by the lieipe of the natural! 
memory into our Rcmenibrance immediately. 
Now that we may be able to perform this, we 
must observe foure things. 

" 1. Talve special! notice of the principall 
Idea of the whole sentence. And it matters not 
whether it be the principall or no, so we take it 
for the principall. 2. Marke diligently the first 
Word of every sentence ; for if returning to the 
P. P. by the eye of our fancy, we see the first 
Word and principal! Idea in every sentence, the 
naturall Memory will suggest the rest very safely : 
for as in Sclibols, Children, that have got a taske 
of Verses by heart, if they misse the repeating of 
them, and the leafe being doubted, may be but 
pern)ilted to see the first Letters that overy Verse 
beginneth withall, they will be able to repeat 
every one of the Verses both forward and back- 
ward, casting their eye upon the Letter that every 

A»TiriClAL MEMORY. 301 

Verse beglnneth wlthall, the same is done here by 
the eye of Fancy. 3. We must have a great care 
lest we take one Synonyma for another, as to say 
muUer for f&mina, or silver for money, or a 
Sword for a Rapier. 4. We must have a care 
that every W ord be repeated in the same order it 
is read, or spoken ; now tliis is done by the strong 
application of the mind unto every Word, and it's 
Collocation : as also by often exercise, by which 
alone all this is so exactly obtained^ that in a 
short time exercising our selves herein, we can- 
not but admire our progresse and successe. 


Of unknown Words. 

"Unknown Words are remembred four 

" 1 . By the Harmonic of Words, which va- 
rious Languages have one with another, as the 
English word Riche, brings into my mind the 
Hebrew word Riach, S^c. 

" 2. From the sound or eccho, as England, 
Isleland, Presbyterie, Presbyter, &c. 

" 3. From the beginning of the words, as for 
Back, Backwards. 

D D 


" 4. By way of Division, as for Parrat, a pare, 
and a Rat. 

" LECTIO nil. 

De rebus Communibus, of businesses, and 
ordinary imployments. 

" As in the sun-shine the shaddowes follow 
their bodies, so common businesses, and ordinary 
imployments are easily figured out by their pro- 
per Ideas, soone placed and certainly retained ; 
as if a Shop-keeper would bare iu mind how many 
yards of this or that stuflfe silke. Velvet, 8cc. he 
hath, it is but fancying in the R. one of his ac- 
quaintance clothed with a suit or cloake of the 
same, and to hold the number of the yards in his 
right hand, the figure of 40. for 40. yards and if 
the price of it be 16. per yard, the figure of 16. 
in his left hand. 



De Memoria Concionum, To remember Ser- 
mons heard. 

" When wee heare a Sermon, foure Rules 
are to be observed. 1. Diligent attention. 2. 
Carefull observing the Division of the Parts. 
3. Methodicail Collocation of the Parts in the 
Places, of the R 4. serious Meditation on the 
Ideas, If there be but two parts of the Text, 
place the first in the Center of the South, and 
the second in the Center of the North ; if three 
parts, place them in the three Center Tables of 
the East, South, and North ; if 4 in the fourth 
Center Tables of the fourth Paries. If five 
Parts, place the fift Part of the Text in the Cen- 
ter of the Flore ; if yours be six Parts, Place the 
sixth Part in the Center Table of the East W. 
of the second R. if seven Parts, place the se- 
venth in the Center T. of the South Paries, in 
the second R. and so on ; after this manner, if 
there should bee more Parts, leaving the matter 
of every part to be expressed, first with its part, 
so far as the places will reach in the Center 
Table, which being filled, proceed unto the four 
Tables of the four Angules, according to their 
place and number. 



De raemoria Historiarum; to remember IKS' 

" Histories be very eaaie to be remem- 
bered : three rule* are to be observed. 

" First, Propound unto your self the History, 
and Authour of the History, and read some of 
it in the morning, some of it in the afternoon, 
and leisurely, and seriously imprint into yo«r 
mind, the substance and chief passages of the 
History by Ideas put in some apt Repository, and 
you shall have it in readinesse by once or twice 
thinking of it. 

" Secondly, When you are to remember di- 
rers Histories, tliey are all to be expressed by 
their singular and proper Ideas, in places by 
themselves ; After tiais manner you may remem- 
ber Scripture Histories in six, seven, eight con- 
claves;, for example, you may divide the book of 
Genesis, into the History of Adam, Noah, 
Jhraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph. 

" Thirdly, If you desire leisurely, and with 
exactness to learn a History, divide it into prin- 
cipall parts, Avhich you may represent by certain 
persons, giving of them convenient motion ; for 
example, you may remember the History of 


Joseph if you place the known men of the His- 
tory, as Joseph, Jacob, Josephs Brethren, and 


De meraorin Citationum ; to remember Scrip- 

" Ta k e for every book of the Bible some 
freind or acquaintance of the name, near the 
name, or for the name, as one John for the 
Gospel of Saint John; one Genne for Genesis ; 
some patient pious man for the book of Job, if 
you place not one Job you know 8cc. Then 
alwayes take the right hand for the Chapter, and 
left hand for the Verse. 


For sure imprinting the Ideas of all things in 
tlie memori). 

" There be two sure directions: 
" The first is called Paradise, which is the ap- 
plying the most delightful! things and objects 
to every of the five Sences, viz, what most afFect- 
D d3 


eth Hearing, Seeing, Smelling, Touching, Tast- 

" The other is temed by the name of Hell, 
which is the applying of the most odious and 
loathfull objects to every of the five Senses. 


Of Shorthand-writing. 

" There is a kind of a Short-hand writing 
in this Art, by the Ideas of letters objected to 
the eye of the fancy, as the Alphabet is objected 
to the sight of the bodily eye. Now for brevity 
sake, using colours instead of vowels, the eye of 
a nimble fancy will read any thing by Ideas thus 
figured, as readily as if it were written in a book, 
and will retain what thus is written. Now the 
Ideas of this Alphabet be these, and such like as 
yonr fancy best pieaseth to make choise of ; A. 
a pair of Compasses so made, b. a Lute, B, a 
Bow bent with an Arrow in it, C. an Horn, &c. 
and so in like manner, take Instruments or any 
kind of Ideas for the rest of the letters, which be 
like the letters ; and instead of vowels use these 
colours, A. for white, for E. blew, or green, 
for /. red, for O black, for U. yellow." 


^4. UOenvre des Oeuvres, ou le plus 
parfalct des Scimces Steganogra- 
p/iiques, Paulmes, Armedelles, et 
Lidlistes, par Jean Selot, 8". Lifg^ 
du?ii, 1654. 

This work is an enlargement of Lully' Art of 
Memory, and is much superior to the original 
system .* 

o5. Faj£ Nova Arti Memorise localis 
accensa, S'*. Lips. 1654. 

This new torch does not shed a ' flood of light' 
upon the subject of local memory, but its rays if 
collected and concentrated, will serve to direct 
the steps of the mnemonic student. 

56. Atha?iasii Kircheri, Ars Magna 
Sciendi in xii Lihros digesta, qna 
nova et universali meihodo [l.ul- 
lianci\ per arti/iciositm Comhi/ta- 
tionum contextmn de omni re pro- 
posita plurimis el prope iufiuitis 
rationibus dispulariy omniumqMe 

* Morliof, inToljliist, 


summaria qucedam cognitio compa' 
rari potest) fol. Amstelod. 1669. 

This curious work contains nearly five hiin^ 
died closely-printed pages, and exhibits a com- 
plete exposition of Lully's Art, as applied to the 
various branches of human learning. [See No. 

Athanasius Kircher, was born at Ful- 
da, in the year IdOl, and was much celebrated 
as a mathematician and philosopher. He com- 
menced his noviciate in the Society of the Je- 
suits, in his seventeenth year, among whom he 
distinguished himself by a surprising proficiency 
in literature and science. His works amount to 
tzcenty-two volumes, /i>//o, eleven in quarlOy 
and three in octavo!!! He died in the year 

57. Variorum de Arte Mcmorice Trac- 
talus Sex, 8°. Fraric. et Lips. 1678. 

The authors of these six tracts are, 1. Lam> 
bert Schenckel. 2. Johannes Austriacus. 3. 
Hieronymus Marafiotus. 4. J. Spangenberg 
Herd. 5. Fr. Mart. Ravellin. 6. De Memo- 
ria natural! fovenda a Johan. Willisso. The 
whole of which have been already noticed, ex- 
cept the tract of Johannes Austriacus, and in 


this riitre is nothing of a novel desGription, or 
\vortby of a particular remark. 

57* Tlie Tyivine Art of Memory : oVy 
The Sum of the Holy Scriptures^ 
delivered in Acrostic Verses, so 
that the Contents of the ivhole Si- 
Me, may readily be remembred ; and 
in what Chapter, each particular 
passage is recorded. Written ori- 
ginally in Ltttine, hy the Reverend 
and Learned John Shaw, and made 
English hy Simon JVastel, 12°. 
Lo?id. 1683. 

* This rare and curious little volume, containing 
more than 200 pages, is a translation from Shaw's 
' Bihliorum Sumrmda, seu argumenta singulo- 
mm capitum Scripiurce CanoniccB utriusque 
Testamenfi, ulphahetice distichis comprehenm, 
8°. Lond. 1G21-23.' a work which we have not 
been able to meet with. The present * Divine 
Art' seems to have been first published in the 
year 1623, under the title of * The true Chris- 
tian's daily delight ; being a sum of every Chap- 
ter of the Old and New Testament set down 
alphabetically in English Verse, that the Scrip- 
tures we read, may more happily be remembred, 
etc. 13°. Lond. 1623/ This work was again 


published under the Title of ' Microbiblion ; or 
the Bible's Epitome, etc. 1-2°. Lond. 1629/ 

The Piolegomena to this metrical version and 
abridgment of the Old and New Testament, are 
two Epistles Dedicatpry ; one from T. B. and the 
other from S. W. [Simon VVastell], and the 
Translator's Preface to the reader from the same 
person. All these are curious, and worthy pre- 
servation, as they explain the plan and objects of 
tlic work. 

1. Epistle Dedicatory from T. B. 

" To the Honoured 

Worthy Sir, 

THIS laborious and useful Enchiridion was 
first taught to speak Enghsh in the Free School 
o/" Northampton, 5ei/?g translated by the painful 
hand of Mr. Waste), quondam School-master 
there, (whose Memory, like a Box of precious 
Oyntment, still retains a szceet fragrancy iu those 
Parts;) And was there by him humbly recom- 
mended to the Patronage of a Noble Lord, 
Baron Spencer of VVormleighton, especially 
upon the account of his indulgent Favours to- 
wards that eminent Seed-Piot -and Nursery of 
Leaniins^ ; being now therefore again to salute 
the Light in a new Edition, to whom more pro- 


perly should it address it self than to your 
honour'd Name, zoho have been a Liberal Bene- 
factor to the same School wherein it was so hap- 
pily edurated, as to be rendred serviceable to 
our Countrey men in general ; whereas before, 
like some rare Jewel, whose value is knozvn to 
none but the skilful Lapidary, it was justly ad- 
mired, and made use of only by the Masters of 
the Latin Tongue. 

'Tis one of the greatest Uses, and most lauda- 
ble Designs of Epistles Dedicatory, to pay the 
Tribute of a Publick acknozdedgment to gener- 
ous Vertue, and the noble Encouragers of Learns 
ing. But since 'tis well known you as little 
desire Commendations as you do greatly study 
to merit them, and delight rather to be Good, 
than told so ; jill J shall say, is, Thai by en- 
dowing the Muses, you have made Learning 
your Debtor, which never fails to be a grateful 
Pay-master ; a7id that your example zeill confute 
our Roman Upbraiders, and let them know, 
That 'tis no Discouragement to Good Works, 
to believe, they are not Meritorious, and that 
Charity is not grown Cold, since she left off to 
be Blmd. 

" The Piece that here presents it self to our 
view is indeed small, but may prove great in 
use ; as it will help both to understand and re- 
member what is contained in Sacred Scripture, 


and make Persons bettei^ acquainted with that 
Blessed Book which alone can biing ics ac- 
quainted with the Abniglit). 

** Tliat it may conduce to these ends; arid par- 
ticularly, that your worlliy Selfe may, hy a 
Belief, Adherence, and P ractise of those Divine 
Dictates, enjoy an everlasting Memoiual iii tJie 
Book of 'Lifi^, as the Prayer of 

" Your Servant 

" T. B." 

'jl. Bpistle Dedicatory from Simon Wastell, 


" Right Honourable 
" His singular Good Lord, 

Baron Spencer of Wormleighton : 

" S. W. wisheth all Happiness Temporal and 

" Hi^ht Honourable, 

*' THE manifold Favours received from your 
Lordship ever since my first placing in the Free- 
School of Northampton, as also Your Honour's 
late promised Assistance to help the said School 
to tliat Right whereof it hath been these many 
Years unconscionably defrauded, hath caused me 


many tinles to wish lliat some good occasion 
might be offered unto me, whereby I might wit- 
ness not only unto your Honour, but also to 
Posterity, how much I confess my stlf obliged 
unto you for the same. And therefore, having 
taken some Pains to turn the Contents of the 
Bible briefly into English Meeter, for the help 
of weak Memories, (being hicouraged thereunto 
by the Persw'asion of divers of my godly learned 
Friends, when they saw some Entrance made 
thereinto.) Your Honour being in the very 
Frontispiece of my dearest and worthily most ho- 
noured Friends, I determined to dedicate the 
same, together with my humble and best Ser- 
vice, unto your Honour ; beseeching you, that 
both my self and it, as also our poor wronged 
School, may still be patronized and shrowded 
under the shadow of your Honourable Pi otec- 
tion : so will I not fear what my back Friends 
can say to my Book, nor what they can devise or 
do against my self ; so also shall yonr Honour 
(in respect of the School) have tlse praise of the 
Prophet, to be called, A Builder of that waste 
place, and a Raiser tip of the Foundation 
thereof ; a Repairer of that Breach, and a 
Restorer of those Paths to dxvell in : And so be 
honoured and esteeinedof me and all my Succes- 
sors, as the second Founder thereof, and be pa- 

E E 


rallel'd and equalized with Thomas Chipsetf^ 
who was the first : For, 

" Non minor est virtus quam quarere parfa 

'Tis no less pious, things lost to regain. 
Than for first Fouaders to give to maintain, 

" Vouchsafe I beseech you (my most honoured 
Lord) as cheerfully to accept of this my poor 
Present and Widows Mite (being a Pawn and 
Pledge of my ever dutiful and thankful Mind, as 
Artaxerxes is said to have received an handful of 
Water froom the poor Country-man, whose 
Ability, would afford no better a Gift. So will 
I ever pour forth my Prayers unto the Almi^jhty 
Preserver of Mankind, the Giver of every good 
Gift, that he would be pleased to vouchsafe unto 
your Honour, and to all your Honourable Pro- 
geny, health of Body, length of Days, with In- 
crease of Grace and Honour in this Life, and 
the Fruition of eternal Blessedness in tlie World 
to Gome. 

" Your Honours 

" ever to command, 



The Translators Preface to the Header. 

^* Translator's Preface 



^'NOT long ago (Christian Reader) there was 
published a little Book in Latin Verse, called 
Bibliorum Summula, set forth hy Mr. John 
Shaw, (a man whom both for his Learning and 
Gravity, as also for our old and antient ac- 
quaintance (being School-fellows in Westmer- 
lendffti/ years ago, and both o/* Queens Col- 
ledge in Oxford) / did, and do much esteem and 
respect.) This Book 1 perceived to be much 
applauded of the godly learned Ministers, and 
of many other Scholars that had seen and react 
the same. And therefore, after tit nua aeui me 
one, as a token of his love, I began to study 
how I might teach it to speak English, being as 
desirous to benefit the unlearned, as he teas the 
learned; and having translated the Books of 


Moses, atid offered them to his and to otMf 
learned and grave Ministers view and censures, 
they did by their -persuanms so prick and 
spurr me forward, that I could not give 
over, untill (through God's Assistance) I 
had gene through both the Old and Ne^ 
Testaments. I confess I have not precisely 
tyed my self to his Method and Manner, be- 
cause the English tongue is far more copious 
than the Latin ; but have taken liberty (ac* 
cording as the contents of each chapter were 
longer or briefer) to conclude them sometimes in 
two, sometimes in four, sonfctimes in moie I)is- 
ticks, with as much brevity (observing perspi- 
cuity) as I could. I have purposely laboureci 
to speak plainly to the capacity and understQudr 
mo of the simple and ignorant, rather than b^ 
Poetical strains to please the Ear, and the Eye 
of the curious learned Headers. Thou hast alsQ 
not only the contents of every Chapter set dowt^ 
in order Alphabetically with figures to direct 
thee unto them, but also Jigur^s in every line to 
direct thee to the Verse where thou shfilt fnd 
that presently which thou desire^t to knoWy 
without reading over the whole Chapter, 
Thou hast also a Chronolocfical observation 
of times from Adam to CUrist, and from 
Christ to Antichrist. T/\oii Imt also the name$. 


of all the Books of the Bible, as they follow 
in order, 

" Lastlt/, thou hast comforts and encourage- 
ments against thefeare of death, called the old 
mans A. B, C. If it shall -please thee (gentle 
Header) when thou hast read or heard a Chap- 
ter, to read over the contents in meeter once or 
tzvice, thou mat/est be able to rehearse and sai/ 
the said contents bi/ heart, and so in short time 
be acquainted zvith the Historic of the ithole 
Bible. If any be so zealously affected with the 
knowledge of the Scriptures, as the Lord Crom- 
well was, who (as Master Fox recordefh in the 
Book of Martyrs, of the ffth Edition, page 
1015, got by heart all the new Testament of 
Erasmus his Translation in his jour net/ to Home, 
he might in short time get by heart these brief 
contents of the whole Bible. If therefore 
the LkIW of God be tliy delight, (as it 
was Davids) this little Book will be a com- 
fortable companion, whether thou zmlksst 
abroad, or staycst at home. And finally if 
thou reappst any increase of saving know- 
ledge, justifying faith, or holiness of lij'e. by 
these my poor labours to the Edijicafion and 
Salvation of thy Soul, have all that I de- 
sire, saving that J would entreat thee to 
Mscribe the Braise and Glori/ of all to God, 
£ £ 3 


an4 to aford me thy charitable Cemurt^ 
Well-wishingSj and Prayers. 

** Thine in any Christian service 

'* that he can perform, 

'< s. wr 

A chronological table follows this preface, 
from the Creation of Adam to the departure out 
of Egypt, and the names of all the Bocks of the 
Bible, with the number of the Chapters. The 
specimens selected from the Divine Art, are 
the whole boQk of Genesis, and the old manV 
A. 3. C. 



1 . Old Testament. 

Cx E N E S I S, 

1 ALL things in i Heaven, iii Earth and ^ Seas, 

our great ^ Jehovah makes : 
ile bade them "^ grow and multiply : 
and Man Gotls "^ Image takes. 

2 BY him iu ^ six days all were ^ made ; 

the 3 Sabbath, * Man af Dust : 

Paradise", =* Wedlock ; Nain^s -" impos'd : 

The Fruit forbear ^' Ma.i must. 

3 CLosely the subtil ^ Serpent tempts; 

thoy '^ eat ; are ^^ bare ; arraign'd : 
The promli'd '^seed; their strife, earth ^"^ curst, 

Man *^ punish'd, ^*^ cloath'd, •* disdain'd. 
4. £)ViEj 3 Sacrifice the "* Brotiicrs bring: 

fierce Cain good Abd " slays : 
Cain *2 vagrant ujade, Lantech's ^■* great wrath : 

Scth liv'd in holy days. 

5 ]^Noch\, blest Enoch, is by God, 1987. 

2* from Earth to Heaven translated : 
The Patriarchs * lives : lines : ^ years, & death, 
to ^ Noah's time related. 

6 pAir forms make - matches : monstrous men 

iu monstrous ^ Sin abound ; 
■This ^ brings the Flood but Noe and his, 
(i'th Ark) ^ God's favour found. 


7 GOD 1 sends all pairs, and Noe repairs 
*l656 unto the ^ Ark, wherein 

They ' being shut, the ^ flood o'reiiows, 
and drowns ^^ all flesh for sin. 

8 HE^v'"s 1 wrath aswag'd, the flood is swa<'';l 

the 1; Raven and the Dove : 
Noah '^ goes forth, "^ doth sacrifice : 

God 21 makes two leagues -^ of love, 
p JiiTb vah 1 gives laws, of Increase, 

2 Fear, * Murther, ' Meat, the Bo\y 
Blood is * forbidden, N')e made '^^ drunk, 

mock'd, *^ Cham accurs'd also. 
lOKNov/ 1 here of Noe, • and of his ^i Sons 

theinighty * Generations. 
Ninirod first ^ Moarth : here begins, 

dividing of the ^2 Nations. 
1 1 LEarn here ^ one language, at the first : 
*17S7 confusion ^ jBaif/* rent : 

Mark ^'^ S'hem's and Tej-ah's ""^ Progeny, 

to Harun ^^ Tf^yj^ went. 
ISMAke hast, O ^ ^ira»j,* leave thy land ; 
*2023 I will - preserve thy life : 

A '° Famine ; Fear ^^ doth make him fain : 

the King ^^ restores his Wife. 
ISjXOW Lot -and he ^ richly - return; 

but discord "^ parts them both ; 
Lot's lot is ^° sinful Sodvm's Soil ; 
to Hthron ^ Abram go'th. 
140Ppos'd by four, i five Kings are slain, 
*2033 Abraham ^* rescues * Lot : 

Mdchizedek "^ receiveth Tythes ; 
spoils, Abraham ^^ takes not. 


15PRomise ' of Seed chears ' Abraham, 

which he believes ^^ most true ; 
But first his Seed '^ must Servants be, 

And ^^' then their Foes subdue. 
16'QUarrelIiiig Hagar now wilh * Child, 

Her Mistress doth disdain : 
The Angel bids "' she should submit. 

And turn to her again. 
17l^Enewed is the * Covenant sure : 

their names are ^^ chang'd, tliey blest ; 
Abraham liere is f i* circuuicis'd, +2440 

hhmael^^j and the rest. 
ISS^ra 12 for laughing is ^^ reprov'd ; 

Sodoms *i Destruction shewn : 
Abraham prays, for ^^'^ ten just men, 

it may not be o "rethrown. 
Ji)TWO Angels 3 Lot doth entertain, 

Sodomites fiery ^-^ Slaughters : 
Lot's Wife a s" Pillar of Salt is made : 

he drunk, ^^ defiles his Daughters. 
SOIJNwares the King takes - Abranis Wife ; 

God him, he Abra^am ^ rates, 
Restores, i' reproves^'', makes ^^ rich : he " prays. 

Then heal'd are all Estates. 
2 1 With Joy Sarah her « Son || embraced : 1| 2050 

the 5 scotfing Lad and's Mother 
Cast 1* out, distress'd, " refresh'd, Peace sworn 

between the ^- King and th' other, 
22UP Abraham rose to ^ slay his || Son : \\ 20()1 

the Angel '^ holds his hand : 
The Ram is ^^ offered up for hina: .^ 

His Seed shall be ^'' as Sand. 


SSW^i'i Tears did 2 Abraham hew^iil 
^ 2085 the death of || Sara old : 

Macijpelah bought to ^^ bury in, 

V/liich Ephron to him sold. 
QA>/^Braham • sends : the ^2 Servant prays . 
11 208 8 asks " Water of the |i Maid : 

Gives 22 gifts, brings ^^ home to Isaac her, 

on ^vliom '''' his love is staid. 
25BY ^ Kettir Abram had « moe Sons: 

he ^ dies, and "* Isaac prays : 
Two *2 Twins do strive : Birth right is sold, 
il 21 13 and Jacob || Pottage ^ pays. 

26QAnaan ^ promis'd, Famliie sent : 

his Wife he '' Sister calls : 
The ^ King reproves, he " rich, digs ^ Wells ; 

Sons Wives him ^^ grieves and galls. 
27r)Ini-sighted ^ haac Venson craves : 
II 2140 II Son -^0 hunts, and comes too ^^ late : 

Jacob "■' is blest : Esati ^^ doth weep : 

And's Brother *^ deadly hate. 
HSj^Sau's ungodly ^ Marriages : 

Jacob is ^° sent away : 
A Ladder ^^ sees, and ^^ consecrates 

a stone -- whereon to pray. 
SPpOr Rahel Jacob '^ seven years serves : 
11 2185 bat '" Laban Lea \\ gives. 

He *^ serves seven moe : Lea *' conceives, 

but Rahtl 31 barren lives. 
30G^'^'^'^ Rahel * gives Jacob her Maid : 

so ^ Lea : Jacob '^ hir'd. 
Joseph is 2* born : by Jacobs ^'' art, 

his Sheep and Wealth admir'd. 


3lHEre Gods bids * Jacob ' home return, *2'205 

the Idols 15 Rahd takes : 
Lahan -'"' conii)laiiJs : cliarg d -* not to chide ; 

at Gilead ** peace he makes. \^ 
S2jAcob is by an ^ Angel clieer'd: 

"^ fears ; ^ prays : confest ^° his faults : 
Sends ^' g^fts, doth with an -* Angel strive, 

and -5 ever after hanlts. 
33K^eeIing faint Jacob * Esau meets : 

they * weep, they kiss : he ^* takes 
The gifts : i6 departs : a i' field is bought : 

Jacob an ^o Altar makes. 
34.LEwd Sliechem. - Dinah \\ doth deflour^ |1 2213 

and craves her ^ for his Wife. 
The People - circumcis'd are ^5 siain: 

good Jacob ^^ fears his life. 
35MAking an i Altar JacoVs, blest: 

he - purgeth Idols all : 
Reubens 22 foul Lust : a 20 Pillar pitcht : 

a 8 threefold is Funeral*^. v' ^*ealth : 
3o]\Ow ^ £A'aM*s Wives : ^Sons: ^^ Dukes and 

^ departure : ^ habitation : 
Are here set down : •* mules are found out : 

the ^^ Kings of Edom's Nation. 
370F's Brethren ^ Joseph makes Complaint : 

dreams ^ twice : Jacob ^^ deceiv'd : 
Joseph is put -* into a pit : 

is 2s sold : his Father ** griev'd. 
38pLedge ^ sending : ^ Judu'i Wife and "* Sons : 

he in to '" Thamar wentt: t2222 

Would ** have her burnt : then "' clears her more: 
two -" Twins to him are sent. 


39QUickly good Joseph is "* i>refcr'd : 

of's Master much ^ approv'd : 
+2227He flat 8 denies : his Mistriss ^* liesf: 

he is °* in Bonds -^ belov'd 
40REiiearse your ^^ Dreams : O Butler ! thou 

a h appy ^^ Man shalt be : 
Have me **in mind. O Baker ! mark, 

the ^5 Gallows groans for thee. 
4lSAd Pharaoh's ^eDrearas expounded are : 
•12236 and Joseph '^^ grac'd as Kingt: 

■}2238Against the *« Dearth hoards up, ^^ sells Corn+: 

His Wife two ^° Sons doth bring. 
42TEN sent for ^ Com: -^ imprison'd are : 

releast -^ and sent away : 
For Bmjamm ^* a Pledge is pawn'd : 

but him ^'^ doth Jacob stay. 
43XJNwilling Jacob " sends his Son, 

Ihey 1^ Presents bring to C(.urt : 
Joseph ""^ confers : his -^ Brother calls : 

and ^"^ feasts in ^^ wondrous sort. 
44WIthin the Sack of ^- Benjamin, 

is Cup and Coin (Ihey paid) 
They fear, ^ confess : the Fathers Pledge, 

for '*' Be7i. woidd now be staid. 
45U^1^^" '"* Brethren ^ Joseph's known . 

he • weeps, i s ^ sent before. 
For Ffilher^ sends, the King" consents, 
t2240 he goes, and "^ grieves t no more. 

46W'Ith Jflfofr (after ^ Sacrifice) 

God will ^ g» on the way. 
Him Josqjh "^ meets and greets, they -^^vccp; 

he tells them ^'^ what to say. 


*7'^\Gc«l Jacob, with all his ^ Sons, 

before ■" King Pharaoh stand ; 
Goshen^^ : ail's bought save the -- Priests Land ; 

bury * me '"^ in my Laud. *2255 

48BLcst./cco5 sick ^ is visited; 
"' Gives ii/^Ariwt '^ Praewiiuence : +22 SO 

Blesseth-9: relates ^i the Pronuse made: 

foietells -' their going thence ; 
49CAl!inghis * Sons heblesseth ' them:' 

dotli future things || declare : |j230O 

Gives charge about his*^ Burial : 

of Soul the Lord takes care. 
50D01eful ^ lamenting msde '"^ for him : 

Troops bring him to his Grave: 
The Brotliers ^^ fear : he makes them "^ swear 2r>10 

his Burial there to have. 


Ye Saints on Earth be of good cheer ^ 
The Darts vj Death ye need not fear. 

^Ccount'st thou death a dreadful thing, 1 Cor, 

Which hath by Christ now lost its siing ? 15. 55, 

^E sure, a;i Spring doth Winter blasts ; l Tlies. 

So follows death, a life that lasts. 4. IJ. 

(^Olfrn this corjxs and lay't in grave, 1 Cor, 

A glorious rising it shall have. 15. 53. 

DEbt due to God I hereby pay, o 77^, 

By dying at th' appointed day. 4. Q^ 

J r 


Heb. p.^Xceeding welcome Death's to me, 
27. All men must dye, no man is free. 

Rev. full happy man that dyes in Faith : 

14. 13. His good works follow him, Christ saith. 
P/«7.1.GLad are the Saints dissolv'd to be, 

23. To live with Christ, his face to see. 
Rev. 6. HE well may quake and fear to dye, 
16'. That in his filthy sins doth lye. 

1 Thes.yS Death is gain, it's gate of Life : 

4. 14. Last night; asleep; and end of Strife. 

2 Pet. K.Nown God's Ambassador to be, 

1. 14. Death will I meet; I will not flee. 
Ileb. 2.L0rd paramount of death hath kill'd 

24. Death by Jiis death, and law fultill'd. 
Psal. MUse oft upon thy latter end, (mend. 
90. 12. The thoughts of Death will make thee 
Rom. ]VOught but Christ's death doth sin remove 

5. 8. Admire the greatness of his love, 
2 Cor. QF earthly Pilgrims, death from God 
5. 6'. Makes us possest of Heavens above. 
1 Cor. PAss not for death, I daily die, 

15. 31. Why then doth death me terrific ? 
Eccles.QVict thy self, thy day of death, 

7. 1. Excells that hour thou first took breath. 

1 Pet. J^Eceivhig but our due deserts, 

2. 20. Why then should death afflict our hears 
Heb. P-S^th God from all eternity, 

27. Hath so decreed that all must dye. 

1 Cor. THat deadly foe (last foe of all) 
15. 2G. At last shall have a deadly fall. 
Rom. yAnquiahed death I wish were nye, 
7.24. It ends a Christians misery. 


John Shaw, according to A. Wood,* was 
a Westmoreland man born, and became a student 
of Queen's College, Oxford, in 1579, at the 
age of U); he took one degree in Arts, left the 
College, and at length became Vicar of Oking, 
or Woking, in Surrey, where he was had in 
esteem, by many for his preaching, and by some 
for his Poetry. His works, in addition to that 
already mentioned, were: (1.) The blessedness 
of Mary, Mother of Jesus : a Sermon on Luke 
i. ver. 28, and 45, 8°. Lond. I6I8. (2.) Th« 
comfort of a Christian, by Assurance of God's 
Love to him, written in verse. (3.) The Com- 
plaints of a Sinner : the comfort of our Saviour — 
in verse also. These two last are printed with 
the Seimon. 

Simon Wast ELL, was, according to Wood,-}- 
a Westmoreland man born, and descended from 
those of his name, living at W^astellhead in the 
same county. He entered as a student of 
Queen's College, Oxford, in 1580, or there, 
abouts, and took one degree in Arts five years 
after; at which time being accounted a great pro- 
ficient in Classical Learning and Poetry, he was 
made Master of the Free-School at Northamn- 

Athenaj Oxon. vol. i. col. 487. t Ibid. 


ton, whence by his sedulous endeavours, many 
were sent to tlie Universities. He seems to have 
been a feilow-sludent of Shaw, and on terms of 
strict intimacy with him. 

58. Ars Magna et admirahilis Specimi- 
nibns variis coiifirmala, qua Pan- 
dectarum Titnli eorumque prcicipua 
materia ope Figiirarmn emhlemati- 
canim, brevissinie, jiicunde et tena^ 
citer, memoria imprimi, Jirmiter 
contineri, et opportune in usum 
transferri possunt : In maximum 
comrnodum legis tStudiosi, 8**. Lvgd. 
Bat. 1695. 

This anonymous work contains an ingeniou* 
and very full application of the local memory, to 
the fifty books of the Roman Pandects, and to 
the various titles and subdivisions of each book. 
To the Preface is appended the signature of 
R. C. The title is a coniplete bill of fare, and 
is a good model for all those who render this 
' annonce' a table of contents, instead of a title- 

59. Copia Speciminvm Ariis Memorio'^ 


BnLvellcc, Leodii, Tornaci, et alibi 
editorum, 8". Leodii, 1697. 

This small pamphlet contains an account of 
the different exhibitions of L. Schenckel, at the 
various cities enumerated in the title. 

60. Ars 3Iemorice vindicata, auctore D- 
Jo. Srancaccio, accessit Artijicium 
Poeticum ad Scripiuras Divinas 
in jjvomptii habendas memoriterque 
ediscendas accommodatum, 8". Pn- 
normi, 1702. 

This is an excellent and useful little work j 
for, in addition to an explicit detail of the prin- 
ciples of the art, it includes instances of wonder- 
ful memory, in particular individuals, from the 
time of Adam, to A. U. J 690, and a list of 
writers on the subject. To neitlier of these 
sources, however, are we indebted for any of the 
materials in the present work, not having been 
able to procure more than a transient inspection 
of this rare and curious volume, 

1 . The Art of Memory. A Treatise 
uscjulfor all, especially such as are 

F p 3 


to speak in Publick. Hy 3Iarms 
D'Assigmy, B. D. 8°. Lond. 

This is the third edition of D'Assigny,* and 
is ornamenled with an * elegant engraving on 
copper,' representing Jupiter with his fulinen 
reclining on a cloud ; — the winged Hermes i» 
seen flving with a caduceus, and a scroll in 
his hands, on which is inscribed jlrs Me/no- 
ria. Three pedestals, the centre one circular, 
and the others square, occupy the fore ground of 
this beautiful picture. On one pedestal stands 
Minerva; in the centre llcrcules AngUcus; 7\nd 
the remaining pedestal is adorned by the Graticc 
Decentes, in their usual costume. At the 
foot of these illustrious personages are seen eleven 
* human forms divine,' from whose ears issue 
eleven threads or lines, all meeting in one point, 
■ — the mouth of Hercules Anglicits!!! 

We have been thus particular in describing 
this frontispiece, in the hope that some one who 
is ' pretty far gone' with tiie mania o^ illustration j 
may be induced to seek for it ; for, here, he might 
certainly indulge his favourite pursuit without a 
chance of injuring the book ; a rare occurrence 
in the an'nais of the print-ferret. It is not, per- 

TUe first edition -vvas published ih 1697. 


haps, known to all our readers, that a passion for 
books illustrated or adorned with numerous 
prints, exists to a very great extent ; and, that 
tlie most valuable books are deprived of their 
engravings merely to illustrate some favourite 
production, by the portraits of the person* 
named in it. Mr. Dibdin, in his Bibliomaniay 
p. 665, notices some curious examples. Seven 
hundred [>rints were collected by a lady to illus* 
trate six cviAPTEUsm Genesis: and 650 por- 
traits by anotlier person to ornament Scott's edi- 
tion of Drydcn. The sum of ^GOOO, u'as 
expended by the late Mr. Crowhs in illustrating 
Pennant's London^ which book he bequeathed, 
in the true spiiit of virtu, to the British Mu- 

The address ' To the Young Students of both 
Universilifs,' which precedes this i\rt df Me- 
mory, we recommend earnestly to the present 
race of Oxouiaiis and Cantabs, as it is peculiarly 
applicable to their present state. 

The following are the contents of this vo- 

" Chap. 1. Of the Soul or Spirit of Man. 
" Cliap. 2. Of Memory, its Seat, and Excel- 

" Chap. 3. The Temper or Disposition of ihs 


Body best and worst for Memory, with the na- 
tural Causes and Reasons of both. 

" Chap. 4. Some General and Physical Ob- 
servations and Prescriptions for the remedying, 
strengthning, and restoring a Memory injur'd by 
the ill Temper of the Body, or the Predominancy 
of one of the four Qualities in the Brain. 

*' Chap. o. What is very much prejudicial to 
the Faculty, Habit, and Practice of Memory. 

" Chap. 6. Of such Natmal Things as may be 
assisting to, and may comfort Memory, from the 
Procurement of Nature, and the Contrivance of 

" Chap. 7' Rules to be observ'd for the Acts 
or Practice of Memory. 

" Chap. 8. Rules to be observ'd to help our 
Remembrance of things that we desire to pre- 
serve in Mind. 

<' Chap. 9. Of Artificial or Fantastical Me- 
mory or Remembrancje." 

This book upon the whole (the dedication ex- 
cepted) is rather dull, and not very profitable. 
In the fifth chapter, at the fifteenth section, we 
are told that " all such ^lotions of the body as 
cause giddiness or swimming in tliehead, are de- 
structive to the memory. Therefore zee should 
have a sped. I care to avoid falls froiti high 
PLACES, turning round [as the Dervishes we 


suppose] or Blows tipon the hinder part of the 
Head a r 

The tilth chapter abounds with receipts for 
' comforting the memory' takeu principally from 
the early writers on this subject. A few of these 
we shall extract for the benefit of such as are in- 
clined to use them. 

" I. Sneezing Ponders. 

" Sneezing Pouders well prepared are of great 
use, but may prove pernicious if any thing be 
offensive to the Brain in the Composition. Dried 
Leaves of Marjoram, Sage, Rosemary, the Roots 
of the Herb Vyrethrnm, of Lingwert perfumed 
with Musk, are a choice sneezing Pouder, to 
comfort the Brain and Memory. And the Herb 
Galangal well dried, and reduced to Pouder, 
is very useful to strengthen Memory. Another 
-good sneezing Pouder may be made of Pepper, 
with the Herb Condisi, white Ling wort, and 
Lillies, with some perfumed Gums. But we 
must have a care not to offend Nature by a too 
frequent use of these or other Snuffs, zehich mar/ 
prejudice the Brain. 

" J. Plaisters to prevent a decay of Memory. 
" Divers Plaisters, \\hen we find a decay in 
Memory, may be useful for helping the Brain : 
As a I^laister made of Mustard-seed, and clapt 


to the hinder part of the Head, or the Oil of 
Mustard-seed when apply 'd to that part. Or if 
you please to be at greater Expence, take Flo- 
rentine Lillies, the Herbs Hernwdaciyle and 
Pyrethrum, leaves of tiie wild Vine, Pigeon- 
dung, Mustard-seed, of each an Ounce; mix 
them with Moschata Nuts, Spice, Cloves, Cina- 
mon, and Pepper, and make a Plaister ; which 
you may likewise apply to the hinder part of the 
Head, and you will find it increase and help Me- 
mory. And a certain famous Author assures us, 
that the Gall of a Partridge anointed about the 
Temples does wonderfully strengthen the Seat of 
Memory ; as also the Brains of Birds and Fowls 
roasted, and chiefly of Hens are not useless for 
the same purpose. 

*' 3. A Pouder for the Memory. 

" Take the Seed or Leaves of Ormitium, and 
reduce them to Pouder, and every Morning take 
a small quantity of a Glass of Wine. And they 
say that the Shavings or Pouder of Ivory pro- 
duce the same effect, namely, the corroborating 
of the Brain and Memory ; as likewise a Grain 
«f white Frankincense taken in a Draught of Li- 
quor when we go to Bed, dries up the offensive 
Humors of the Brain. And it has been observ'd, 
that the Application of Gold to that Sutura, 
which divides the Seat of Memory from tlie other 


Closets of the Brain, strengthens the weakness 
of the Heady drives await/ all Puin, and has 
a wonderful Effect on the FacuUy of Me- 

" 4. Jn Ointment. 

" A famous Author tells us, That a firm and 
constant Memory, and quick Apprehension, 
many great Men have used this Medicine. Take 
Roots of wild Bugloss, Roots of Valerian, or 
Setwall, of each four Ounces ; Roots oi Rue 
two Ounces; reduce them to very fine Powders: 
then take Juice of Ey-bright, Clary mid Verven, 
ofearh four Ounces: strain iheJuices well throi:gh 
a Clolh; then mix the Juices togei!:er, and the 
Ponders apart : aftowards take the Essence of 
Anacardi, or Cassia-nuts once Ounce, and make 
a Ponder as before. Also take Bird's Tongue, 
i. e. Ash^keys^ and make a very fine Pouder : 
Then mix all the foresaid things together, viz. 
the Ponders and the Juices><nid take an Earthen 
Pot glaz'd, and set it on the Fire, putting into it 
some Bears Fat, and suffering it to melt by de- 
grees ; then throw in the said Ponders, mixing 
tlieni with the Juices, always adding some of the 
foresaid Fat, till a very thiii Ointment be made ; 
xcithwhiih anoint the lentpfes, Fore/wad, and 
top of the Head touards the Nape, And this 


do three or four times a year, and continue anoiut- 
ing more or less as there is occasion. 

" 5. A Lye, or Wash for the Head. 

" Again, another Experiment may be try'd for 
the same purpose. Take eight Glasses of com- 
mon Water, leaves of Ivy and Sticas, of each a 
Pound and a half; put them together in the 
Water to boil till the Water be almost consum'd; 
afterwards let it be well strain'd and squeezed, 
and put into it a small quantity of Turpentine 
washM with Rose-water : Then wash the Head 
with a good, and after drying it, anoint with 
the aforesaid Liquor the Temples and hinder part 
of the Head. 

" (i. A perfumed Apple for comforting the 
JBruin and Memory. 

" Take Laudanum, Lignum Aloes, Storax, of 
each a Dram ; Cloves, Nutmegs, sweet Basil- 
seed, of each half a Dram ; with Rosewater, in 
which a small quantity of Mosch and Aniber- 
grisehas been dissolv'd, make an Aj)ple. 

"7' Jo strengthen (he Memorj/ or resiore it 
when lost. 

*' To strengthen the Memory, <ir restore it 
when lost; or against Giddiness: Take Fiose- 
niary, Borage, Chamotnile, Violets, Roses, of 
each an Ounce; the Leaves of Laurel, Maijo- 


ram, Sage of each two Ounces; chop them all 
togetlier, and put tlieni in the best Wine, and after 
a day's time distil thro a glass Alembic, and 
keep the distilled Liquor; in which put of sweet- 
scented Turpentine a Pound, white Frankin- 
cense eight Ounces, Mastic, Myrrh, Bdellium, 
Anacardi, or Cassia nuts, of each four Ounces : 
beat them altogether, and so let them stand for 
five days, mix'd with the Distillation in a cover'd 
Vessel. Afterwards distil with a quick Fire till 
you get an Oyl out of them, which keep close 
shut up in a glass Bottle well stnpp'd with Wax 
and Parchment. For use, take as much of it as 
would ly in a large nutshell down the Mouth, and 
anoint also ihe Memorial parts, viz. the hinder 
part of the Head, and all tlie Parts before-men- 
tion'd. You wiUJind it to be veri/ good. 

" 8. Pills for the use of Memory. 

" Take Chubebs, Calamint, Nutmegs, Cloves, 
of each a Dram and a half ; the best Frankin- 
cense, choice !Myrrh, oriental Ambergrise, of 
each a Scruple and a half; Mosch, five Grains : 
with Moijoram-water make Pills. Take one in 
going to Bed, and two at Sun-rising, five hours 
before Meat ; in the Winter every Month, in the 
Spring and Fall more seldom." 

The chapter which treats * of Artificial or 

G O 


Fantastical Memory or Remembrance' is almost 
a literal translation from Grataroli. 

Marios D'Assigny was the Author of Rheto- 
rica Anglorum, vel Exercitationes Oratoritc in 
Rhetoricam Sacram et Communem. Quibus 
adjiciuntur quaduni Regula ad imhecilles Me- 
morias corrohoraudas, 1*2°. Lond. l6y9- In 
this work, a chapter is devoted to the subject of 
memory, in which, as might be expected, a great 
part of his Art of Memory is * done into Latin.* 

62. Ars Memoriop, sive clara et perspi- 

cua 3Iethodiis excerpendi Nuclewn 
rerum ex omnium Scientiartnn mo- 
numenlis a R. P. Thoma Eriiardt, 
8". August. Vindel. 1715. [Part. iv. 
in 3 T'om. 

63. Pratique de la 3Iemoire Artijicielle 
pour apprendre et pour retenir 
VHistoire Saiute, Vllistoire Eccle- 
siastique et VHistoire de FraucePar 
le Pere Bnffier, 8". Paris, 3 torn. 

This work is intended to facilitate the acqui- 
sition of Ciironology and universal History, and 
the system is at once ingenious and simple. It 


is composeil in the form of a dialogue, and the 
BUlhor has compressed, into verse, the principal 
events and names of the different Sovereigns. 
The following are specimens of his verses. 

The first age commencing from the Deluge. 

Le iwtit fils de Cam et qui ftit fils de ctius 
Est prince a Babilone et Neinbrod dii Belus, 
Qiiaad se toiiue sous lui I'otat de I'Assivie, 
Vienent ceux des Cliiaois d'Egipte et de Scithie. 
Ninive avant deux niille est en Assur funded, 
Et ponr roi Sicion choisit Egialee. 

First part cf the history of France. 

Ses Loix en qiiatre rens Pharaniond introduit 
Glodiou Chevelu q«' Aetius vaiiiquil, 
Merov^e avec lui combatit Attila. 
Cliikleric fuit chasse, puis on le rapela. 
Clovis vain a SoJBsens, fait v«hi detre Oir^tien: 
Defait Gombaut et tue Alaiic Aricu. 

Vol. 1. contains Sacred History and Chrono- 
logy, Profane History and the His^tory of France. 
Vol. II. A system of Universal Geography, for 
which verses are employed, as in the first volume. 
Vol. HI. includes Clironology and History, from 
the birth of Christ to the time of IJiiffier's 
publicatii>n ; Ecclesiastical liistory, and Uie his- 
tory of llie princip;tl Slak-s of Europe. 

Claude de Buffi ik was Lorn cf French 
parents, in Poland, in the year I66I ; he became 


a Jesuit in 1 679- After having travelled to Rome, 
he fixed his residence in the capital of France, and 
died in the year 1737, at Paris, in the College 
of the Society, aged 76 years. He has left be- 
hind him jnauy works, besides that already no- 
ticed, the principal of v\hich have been collected 
and published in his Cours des Sciences pa)' des 
priucipes nonveaiix et sirr-pfe, pour former le 
language, respnt et le caur, fol. 1732. The 
style of Buffier, in his verse and prose writings, 
is tnore plain than elegant. He was a virtuous 
man, and very laborious in his studies.* 

64. Memoria Technica: or, a New 
JMetiiod of Artificial Memory^ ap- 
plied to and exemplified in Chrono- 
logy, History, Geography, Astro- 
nomy ; also Jewish, Grecian and 
Roman Coins, Weights and Plea- 
sures, etc. HyHichardGrey, D. D. 
8°. Lond. 1730. 

The ninth edition of this book has been just 
published, to which, and to the eighth edition 
are appended Lowe's Mnemonics, [see No. 65.] 
In 1802, a thin pamphlet was published, enti- 
tled, Technica Memoria, by M. W. Johnes ; it 

* Diet. Hist. Art. Buffitr. 


consists merely of extracts from Grey. Tn the 
Mont hi If Magazine for June 1S0.5, Dr. Lettice 
insertec] some proposals for publishing his * Aeay 
Memoria Techuica,' but we cannot learn tliat 
diis work was ever put to press. It was intended 
to embrace a number of tables, in chronology, 
geo^craphy, &c. on the plan of Dr. Grey, b\it 
with considerable improvements.* 

In order to enable those who feel so inclined to 
practise Dr. Grey's System, we shall extract from 
the fourth edition of the Memoria Technica 
published in his life time, so much as is neces- 
sary foi" the purpose. 

" The principal Part of this Method is briefly 
this; To remember any thing in History, Oiro- 
nology. Geography, S^c. a Word is form'd, the 
13eginni«!g whereof being the first Syllable or 
Syllables of the Thing sought, does, by frequent 
Repetition, of course (haw after it the latter 
Part, which is so contriv'd as to give the Answer. 
Thus, in History, the Deluge happened in the 
Year before Christ two Thousand three Hun- 
dred forty eight ; this is signified by the Word 

* To this list may be added a work auiiounced some 
time since, entitled Keminiscenlia ; or, the Memory's 
Assistant, by Samuel Needham, to be conipietcd in throe 
parts, ou tlie plan of Di; Grey. 

G g3 


Deletok: Del standing for Deluge, and etok 
for 2348. In Astronomy, the Diameter of the 
Sun (So LIS Diameter) is eight Hundred twenty 
two Thousand one Hundred and forty eight 
English Miles; this is signified by Soldi-/cc(^-a/H, 
Soldi standing for the Diameterof the Sun, ked- 
afei, for 822,148 ; and so of the rest, as will be 
shewn more fully in the proper Place. How 
these Words come to signifie these Things, or 
contribute to the Reraenibring of them is now to 
be shewn. 

" The first Thing to be done is to learn exactly 
the following Series of Vowels and Consonants, 
which are to represent the numerical Figures, so 
as to be able, at Pleasure, to form a Technical 
Word, which shall stand for any Number, or to 
resolve a Word already formVl into the Number 
which it stands for. 





























" Here a and b stand for 1, e and d for 2, i 
and t for 3, and so on. 

" These Letters are assign 'd Arbitrarily to the 
respective Figures, and may very easily he re- 
meniber'd. The first five Vowels in order natu- 
rally represent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The Diphthong 
au, being composed of a 1 and u 5 stands for 6 ; 


oi for 7, being composed of o 4 and i 3 ; ou for 
9, being composed of o 4 and u 5. The Diph- 
thong ei will easily be remember'd for c/ght, 
being the Initials of the Word. In like Manner 
for the Consonants, where the Initials could 
conveniently be retain'd, they are made use of to 
signifie the Number, as t for three, /'for four, s 
for six, and w for nine. The rest were assigned 
without any particular Reason, unless that pos- 
sibly p may be more easily remembred for 7 or 
Septem, k for 8 or oKtcj, d for 2 or duo, h for 
1 , as being the first Consonant, and / for 5, being 
the Roman Letter for 50, than any others that 
could have been put in their Places. 

*• The Reasons here given, as trifling as they 
are, may contribute to make the Series more 
readily remembred ; and if there was no Reason 
at all assign'd, I believe it will be granted that the 
Representation of nine or ten numerical Figures 
by so many Letters of the Alphabet, can be no 
great Burthen to the Memory. 

" The Series therefore being perfectly Icarn'd, 
let the Reader proceed to exercise himself in the 
Formation and Resolution of Words in this 

Id 325 381 1921 1491 1012 536 7967 
*z tel feib aneb afna lybe uts pousoi 

431 553 680 &c. 
Jib lut seiz &c. 


*' And as in Numeration of larger Sums, 'tis 
usual to point the Figures -at their proper Pe- 
riods of Thousands, Millions, Billions, &c. for 
the jnore easy Keading of them, as 172,102.795 
one Hundred seventy two Miiiions, one Hun- 
dred two 'riiousar.d, seven Hundred nitiety five ; 
so, in forming a V^-^ord for a Number consisting 
of many Figurts, the Syllables may be so conve- 
niently divided, as exactly to answer the End of 
Pomting. Thus in the Instance before us,, 
which is the Diameter of the Oi bit of the Earth 
in Eiig/ish Miles: The Technical Wojd is 
Dorbter6o/c/ cize-poul ; the Beginning of the 
Word Dorbter, «tauding f(ir tl»e Diameter of the 
Orbit of the Earth, (Diameter ORBUag TERiae) 
and the remaining Part of it boid-aze-poul for 
the Number 172,^02,79,5. 

*'jY. B. Always remember that the Diphthongs 
are to be consider'd but as one I etter, oi rather, 
as representing only one Figure. Note also, 
that 1/ is to be pronounced as w, for the more 
easily distinguishing it from /, as sijcl=i502, pro- 
nounce swid, tiip= 307 pronounce ?av/j. 

** The Reader will observe that the same Date 
or Number may be signified by different Words, 
according as Vowels or Consonants are made 
Choice of, to represent the Figures, or to begin 
the Words with, as 

325 tcl, or idu, l5t h'lf, or A/o, or «(/", or al: 93,451 
ni-ola, or oul-/ub, or ni-Jiaf or ciU-olb, &c. 


" This Variety gives great Room for Choice, in 
the Formation ot Words, of such Terminations 
as by iheir Uncommoriness are most likely to be 
remembred, or by any accidental Relation or 
Allusion they may have to the Thin^ sought. 
Thus the Year of the World in which .Eneas is 
supposed to have settled in Italt/ is 2H'24 ; but 
as this may be expressed either by ekej or deido, 
I chuse rather to join deido to Mneas, and make 
the Technical Word J^n^tdeido than JEnckef, 
for a Reason which I think is obvious. Thus 
King John began his Reign A. D 199- ("ne 
Thousand being understood to be added, as I 
shall shew hereafter ;) but as this may be ex- 
press'd by anoit, or boun, or ami, I make 
Choice of the last, for then 'tis but calling him 
Jann instead of John, and you have the Time 
almost in his Name. Thus Inachus King of 
Argos began his Reign in the Year before 
Christ 18,3(); wiih u very small Variation in the 
Spelling, 'tis his Name li\akiis. But this by the 

" To go on with our Art ; 'tis further to be ob- 
serv'd, that z and y being made Use of to repre- 
sent the Cypher, where many Cyphers meet to- 
gether, as in 1000, 1000000, &c. instead of a 
Repetition of azyzyuj, which could neither be 
easily pronounced nor remember'd, g stands for 
Hundred, th for Thousand, and m for Million. 


Thus ag will be 100, ig 300, oug 900, &c. 
ath 1000, olh 4000, otfio or othf 4004, peg 
7200, <//'g 2300, lath 51000, am 1000000, 
azmoth 10.004,000, sumus 65.000,056, /om»i 
59000,000, &c. The solid Content of the 
Earth (TERiae M AON rruHo) is two Hundred 
sixty four 'J'housand, eight Hundred titty six 
Millions of Cuhick Miles; this is expresfj'd by 
the Word Ter-magnit-eso-/r/««W2 ; Termagnit 
standing for TVrras Magnitudo ; tso-klauin for 
264,856,000,000 the Number of Cuhick Mi!es» 
" It w ill be .sumctnues also of Use to be able to 
set down a Fraction, winch may be done in the 
following Manner : Let r be the Separatrix 
between the Numerator and the Denominator, 
the first coining hejore, the othf r after it ; as 
iro I urp -. puurag t4 or ,79 north ^^^ o*" >094 
&c. Where the Numerator is I, or Lhiit, it 
need not be expressed, but begin the Fraction 
with r, as \ re, ^ ri, | ro, &.c. So m Deci- 
mals, ,01 or ,5b> rag ,00 i or ,-oVo f(ith- 

1 . Chrohology and History. 

" Th e Ages of the World before our Saviour's 
Time are by Chronologers generally divided into 
Six : The Fir^i from the Creation to the Deluge ; 
the Second from the Deluge to the Call of J bra- 
ham, &c. according to the following Periods : 


Before Christ. 

1. Tlie CReation of the World 4004 

2. The universal DfiLuge 2348 

3. The Call of ABiaham 1921 

4. EXodus, or the Departnre of the Is- 

raelites from Egypt 1491 

5. The Foundation of Solomon's TEMple 1012 

6. Cyrus, or the End of the Captivity 536 
The Bnth of Christ. 

" All this is express'd in one Line, as fol- 
lows : 

Cro<A/"Dele/ofc AbanfJ Exo/no Temhtjle Cyruts, 

Cr denotes die Creation, othf 4004, Del the 
Deluge, Ab the Calling of Abraham, Ex Exo- 
dus, Tem the Temple, and Cjr Cyrus. The 
Technical Endings of each represent the respec- 
tive Year according to the Rules already laid 

" I shall explain two Lines more. 

Nicsilcoii kr'xtel, Codathe mdiieih, Ephcethe-nes/i. 
Challemar-eudio/a, Covijtist-O/wt, C-^^copo-nionscir. 

" These two Lines are a short History of the 
first Six General Councils ; and every Syllable 
has its distinct Signification. The first represents 
the Place where it was held ; the second shews 
who was Pope at that Time ; the third under 


what Emperor ; the fourth against what Here- 
tick ; ihejjf'ih, in what Year of our Lord. Thus 
the first Word is Nicsilcon antel. Nic denotes 
the Council of Nice, sil Pope SiLvester, con 
the Emperor CoNstantine, ari the Heretick 
Arius, tel the Year 325. The second Word is 
Codathe msiteib ; Co denotes the Council of 
Constantinople, da Pope DAmasus, the the 
Emperor THEodosius, ma the MAcedonians, 
teib 38 1 . The third is Ephcethe-nes^T* ; Epli 
the Council of EpHesus, ce Pope Cfilestine, the 
the Emperor *rHEodosius, nes the NEStorians, 
fb the Year 431. The fourth is Challemar- 
euSio la ; Chal the Council of CLALcedon, le 
Pope Leo, mar the Emperor MAiician, eudi the 
Errors of Eutyches and Dioscorus, ola the Year 
451. The fifth is Covijust-O/?/? ; Co stands for 
Constantinople, vi Pope Vigilius, just the Em- 
peror J usTinian, O the Errors of Origen, lut 
the Year 553. The sixth C-i^copo-monseiz ; 
C stands again for Constantinople, ag for Pope 
Aoaiho, copo the Emperor COnstantine PO- 
gonatus, mon the IVloNothelites, seiz the Year 

• TlieodosiMs Junior. 


** The Regal Table of England since the Con- 
quest, and some of the most remarkable 
Princes before it. 

Bef. Christ. 

CASiBELanus chosen chief Commander by 1 
the Britains ai^aiiist the Invasion of Julius > 52 
Ccesar [CasibelMrf] } 

Aft. Christ. 

Queen Boa Bicea, the British Heroine, be-") 
ing abused by the Romims, raises an > 67 
Army and kills 7000 [BOddaup] 3 

VoRTiGeni who invited the Saxons to the ") 
Assistance of the Britains against the V 446 
Scots and Picts [Vortij!;/os] j 

HENcist the Saxon, who erected the King-") 
dom of Kent, the first of the Heptarchy > 455 
[He.ig/>//J 3 

Kin? ARTHur famous for his powerful Re- ^ 
sistance and Victories over tlie Saxons > 514 
[Arth/«/-] 3 

EcBKrt who reduced the Heptarchy, and ^ 
was first crown'd sole Monarch of £ng- > 828 
land [Egbe/ifA:] J 

ALFRF.d, who founded the University of) 

Oxford [Mfrekpe] | ^'^ 

Can ute the Dane [CanJaw] lOlS 

Edward the Con FKSsor [Confes/I'] 1042 

WiLliam the CoNq. [Wil-consoMJ Oct. 14. 1066 

William Rufus [Ruf Aws] Sept. 9. 1087 

HKNRy I. [Henra^] Aug. 2. 1100 

SxEPHen [StephW/] Dec. 2. 3135 

HENry the SECond [Hens^cbuf] Oct. 25. 1154 

H H 


Richard I. [Ricbei7i] July 6. 118*> 

John [Jann] April 6. 11 99 

HEiiry the THird [Heth«?a«] Of?. 19. 1216 

EDward I. [Edrfojrf] Noik \6. 1272 

Envardus SEcundus [Edsef^yja] July 7, 1307 

EDvardus TERtius [Edterfe*] Jan. 25. 1326 

Richardus SEcundus [Ris^t6ip] June 31. 1377 

HEnry the Fourth [Hefofown] Sept. 20. 1399 

HEnry the Fifth [Hefi/^rf] March 20. 1412 

HEnry the sixth [Hensi/frf] Aug. 31. 1422 

Eovardus ouARtus [Edquar/(7M.r] March 4. 1460 

Edward the Fifth 1 pp . n ,-, r April g. 14&3 
Richard III. / L*^^» «<"^f J | J„ae 32. 1483 

HENricus SEPtinius [Henseji/e//] yi?<^. 22. 1485 

HENricus octav. [Henoc/y«J April 22. 1509 

EDvardus SEXtHs [Edsex/o*} Jan. 28. 1546 

Mary [Mary/w^J Jj^^y 6. 1553 

ELisabeth [EIs/mA:] iVoi;. 17. 1558 

jAMes I. [Jams3/rf] March 24. l602 

CaroIus PRIMUS [Ctiropn:n«e/] Mairch21. l625 

CaroIus SEcundus [CarsecsoA:] ^Aisw. 30. l64S 

jAMes II. [Jamsf?/] Fe&. 6. l684 

WiLliam and Mary [Wilse/Ar] Ffi. 13. ltf88 

ANne {h\\pyh\ March 8. 1701 

GEOrgel. [Geofeo] Aug^ 1. 1714 

CrEorgell. [G6osec<?oi} Jwne 11. 1727 

" The Memorial Lines. 

Casibelwrf BSddaiip \ovt\gfos Uengfid & Arthlqf, 
Egbe/tefc AlfreA:pe Odiibau Confes/f. 


Wil-constvii ilufAoi Henrflg-. — — •— ^ 

Stepb6/7 & Uemecbuf Ricbein Jantt Hethrfff* & 

Edse(y/> Edter/es Risetoip Ht(otoun Hefi/flrfque. 
H^nsi/ed Edquar/cMJ Ein-llokf licme\)JeillienQclyn. 
Edsex/o« Marylut FAsluk Jmnsj/d Cdioprimsel. 
Carsec/b/c Jamseif Wilwt'A: Aupyb Geofto— — (/oi. 

*' N. B. After Canute inclusive, One Thou- 
sand is to be added to each : It was thought un- 
ucwessary to express it, it being a Thing in which 
it is impossible that any one should mistake. 

" If it be desired to remember in what Month, 
and Day of the Month each King began his 
Reign, it may be done by the following Lines : 

Wil-tbosou-fat Steph-de Jsim-chef-fau Wi-ls-jeb-ed 

Hen-ge-tel-an sez-chez gib-ged-ped Geor-ga-iab 

An chei. 
Caf-chf^-rix Ma-b Jo-ps Ed-n<f«-lo» tel-cho-pou rek- 



" The Italick I^etters represent the Day of 
the Month ; the Letter immediately preceding 
represents the Month itself, r standing for Janu- 
ary, f for JPebruary, ch for March, p for April , 
■1 for Msij, j for June, 1 for Ju/y, g for August, 


s for 5eptember^ t for October, n for iVovernber, 
and d for jDecember. 

" Thus Steph-de, Stepli King Stephen, de 
Dec. 2. El-nap El Elizabeth, nap Nov. 17. 
In Words of three or more Syllables, the first 
Syllable stands for all the Kings of the same 
Name, and the following Syllables in Order an- 
swer to the first, second, third, 8cc. of that Name. 
So Jam-chef-fau ; Jam denotes James I & II. 
chef (viz. March 24.) belongs to James I. and 
fau (viz. Feb. 6.) to James II. So lR.i-\s-jeb-ed ; 
Hi denotes all the Richards, Is (viz. July 6.) be- 
longs to Richard 1. jeb (viz. June 21.) to Rich- 
ard II. and ed (viz. 22. of the same Month) to 
Richard III. 

" If this be thought either too difficult, or ^oo 
minute, the Reader may pass it over." 

In the Rev. J. Robinson's * Grammar of 

History,* will be found a list of remarkable 

events from the Creation to the Battle of Tra- 

J a /gar, with all the technical terminations of 

Dr. Grey. This is a useful supplement. 

"2. Geography. 

** In the first Place are laid down the general 
Divisions of Europe, Asia, Jfnck and America; 
then the particular Divisions of the several King- 
doms of Europe, into their respective Govern- 
ments or Provinces. For every Division there 


is one Technical Line, composed of the first 
syllables (or sometimes only of the first letters) 
of the Parts or Places into which it is subdivi- 
ded ; which Syllables or Letters are distinguished 
from the rest, in the Tables, by Small Capitals, 
or an Hyphen following. 

" ' Tis further to be observ'd, that the Begin- 
ning, Middle, and Ending of the Line answer, 
in order, to the Northern, Middle and Southern 
Divisions of the Kingdoms or Countries; so that 
not only the Places themselves, but in some 
Measure their Situation with Respect to each 
other may be remember'd at the same Time. 
Thus in the Memorial Line for France, 

Fra— P \oi-I-cham ; Eiet-O-BuL; GuULa-DaP. 

" P Nor-T-cham denotes the four Northern 
Governments, ij/s. P-icardy, NpRmandy, I-sle 
of France, and CuAMpagne. 

" Bret-O-BuL denotes the four Middle Go- 
vernments, viz. BRETagnc, O-rleanois, Bour- 
gogne, and L-ionnois. 

" Gui-La-Da-P denotes the four Southern 
Governments, viz. Guienne with Gascony, Lah- 
guedock, DAuphiny and P-rovence. 

" It will be yet some further Help to remem- 
ber the Situation of Places, to observe, that in 
the several Divisions I begin at the PVesv, and go 
•n Eastward, as far as the Limits of the Cotm- 
H H 3 


try will allow, in a strait Line, unless where the 
Irregularity of the Position makes this Method 
inconvenient or impracticable : Where that is the 
Case, the Reader will supply the Defect by his 
own Observation, and by comparing with proper 

" Observe further, that where the Syllables 
are connected with an Hyphen, the Countries 
denoted by them are contiguous from West to 
East ; thus, 

" Nor-I-cham shews that the IsU of France 
joyns to l^^ormandy on the East, and Champagne 
to the Isle of France on the East. Where the 
Syllables or Letters denoting two or more Coun- 
tries are joyn'd together without an Hyphen, 
there the Countries are contiguous from North 
to South. Thus Gui-La-DaP shews that Lan- 
guedock joyns to Guienne on the East, Danphiny^ 
and Provence to Lcmguedock on the East ; and 
also that Provence is contiguous to, and South 
of Dauphini/. Such Syllables as have an Hi/- 
phen preceding, but are not by it immediately 
joyn'd to the foregoing Syllable, signifying that the 
Countries denoted by them lie Eastward, but are 
not contiguous. Thus Sp-It-Turk shews that 
Italy is East of Spain, and Turky East oi Italy, 
but not contiguous. 

" When the Reader is become well acquainted 
with the General Divisions^ he may then go on 


to charge his Memory with his chief Cities, and 
most remarkable Places of every Country ; their 
Longitude and Latitude ; the Correspondence of 
ancient and present Geography ; the Geography 
of the Old and New Testament ; the Propor- 
*tions of the Kingdoms of Europe to Great Bri~ 
tain ; the Situations of the most noted Islands ; 
with other instructive and entertainhig Particulars 
in Geography : All which he will find himself 
able to remember with greater Ease than he can 
possibly imagine, till he is acquainted with the 
Memorial Li)ies, contriv'd for that Purpose. 

" The General Divisions of Europe, Asia, 
Africk and America. 

" L EUROPE is divided into, " 

1 . Northern ; Containing NOrway, S-wederr, 
MOscovy ; D-onmark : 

2. iSUddh; Contaiuing NEtherlands, GEmiany, 
Poland, Little T-artary; Francc, SwiTzerland, 
HuNgary, TRANsilvmiia, MOidavia, VAlachia. 

3. Southern; Containing Spain with Portjigal, 
iTaly, TiRKv. 

Eur =: No-S-Mo D ; Ne-Ge-Po-IT Fran-Swita Him-Traii' 
Mo-Va Sp-It-Turk. 

3j6 principal systems of 

" 11. ASIA is divided into, 

1. Nortlierfi ; Containing Great TAitary, GEor- 

2. Middle; containing TuRky in ^«/a ; PErsia, 
Empire of the MOguI, CniNa. 

3. Soniheryi; Containing Ar Asia, East iNDies. 

. As = Ta-Geo j Tiu-P6-Mo-Cliin ; Arab-Ind 

<' III. AFRICK is divided into, 

1. Northern; Containing BArbary, BiLdulgerid, 

2. Middle; Containing ZAara, Nsgroland, Gui- 
nea, N-ubia. 

3. Southern; Containing CoNgo, ABlssinia, 
Coast oI'Abex, Coast oi"CAFreria, MoNOmotopa, 
ZANGUebar, Coast of Ajan. 

AF — BaBil-E.; ZiiNeGui-N ; Con-Abiss-Abe Caf-Mono- 

" IV. AMERICA is divided into, 

1. N-orthern; Containing New WALes, New 
BRiTain, Lovisiana, CANada or New France, New 
GRANada, MExico, Fi.ORida, New England con- 
taining these seven Provinces, (CARolina, Virginia, 
MAryland, P-ensilvania, New YoRk, New J-arsey 
New ENoland properly so call'd,) lying from Soutli- 
West to North-East. 


2. S-ottthein : Containing Terra FiR Ma, Peru, 
Country of the Amazohs, BrasH, CaiH, Para- 
guay, MAGellaiiica. 

N-AM = Wal-Brit L6vi-Can GranMex-F'lor (C^r-Vi-M« 

P-YorJ Eng. 
S-AAtFinn Per-Ain^z-Bra Chi-ParMag. 

'' 3. Astronomy. 

" The Technical Endings affixed to the Be- 
]gimiings of the Names of the Planets represent 
the Number of Miles of their Diameters, Dis- 
tances, Magnitudes, 6jc. according to the general 
Key. Where the Beginning of the Word is 
Technical, it is composed of the Syllables or 
Letters distinguish'd in the Tables by Small 

" The D'iameters, S^c. of the Planets in Eng' 

lish Miles, according to Dr. Derham's Astro- 


Engl. Miles.. 
Lu na [LuDdapu] 2175 , 

MERCUry IMcrcuDepokl 2748 

Mars [MarDoAr/zw] 48/5 

VEnus [VeDoneip^ 4987 

TERree DiAni. [TerDinpousX,k'] 79^7,8] 

SAturn [SaDHz-o/a] 93,451 

Jupiter [JuDrt^-*//] 130,653 

SoLis Diam. ISolDlked-nfa] 82'?,148 


" The D'iameters of their OkbUs. 

Engl. Miles. 
SATum ITy-oTh-Siitasob-les-teis] l64>l. 526,386 

Jupiter IJuRBkoul-atoth] 895.134,000 

MArs [MuRBese-deid-naz] 262.282,910 

TERra ID-orh-Terboid-aze-poul] 172.102,795 

MErcury IMeRBsau-sebthl 66.621,000 

Vedus lYeKBbef-okoi-baf] 124.487,114 

LuNa IDorhhrnopoU'tiyl] 479,905 

SATurni AniiuH Diam. or the Dia-'j 

meterof .SV7/?/ni's Ring [Sat- ami- > 210,265 

thddz-datd'} J 

— Ejnsdem LATitudo, or the^ 

Breadth of Saturn's Riug [ > 29,200 

iUtJ«WH-tgJ J 

TERrie SuPERficies, or the super-^ 

ficial Content of the Earth [Ter- J- 199.444,205 
super a un-f of -ezau'] J 

Ejusdem DiAmeter [Dia^0M-"i 70^7 & 

saijkl i ' 

Ejusdem Orbita pERiMeter ■) ^^^ ^gg ^^5 

[Permnfy-skau-del'} J 

*' The Magnitudes or Solid Contents in Cubick 
Miles of the larger Planets. 

" MagnitiuIo. 

Cubick Miles. 
TERrze \Tej-ma»niteso-klatim] 264,856.000,000 

SOLls [Mag-so! iseo«2- -» 090,971 .000,000.000,009 
«o;a-iau-niil] J 


Cubick Miles. 

JOYis [Mag-jovKea- ^ 920.011,200.000,000 

SATurni [Sat-nragnit- "i 497.218,300.000,000 

oep-aak & tzym] J 

" 27ie A Mbit or Circumference. 

English Miles. 
Jovis [Am-jovisijW)M-rof] 379j043 

T-en-je [Am-Tt;/-^*7>] 25,031 

SoLis [Ani-sole-/«rf-A<wY3 2.582,873 

" The Memorial Lines. 

"LioDdapv, MerfiiD<?jjo/c MarDofc/jw TerDia;)owsoi,fc. 
SviDatij-sli VcDojifj/j SaD«j-o?a, 'io\Y)'\ked-afei. 
D-orb-Situiofr-ics-kw JuRB^o«<-a^o<«z. ' 
D-or'o-Tertoid-^jse-poui MeRB,vaM-se6Wi VeKB6«/-(.feoj-6u^. 
Sat-anu-dif/as-daui — latirfoM-c^ D-orb-lunj»(>u-ni//. 
Ter-buperan«-yo/-f3a« — dia^«usoi,fc^PcrmM/j/-«A;a«c(af, 
Ter-inagiiitt%o-A:/ai<m Mag-s61is-i;ofir-noia-niil-inil. 
Mag-Jov?i<?>2(U-e:(/w Sat-niagnitoq)-rfrtA;& ist/m. 
Am-jovisfpoM-2o« Am-Tt/-!/i6 Xm-^o\e-teid-koit, 

" 4. Coins, Weights, and Measures. 

'* The Beginning of the Words is composed 
of Uie Initial Letters ; thus At-ta stands for 
ATtick TAlent, Het far Habrew T-aleut ; Ad 
for A ttick D-rachm; AId for ALexandrian 
P-rachm; HetO for Hebrew Talent of Gold; 
(Het standing for HE-brew T-alent as before, 
and O for Or, or Gold) RoL for ROman 


L-ibra, Den for DENarius, Shek for ShekcI, 
GreF for GREcian F-oot, HeC for HEbrew 
C-ubit, HoFq for ROman F-oot S^^uare, ^c. 

*' The Italick Endings of the Words represent 
the Number of Pounds, ShilHngs and Pence, 
which are separated from each other by Hyphens^ 
or else signified by the Roman Letters I. s. d. 
The double Lines denote Equality. Thus 
Am— dr«^— ?-e2-w, signifies that an A-ttick 
M-ina, which is equal to 100 Drachms, was 3 
Pounds 8 Shillings and 9 Pence. The Letters, 
though separated, are to be pronounced together; 
as t-ei-n tein. The Reader is to be reminded 
here that re signifies ^,ro J, &c. But Note, that 
instead of the Fraction re, the Letter h is some- 
times used for Half, as oikbe-h— 7 Sl^l sc. 7812 
Pounds 10 Shillings." 

This system of Dr. Grey reflects great credit 
on the ingenuity of the author. Of the Me- 
moria Technica, Dr. Priestley observes, " it 
is so easily learned, and may be of so much 
use in recollecting dates, when other methods 
are not at hand, that he thinks all persons of 
a liberal education inexcusable, who will not 
take die small degree of pains that is necessary 
to make themselves masters of it ; or who think 
any thing mean, or unworthy of their notice, 
which IS so useful and convenient.*" 

* Lectures on History, p. 157. 


Richard Grey was born in the year 1693, 
and was a learned divine of the Church of Eng- 
land. He took his degree of M. A. at Lincoln 
College, Oxford, in the year I? IS- 1 9. The 
6rst preferment which he obtained, was the 
Rectory of Kilncote, in Leicestershire, to which 
he appears to have been instituted at an early 
period of life ; and afterwards he was appointed 
to the Rectory of Hinton, in Northamptonshire, 
and to a Prebend iu the Cathedral Church of St. 

In the year 1730, he published his Me- 
moria Technica. In the same year also he 
published, " A System of English Ecclesiastical 
Law, extracted from the Codex Juris Eccle- 
iiastici Anglicani, of the Right Rev. the Lord 
Bishop of London, for the use of young stu- 
dents in the Universities, who are designed for 
Holy Orders." 8*^. For this work the University 
presented him with the degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity, by diploma, during the following year. 
It was afterwards reprinted, at different periods, 
with the addition of marginal references to the 
pages in the Codex. 

In the year 17S6, he published a large 
anonymous pamphlet, entitled, " The miserable 
and distracted state of Religion in England, 
upon the downfall of the Church establish- 
ed :" and iu the year 1738, " A new and 
1 I 


easy method of learning Hebrew without 
Points. To which is annexed, by way of praxis, 
the Book of Proverbs, divided according to the 
Metre; with the massoretical Readings in Ro- 
man Letters, &c. a grammatical analysis, and 
short notes, critical and explanatory, etc. 8*^." 
In the following year, he published, on a large 
single sheet, " Tabula exhibens paradigmata 
Verborum Hebraicorum regularium et irregula- 
rium, per omnes ConjngRtiones, Modos, Tem- 
pora, et Personas, pleuius et accuratins excusa ;'' 
and also, " Historia Josephi Palriarchae, Literis 
tam Roraanis, quam Hebraicis excusa, cum 
Versioue Interlineari S. Pagnini, 8c vocum In- 
dico Analytico ; praemittitur nova Methodus He- 
braice Discendi, diligcntius recognita, etc. 8°." 
These pieces were again reprinted in 1751. 

In the year 1742, Dr. Grey published, " Liber 
Jobi in versiculos Metiice divisus, cum Versione 
Latina Alberti Schultens, notisque ex ejus Com- 
raentariis excerptis, etc. Edidit, atqiie annota- 
tiones • suas ad Metrum przecipue spectantes, 
adjecit R. G. etc. Accedit Canticum Moysis, 
Deut. xxxii. cum Notis variorum, 8°." In the 
preface to this work some strictures were intro- 
duced on particular passages in Warburton's 
" Divjne Lesj^tion ;" to which that gentleman 
replied ui !iis " Rcmurks on several occasional 
eftjctioiH," etc. Tlus reply called forth from 


Dr. Grey, in the year 1744, an " Answer to 
Mr. Warburton's * Remarks on several occa- 
sional Reflections,' so far as they concern the 
preface to a late edition of the Book of Job ; in 
which the subject and design of that divine poem, 
are set in a full and clear light, and some particu- 
lar passages in it occasionally explained," etc. 8". 
In the year 1746, Dr. Grey occupied the 
post of official and commissary of the Arch- 
deaconry of Leicester. In 1749, he published, 
" The last words of David, divided according to 
the metre, with notes critical and explanatory," 
4°. This last publication, except new editions 
of his former pieces, was an English translation 
of Mr. Hawkins Browne's poem, " De Animse 
Immortalitate," which appeared in 1753. Be- 
sides the articles enumerated above. Dr. Grey 
printed some single " Sermons," preached on 
public occasions. He died in 1771, in the 
seventy-eighth year of his age.* 

05. Mnemonics delineated in a small 
compass and easy Method, for the 
better enabling to remember what is 
most frequently ivanted, and most 
dijficultly retained or recollected, 
8". Lond. 1737. 

* Nichols' Anecdotes of Bowyer. 


This extremely rare tract, compiled by Soto*' 
man Lowe, contains 14 pages in a very small type, 
besides the title and the advertisement which i» 
printed on the back of the title, making a single 
sheet of demy, 8°. As Dr. Watts has consi- 
dered this tract as a material improvement of 
Grey, and as some of the purchasers of the pre- 
sent volume may choose to practise the scheme 
of Grey and Lowe, we have thought pro* 
per, in this edition, to reprint the whole of 
the original tract, as it has become extremely 
rare ; — and although lately reprinted, it can- 
not be purchased without the incumbrance 
of the Memoria Technica of Grey ; a suf^ 
ficient specimen of which has already been 


" Th e key to this art (so far as relates to. 
the expressing of numbers by Letters) we 
owe to the ingenious Dr. Grey. What fol-. 
lows may be considered as a supplement to, 
and improvement of his Memoria Technica ; 
for most of the articles are what, perhaps, did 
not occur to him : aud the rest I think are re- 


formd * to great purpose ; particularly those of 
Weights, Coins, and Measures; ofNvhich I have 
given a full account in less than three pages, 
whereas the Doctor's (though very defective) 
amounts to 31. Those who are curious will add 
such particulars, as they have most occasion for; 
in order to lay up a treasure of useful principles 
in their heads ; for the greatest part of which 
they must, otherwise, from time to time, have 
recourse to books ; or, where those are not at 
hand be disappouited ; how much soever it may 
be to their discredit or prejudice. 1 need not 
inform those who have the education of youth, 
whether in schot)ls, or universities, how much 
something of this nature would expedite the pro- 
gress of their pupils, and show them to advan- 
tage ; furnish bt times with a satisfactory cer- 
tainty, reachness, and e.\actness, in things, of 
which Masters themselves, and men of reading, 
have generally but an imperfect and confused 
remembrance. I shall only add (to obviate an 
objection, diat may naturally otFer itself to such 
as are unacquainted with things of this nature) 
that how diificult and forbidding soever the jar- 
gon of this art may appear; nothing will stick 

* We have preserveil Mr. Lowe's ortliography throiyjli- 


I I 3 


more effectually in the memory, when once 
familiarisd by frequent repetition so as to flow 

into the mind without reflexion. N. B. The 

accents denote the first syllable of a tiactyl. 


Directions for the better learning to remember 
figures or numbers exprest by Letters. 

a e i o u au oi ei ou y 
1234567 8 9 
bdtflspkn z 

g 100. th 1,000. m 1.000,000. 

r denotes fractions, as follows : yVo \: ,iro | : 
d^eriS \: ,rag,01. 

Arithm et ical Characters. 
-f and: — less: X multiplied-j'nfo: -— divided- 

by : zz is, gives. 

The Division of the' old Roman AS, viz. any Integer) 
or Whole. 

Uuica, Sext. QuS Triens. Quinc. Sena. Sept. Bes, 
Dodra Dext. Deu. 

AS, parts 

























Coins reducd to Farthings. 

1 E.]' Sh-o/i. Cr-e/j/.] N-/</3. Ange-oAri-. M-dufy. 

Gui-bzi/k. Cdr-bdzo. ivic-beg. 

2 H. Ger-/] Be-//. Sh-fl&r. *IMan-A7/;)*. f TdUdeith 

fril] Sh-aplt'.. Tal-?//H dusth. 

3 G. LejVjf ^/^fflu. Dtchal-a,j3rt/. 6b-w,j'fl«]*Dr-»6. 

4- Stat6r-«</o. 

4 R. T,oipuruth. § As-f,rflr] Ses-p,i7f. \.al,r&. 
Den-ii. Sp-o)/.] Auroipu. 

^ Drachm] H?b-is. Att M. Alex-oid — 
I Min] Att-?/^. Itnl-ekeiz. 
I Tal.] Atl-barikth. Biihtifafh.] Att-7bauth 
^^ \\ fig- Bab-?/H (iinisth. R-aki/tk. 
. !_/ 1 Stater (sold) Att-;?o«7 Cys-Phll-Alex- 

^ ■ C As\veiuhdOuiKes-r,'</,U-C-5oM3 :e;fouzi 

\ a ; lip : -tire ; leis. 


Sums of Money, or Money of Aceownt. 

y(E) Pemi/. (6r-as. Vonnd-onsy. (G) Tal. 

^ Min. ^Ant-syzzg. 
,. \ Y^Mih-oizTninns. Pt-az— czii. Syr-alzzpoil. Ty- 

^ riaii-fiz^/i?/^. 

C(R) Sesterce ib-ath, duo, biui numnii 

^ ^ • t6-a»J, tluo, bina, 

( — stertia ; or inillia sestertiuni, above by 

^ > the adverbs, as foUows : 

C Bis sestertiuni, or bis ; understanding millia 
^ > centum (or centena). 

6 Abbreviatures explaind. 

jT.ginea raina, talentum (lin.) 5. Alexanilrina 
^nichma, *; stater, 4. Angel, 1. Aniiocbicama. 


tal. 5. yVs, 4. §. Attica drachma, *, raina, *, sta- 
ter, 4 ; taieiituni, |. Aiu-eus denarius, 4. Buhy- 
/owitfl mill. tal. I . Bckalj, 2. Carolus, 1. Croesius 
stater, |. Crown,!, Cyzicenus stat«^r, 4. Darcius 
stater, I . Denarius, 4. Dichakos, 3. Drachma 3. 
Gerali C. Groat '^, 5. Guinea, 1. Hebraica drach- 
ma,'*. JacoLu-.y 1. Italica mina,*. Lepton, 3. Ma- 
neh, 2 Maik, 1. Mhur,''\5. Noble, 1. Obolus, 3. 
Pennu", 5. Piiilippicus stater, 4.. . Pound, 5. Pto- 
lemaica min. tal. 6. Piomanum talentum, 4.. Ses- 
teriinm, 7, Sestertius, 4. Shekel, 2. Shilling, 1. 
Sportuia, 4. Stater, 3. Si/ria min. tal. 6. Talen- 
tum'', 2, 5. Teruncius, 4. Ti/ria min. tal. 6. Vic- 
toriatus, 4. 

6 Synonifms and Equivalents. 
.?ils, as. Assarium, as. Attica minormina — antlo- 
chica. Attica m(!JGrmirio=:tyr'rd. Bi<;,atus, denarius. 
Centussis, 100 asses. Chalcos, | dichalchos. De- 
ctissis", 10 asses. Didrachmon, 2 drachmie. Dio- 
bolon, 2 oboli. Dupondius , 2 asses. Euhoca mi- 
»« — antiochia. Hemiobolon, h obolus. Laureat, 
carolus. Libella, as. Libra (or libra pondo) =z mina 
attica. Mna, mina, Nomissis, 9 asses. Nununus, 
sestertius. Obolus, \ noble. Octussis, 8 asses. Pen- 
tad rachmcu, 5 drae!iiiia\ Pondo, v. libra. Qua- 
drans, \ as, \ noble. Quadrigiitus, denarius. Qua- 
drussis^, 4 asses. Quinarius, victoriatus. Quin- 
quessis'^, 5 asses. 7?Aorf/crza>ginea. Send>ella, se- 
milibella. Semiiibella, h libella. Semunicu, h uncia. 
Sescuiicia, 1 h uncia. Sextans ^, -5 as. Sextula'^, ~ 
luicia. Solidus, aureus. Tctradrachnion, 4 drach- 
ma;. Tetrobolon, 4 oboii. Tressis, 3 asses. Tri- 
cessis, 30 ?isses. Tridrachmon, 3 drachma\ Tri- 
ei}s '■, ^ as. Triobolon, 3 oboli. Vigessis, 20 asses, 
Uncia % tt as. 

1 N. B. The several coins, measures, and wiighls, being 
reducd to'the lowest denominations, tlie memorial versei 
answer all the purposes of the largest tables : (1) The dif- 


t'erence of any Wo terms beinj? known by subtraction • : 
and (2) How many of any make one of another, by divi- 
sion *. e.j?. (a) What is the difference between a Shilling 

and a Shekel? Answ. (Sh-ahz) 110 — (Sh-ofcJ 48=: 62 q. 
i. e. S 2 : 3 : '2 — S 1 ; — S 1 : 3 : 2, the shekel more than 
the shilling. ( b) How many Spans make a Fathom / Answ. 
Fath'OJd) 72 -f- (Span) 9 zi 8. Accordingly, if it be 
(askd. What is n fathom '/ (and Jo of any other) the answer 
may be made, the same way, in ajiy of the prior denomina- 
tions : e. g. 24 palms, or 6 feet, or 4 cubits, or 2 yards, or 
1 I- pace, &c. 

^ Any whole was called AS, and 1 twelfth of it Uncia 
[whence our terms of ounces for weight, and inches for 
leHgth]. The several numbers of those unciae (i.s tween 1 

and 12) were denoraiuated, in order, as follows iu 

text: viz. Se^Ltans (i.e. i) 3 Quadran<4 (i) 3, &c. and 

express their manner of reckoning Interest of nior.ey : tlais 
usiircB asses [centesimae] iwas 1 per mon'h [12 per year] 
per cent, (suppose aurei, or pounds : deunces, ll twelfths 
per month, and so on to unciaria, 1 twelfth per mouth [1 
per year] e. g. 20d. per month, 30s. per year. 

3 Of the three apartments distinKuisht by brackets, ia 
the 1st are Brass- or Copper- ; 2d, SilTcr-; 3d, Gold-coins'. 

NB. (1) Sh-ofe (as appears by the Abbreviatures ex- 

plaind underneath, a)id by the key above) sis;nifies Shilling 
48: i. e. a shilling is 48 farthings 5 and so of the rest, (2) 
y {the memorial letter) may be pronouncd wee or ici, to 
distinguish it from i: e. g. Cr-e/y, as if it were Cr-efwi. 

4 i. e. in the year (LVi'W Conditte) from the building of 

tlie city of Rome, 190. e,foitz ; i. e. U. C. 490, when the 

Punic war had exhausted the treasury, it weighd but 2. and 
«o of the rest. 

.5 i. e. the iEginean mina was (ubss) 5656 q : (g) 100 
of which made the j^gincan talent, and so of the rest. 

6 N. B. In these lists — those in Italic are moneys of ac- 
count, the rest, coins.- The Figures and Marks refer to the 
corresponding memorial verses. 

(c) N.B. There are also Coind Half-guineas, Seven-shil- 
ling pieces, Half-crowns, Three-pences, Two-pences,Half- 
pennies ; and such as are distinguisht by a superior <:. 


Cubic Measures reduced to Pints. 

f Quar-d. *GzU\ R-af6. Ear-eld. Ti-(wiNE) 
I its. li-uzf. P-fluj»6. E-athei. T-ethbau. 



^ Firk-hoid, dsf.^ Kil aM*, b<7^(BEER & ALE) 
^ Bat'hdeik, Mus. Hog-alad, hups, 
Ve-bsr Bii-^o. Str-aek. Cooia-dus (dry) Se- 
ube. Ch-etzo. V^e-ithpi^. \^d-lady. 
( (liq.) C-,nrei. L-iro. Cab-?. Haz (h) Seah-rfy. 

4 1 Bath *Y- H6m-«MrM {-uid. 

\ Cnh-,durm!. G6m-,vraz. Se-boi (dry) Ba-/tf. 

5 ^ Le-dlat/. Hbmer-laf. 
Coch-jj-^tfy- Ch-i'miz. Myst,}-ok (g) Conch-,rqf. 

Oxyba-,rri- Wetr-m. 
Cocb-,rady. Choen &re. Mtdim-^S (DRY) Cy- 
Ox-Coty-Xest as the Roman. 
rQnait ,r6. Se-ff,r/. C6-p. Ur-e^-»v/ (r) QuS- 
^ ) dr-w/y, Cul^-bafp. D. Cy. Ace. Hem. 
q^\Lig~,rok. Cy-ra*/. Acet-jr^^i' H^ra(DRY)in,rg.. 
I. Sti-a,ru. t Mod-«s,r€. 
V *GalloN contains inches (dry) doid,r6'^i 
^^^ ^ (beer) -<>Ar6 : (wiiie) eta^. 

S tPoTTLE Quarts (dr-) / (liquid)-e — f MoDI- 
l Pints (liquid)-</n (dry) bau,ro. 

Abbreviatures explaind. 
A(ctabulum(lin.)9, 8. Barrel,!. Bath, 4. Bush- 
el, 3. Butt, 1. Cab, 4, Caph, 4. Ciicme, 6. Chau- 
drcn, 3. Choenix, 7. Cochlearion, 6. Concha, 6. 
Congius, 8. Coomb, 3. Culcus, 8. Cyathus, 9. 
Firkin, 2. Gallon,], Gonier, 5. Hemina,9. Hin, 4. 
Homer, 4, 5. Hosjshead, 1, 2. Kilderkin, 2. Last, 3. 
Letech, 5. Lii^ula, 9, 8. Log, 4. Medimnus, 7. 
IMetietes, 6. Modius, 9, 1 1 . Mystron, 6. Oxyba- 
phon, 7. Peck, 3. Pottle, 11. Puncheon,!. Qua- 
drantal, 8. Quart, !. RundUt, 1. Seah, 4, 5. 
Seam, 3. Sextarius, 8, 9. Strike, 3. Tierce, 1. 
Tun, 1. Urn J, 8. Wey, 3. 

Si/noni/?.ns and Equivalents. 

Amphora, (piadrantal- Amphoreus,metretes. Ca- 
<lus, uietietes. Cutnock, coomb. Chos, congius. 
Coron, homer. CotUe, hcmina. E|)hah, bath. Lin- 
jjula, ligiila. Omer, homer. Oxybaphcn, acetabu- 


luiti. Pipe, butt. Quarter, seam. Qu^rtarius, J sex- 
tarius. Semiraoiius, h mrWu^. Xiv.tei, sextarius. 

1 i. e. A Firkin (1) of Boer 72 pints. (2) of Ale=i64 
. pints, and so of the rest. 

2 By aet of parliament, in 1697, the gallon contains only 
268 -^ inches. 

3 By experiment, made in 1688, it was found to contain 
only 224 inches. 

Long Measures reducd to Inches. ' 

/-Nail-rf,ro. Pal-f. Han-5. Spa-n. ¥oot-ad. 
J Ciihi-bei. E(fl)e/>(eng)o/. 
^ S Y-is. Pa-*y. ¥atb-pe. Ko-bouk. Furl-oindy. 
^ V Mt-sitsi/. Le-miles3. 

fH. Pal-/. Sp-flrf. C-ef. Y-ous. EzMf. Ar-and. 

L Schoen-flniiy. Stci nai^g-. M-o?/sf/t. 

fG. Dor/. LYch-//z. Orthab. Sp ad.Vygm-ak. 

L Pv-rfz. 0-nfl«. St-«aM^. M-oiskj/z. 

fR. Unc-ry,W. Pal-/". Pe-6^-. Palm-dy, Cuo-e/. 

I Gra-A:y. Pass-Ary. Stti-byth. 

f. f Line-be. Bar-i, Digit, Inch (Heb. Gk. Rom.) 

I nad: ,pul6 : peldu^. [M- -eizt/t. 

f Foot — Eng-«^A. — G rek visy/?. — ' Rom (coss) 
' \ naup {^t) oupti(y^s)oukau. 

Abbreviatures explaind. 
Arabian pole, 3. Barley-corn 6. Cubit::i:pygem, 
pygon, pechus 1, 3, 5. Digit, 6. Doronzirpalm, 4. 
Ell (flemish, english) 1. Ezekiel's reed, 3. Fathom, 
2,3. Foot— pousnpes 1,5, 7. Furlongrr stadium 
2, 3, 4, 5. Gradus, 5. Haml, 1. League, 3. 
Liehas, 4. Line, G. Mile — \nilion — miliare 2, <fcc. 
Nail 1. Orguia, 4. Ortli:)d6n)ii, 4. Pacenpassus 
2,5. Palm — dor(m I, 3, J. Palmipes, 5. Passusr: 
pace, 5. Pes = foot, 5. Pygme, 4. Pygon, 4. Rod, 
2. Sehajnus, 3. Span — spithame 1,3, 4. Spithame 
:z:spau, 4. Stadium— furlong 4, 5. Uncia, 5. Yard, 2. 


Synonyms and Equivalents. 

Aramah, cubit. Aulos, furlong. Chebal, schoe- 
nus. Cubit (lesser) pygme (greater)pechys. Dactylo- 
dochme, doron. Diaulos, 2 stadia. Dochme, doron. 
Gomed, span. Kaneli, Ezekiel's reed. Measuring- 
rod, schcen us. Miliare,-on: mile. Palaeste, doron. 
Pathil, schoenus. Pechys, cubit. Perch, rod. Pole, 
rod. Pollex, uncia. Pous, pes. Tophach, palm. 
Ulna, cubitus, Zereth, span. 

1 N. B. The Digit is sometimes divided into 4 grains ; 
the Line into 6 points. 

2 N. B. J[ Sabbath day's journey is reckoned to be 730 
paces : 6 ot which made the Parasang,, 48 a Day's journef, 

3 i. e. The proportion of the Roman foot to the English 

(divided into 1000 parts) is here exprest, as found ou 

tiie monument of Cossutius on that of Statilius on a 

congius of Vespasian. 

Square Measures reducd to Square Feet. 

^ E. Yar-M. Pace-rfw. Pble-6j9e",r5. Robd uzkouz. 
^ Acrii-otusy. 

^ G. Plethron azasf. Aroura, the half: but 

1^ ^Egyptian *itdaun. 

f R. Juger-fS'OM^y. CW-tisaii. \6-nilf. (mtn) 
■^ A-fbkel (qu) at fau2. 

Abbreviatures expiaind. 

Actus minimus, quadratus, 3. Clima, 3. Jugerum* 
3, Versus, 3. Yard, 1. 



P-oi,07t. V-e'\,us. P-ou,«i. K-ei,w 

by \2 ^ rF-ad 

o\,on. v-€i,us. r-ou,«i. Jv-ei,w\ 
K-<)u,pe. N-ou,ei«. \7 ^-T 

Ai\,fei. L-ad,sy. S-ad,oirf. P. f =49 
2ii\,ko, K-adjOM^yt/, N-ad,aze'i.-' 



'In Nuniprals] A less number, afirre, Abates^ ; 
Tj J «/fcr, Eucreases 


\-b. V-M. X-az. l^vz. C-azy. .D ui/z, 
M (ciD ^) ath ; b«*nce (cciod) byth, 
f\^-h. "^-az p eg-'— 113 Lu''' — from-M^by V^l^*^ 

3„ J to OUZy^ [CCCI303 

4- ' I Mth by the Units^ : but oftiier by ^7i^, pre- 

^ fixing the numbers ^ \azyth. 

r»-b, t-az. p-ag*. r-au. (y) koppft-ny (t«'<) 
5p J sanpi-ojiy;: ^. « (« a a) ^r]/~ 
6 ' I 1-6, n-/?. k-iiz. Hag', x-ath. U-azth. n-mul- 

^ tiplies others iuscrib'd m't ^°. 

1 e. g. IV 4, IX 9, XL 40, XC 90. 

2 e. f?. VI 6, XIV 14, XIX 19, XXIX 29 

«♦ 11, :a> 12 : «p 101, 2^ 102 ,« ll, f« lOl, &c. 

3 Fomid, in current writing, from M : pait whereof, 
united, (viz, la) became D 500. heiioe i3j 3000, looo 50000. 

4 i, e.U nits, tens, hundreds, begin from the Ip,tter.s here 
specified ; and are to be reckoned on, in order, from them, 
e.g. « I, ^ 2, y 3, &c. 1 10, K 20, X 30, &c. f 100, <t 200 &c ' 

5 Instead of n\ being the ineffable name of Jehovah. 

6 e. g. n 500, O 600, t 700, &c. 

7 Before tiie letters expressive of hundreds ; as, ")7"7J^ 
1534 ; very seldom otherwise ; yj^ 1070. 

8 e. g. JD'^^^i^ 2000, D''3bN.T 3000, Xy^Vh 30000. 

9 The various figures and names of these r.imierical cha- 
racters, sec in my Table of Greek characters. 

10 e. g. A (10) inscribed in n (5) is l^^l (50 j 


1. IfowM the sought /«/o Price', or its factors' ; 
or by Alicjuot parts^. and by the Aliquots of 
Fractions of Sought (if any) divide Price^. 

?. What'H One '^? the Price 'j?y Commodity 7^; but, 
if too large, by its factors o, 

K » 



1 i. e. In qiiesfcioHS, where the comlitional term is l : as, 
when we say, " If one cost so omcb, what will so much 

2 i. e. Multiply the question-^term, or thing sought, into 

the price &c. e. g. Jf one costs 10s. Wliat will 20 cost? 

&c. Answ. 20 (the thing sought) X 10 (the price):£200s. 
i. e. 101. 

3 viz. when more commodious. e. g. J[f one cost 

12 I 6, what will 14 ? Answ. The factors of 14 being 2x7; 
say 2 x 12 I 6=r25s : then 7 X 25s.— 175s. i. e. 8l. 15s. 

N.B. If thcmultipljcator be not resolvable into factors, 
take those that tome nearest it, and add the price for the 
odd one, or multiply it by what the factors want of the 

4 Divide it by the JSi'cti pa*** of the llenonunation, in 
which you would have the answer. — e. g. ^one cost 12 | 6, 
what will 14? Answ. 10s. being the | of ll. and 2 | 6 (which 
makes up the 12 | 6) the 1 of 10s : say 2 in 14rz7l. then, 
4 in 7 (the quotient of 14 by 2)— 1 ; and there remains 31. 
which, in the next inferior dcnomiiiation (viz. Shillings) 
is 60, then 4 in 60::^15s- 

14 pds. pks. i&c. 
10 2 « 7 - 

1 15 

2 5 > 1 
6 4 M . 

S 12:6 L8:15 
5 As in the following example 
C qr. lb 
84 3 11 
ll. sl.n2ls 

Sl2:6 L8:l,^ 






at 1 
qr %\ 

lb 7i 

s d 

1 10 

- 10 11 

- 5 5 

- 1 4 

- - 9 

q3. Ibll.sl8:6 

3q. lllb. 18 6 - 
aliq. of fract. pr. of fract. 

In all.. 1852:6 The answer ; which, being 
halv'd f 92 : 12 : 6 ; the price of C 84 : 
gives- I qrS : lb 11. 
6. i.e. In sums, "wherein the Question-term is 1 ; as when 
we say, " If so much cost so mucli, WhuVll one cost?" 

7 e.g. If 12 cost 10 I 6, \\hat will 1? Answer, 12 in 
10 I 6 I cannot have: bnt 12 in 10 X 12 (to reduce it to 


per»cc)£=: 1204-6=126: then 12 ijH26r=10d. and 6 remains ; 
whick multipli«d into 4 (to reduce it to farthings) is 24 : 
then 1'2 in 'i4zi2 q. 

rt« f in s 10 : 6 : - I or, by the fiictoni of 

*'*"^ \12 - 10 ii , 1^, yi2, 
5 examp 
Tin s 

I t 

2 X 6, or 3 >^ 4 ; as k) th« following : 
a The for«goiog example wiU stand 
10 : 6 : - 
Tims ■( 2 5 3- 
10 2 
So tke answer is found more easily than by dividing by 12 : 
much more so it will be, when that number is higher. 


slO :6 



3 6 



- 10 



All Questions in if answerd (I) by one stating (2) 
the same way. 

(1) Conditional in one line: and, opposite, the 
terras Corresponding : 

(2) -DfiND i» the -Ducing of one into -DucM of the 
other; the Rest-So R *. 

N.B. No-Duc'd: the faeit of one liue divide by 
that of the other =. 

1 i. e. The prnducing a terms of one line multiplied into 
the prodwc'd '' o/ the other, give the diviDENO ; and the rest 
of the terms multiplied together, give the diviSoR: the 

Quotient falls to the blank*^ . (a) Producing terms are 

such as jointly produce any effect, e. g. whatever is consi- 
derd as a cause, with rhe adjuncts of time, distance, mea- 

ture, Sfc, (b) Frodntring terms are such as arc connected 

with the ethers under the character of |). ice, pwchase, pro- 
duce, gain, loss, interest, advantage, value or quantity of 

work, Ifc. (c) e. g. At the rate of 6 per cent; per ann. 

what is the interest of 9001. for 16 months? Answ. The 
terms being stated, as they offer (without any other regard 
than Which are conditional, and Which imply the question) 

Interest Principal time 
61. lOul. 12 m. 

SOO 18 

•r in any other order agreeable to the directions in the rule, 
say " 6 (the produced term of one line) H 1 8 H 200 (th« 


producing terms of the other)7Z2l6oo (for the dividend) : 
And (the rest) loo X I2rz:)200 (for the divisor). Then 
2l60o-;-l-2OOr::,iy, the answer ; viz. isl. 

2 i. e. It there be no pioduc'd term (as generally happens 
in the single rule of three inverse) divide thejacit, &c.— — - 
e. g. How much stuff, yard-broad, will line 10 yards of 
cloth, yard-and-quarter broad ? The terms being stated 
thus : 

4 qrs 

10 yard. 

say 5 X 10~50 

and 50 -7- 4cn2 2-4th 

i.e. 12 yards and 2-4 or i. 


May be more comniodiously performed by Addition; 
as in the next article. 


To nmltiply and divide by Addition only, 

1. Twice-double-MuItipIicand facits t every multi> 

plicator. i gives the f. of . 

2. Tabulate Divisor: Quote next digit-under: Sub- 

tract by Addition. 

I.Tn theMuLTiPLiCATiON sum(j) 
the facits of the multiplicand twice 
doubled, are, as they stand agamst 
the digits 2 and 4. T hen, To mul- 
tiply the mult'plicand into 8 

(the last figure of the multiplicator) 
double the facit of the digit 4— — 
into 6 (the 2d figure, &c.) add 
the facit of 4 to that of 2 (n:6) 

into 7 (the next figure, &c.) 

add together the facits of i, 2, 4 
(—7) placing each of them, as in 
the common method of multipli- 

2. In thcDivisiov-sum (II) (I) 
Tabulate the divisor, as in the ex- 
ample, viz. against the digit 2, 
by adding the divisor to itself; 
against 3, by adding together the 

Multipli-caTid cator 
98765 >0 768 
197530 (1) 



b 75851520-r-768 
S- 673794 1536 
1^ 5898 2304 
1 43. 3072 
Quotient (III) 38 iO 
98765-=-968 4608 
1929 1936 5376 
Quotient: 102 6144 








tomls of i and l ; against 4, by adding the total of S to 
itself, or that of 3 to that of 1 ; and, in like manner, in the 
rest, by adding together the totals of any two or more 
digits, equal to the digit whose total is sou§ht. Then, (2) 
Quote (or, for the quotient, take) the digit against the total 
next less, or under the first corresponding figures of the di- 
vidend, viz. 7565. Then, instead of subtracting, according 
to the common method, the facit of the divisor by 9 (viz. 
6912) from (7585) the corresponding figures of the divi- 
dend (3) Subtract by addition, and say [not, 2 from 5, and 
there remains 3 j but 2, and (so much as will make 5, viz.) 
3 is 5: then 1, and (as much as will make 8, viz.) 7 is 8 ; 
then 9, and [what will make 15 (since 9 cannot be taken 
from ,5) viz.] 6 is 15 *, then 1, that I borrow, and 6 is 7 ; 

and so on. In tlie DivisiON-sum (III) it appears 

that All the tabulating necessary to find the quotient, 

is only to double the divisor : for, the total next less than 
(the 1st dividend) 987, is 968; therefore quote 1 : then 
(the 2d dividend) 195 has no total less; therefore quote O: 
then the next total less than (the 3d dividend) 1965, is (the 

Qd total, viz.) J936; therefore quote 2 And, in like 

manner, may be tabulated any sum, by steps, as there shall 
be occasion. 

(a) N. B. 15, being the last sound m the mouth of the 
operator, does more readily and certainly lemind him of 
what he borrowd, than in the common way of subtraction j 
which is no small advantage to this method. 


Troy Weight, for Gold, Silver, Jewels, Grains, 
and Liquors. 

Monyers redttcd to Blanks. 

1 MON. Perit.</-Droit-oA:y. Mtte-a&f^wdy. Grain- 


Goldsmiths and Apothecaries Weight reducd to 

2 (Gold,) CSr-i) 1. Pen-d6(P6.) Scrup-rfy. DriiiB- 

auz. Onuce-oky. Vb-loisy. 

K K 3 


Averdupois Weight, for Baser-metals, Bread, 
Mercery, Grocery, S^c, 

Wool, reducd to Pounds. 

5 Clove-oi. Stone-fto. Ti)d-ek. Weigh&etU Sack- 
tauf. hast-Jisei. 

Other Things. > 

4 Pound-ounce-fl*. Hun-p6unds-fl6e, hun-Fother« 

dn-are: Tun-ex. 

Hebrew Weights, reducd to Grains. 

5 Zur2i-lf. Bek-azeii Sh^k-Uei 2. Man-^beizy. TSl- 


Greek and Roman Weights. 

„ C Lens, kurcihe. Lept-awreA:. Chalch-<y,7'g. Sil, "1 ^j 

\ t,r'6k. Ob ou-trek. J 

{Script-akftraf. Dr2L-lf,ouraf. — Sext-oid,aurp. "I 
S\ci\'azn,erp. i 

{Duell-bol,uroi. — — \]nc-Jip,roi. — -— Libra- 1 


9 Grains English-fti/jre make French-a/«,Dutch- 

10 Ounce has grains Avgr-o/ei, Troy^/oMZ^; as 

eiy to oil *. 

11 Pound Aver-heavier than Troy by 2 ounces, 4 

drams, and 2 scruples. 

Abbreviatures explaind. 

Bokali, 5. Carat, 2;ChaIchos, 6. Drachma, 7. 
Duella, 8. Hundred-weight. 4. Lepton, 6. Maneh, 
5. Obolus, 6". Penny-weight, 2. Pound, 2. Scrip- 
tulum, 7. Scruple, 2. Sextula, 7. Shekel, 5. Sr- 
cilicus, 7. Siliqua, 6. Talent, 5. Uncia, S. Zu- 
zaii, 5. 



Gramma, scruple. Keration, siliqua. Lens, grain. 
Litra, libra. Quintal, hundred-weight. Sitarion, 

1 N. B. The Grains, us'd in weighing Diamonds, are some- 
what lighter than those us'd in gold, &c 

2 i. e. 218, according to Bp. Cumberland : i6s, according 
to father Mersenne. 

3 So that the averdupois-ounce is less by -iS grains than 
the troy ounce; which amounts to near a I2th part of the 

4 i. e. 73 ounces-troy make 80 ounces-averdupois. 


TTie 1st Day, to find on what Day of the Week 
it happens. 

1 The year, more 2 and even-4th, divide by 7 • 


2 By what remains (fdrO sat. 1 sund. and-so-on) it is 

E. G. Ann. Dom. 26 + 2 -f- 6 (its even 4th) rr 34 -f- 7, 
remains 6 : i.e. friday; accounting Saturday 0, Sunday 1, 

monday i, &c. Before Christ, reckon Backward ; viz, 

Sunday I, Saturdays, and so on to monday 0, e.g. Bef. 
Ch. 7 + 2-1-1 (its even 4th) rr 1 o -r- 7, remains 3; i.e. 
friday.— —Of the other months to find the 1st day, and con- 
sequently what day of the week any day is ; V, Signs, 


The Number of Days in each, with the Days oj 
the Nones and Ides. 

Ap Sg NO .Tune-tc ^ : Mar Ma Jiil Oc, NO-/>, ij)-al " 
in the Rest, ^. 


1 February, it is well known, has 28 (iii the leap-years 
29) the rest 3i. 

a i. e. The Nones are on the 7th day, the Ides on the 15 • 
in these 4 months. 

3 i. e. The Nones are on the 5th, the Ides on the l3th : in 
the rest. 


€i/ele and Epact. 
Golden'% remainder of year-more- 1, divided by 19 ^ 
Epact's the cycle iirto ab : above iz by iz, the re- 
mainder 2. 

Change and Age. 

New's the remainder of month-from-march and 

epact, less iz, auz^ . 
Ap. Se. No. Jun, less en For Jan. Mar. 0. 

Feb. Apr. 1 add. 
Full's 1 5 days from the diaaige — Waining, east ; 

Growing, west is enlightend ^. 

Rising and Setting. 

At Sun-set, sets New, rises Full ; and, each day, 

minutes nb more. 
Shining (in Waining) Subtract (in Enereasing) Add 

to Sun-rise,-set. 

Southing and Tides, 
Southing's the age into ok, by 60 : from al, the 

excess talve ^. 
High-water at London-bridge : two hours and a half 

after Southing ^. 

1 e.g. 1737 -f 1 = 17"8 -f- 19t= 19: remainder 0, for 
the cycle, or Golden number, 

1 c. g. 9 (the cycle) X l l=:99-f-30 (as being above 30) 
n 9 : remainder 9 for the epact. 

3 e.g. May 20 (1737) What is the moon's age? .\nsw. 
3 (the number of the month from march, inclusively) + 9 
(the epact) zz 12 — 10— 18 : the day of the new mocn. 


when it is said to change. So the moon, on the 20th of may, 
is 2 days old. 

4 i. e. The Horns are tumd, in Decreasing (from the 
Full) West-ward ; in Encreasing (from the New) East- 

5 e.g. April 15 (l737) When comes the moon to the 
meridian ? Answ. The moon's age is 26 : the excess above 
(al) 15, is U. Then 11 »< 48 =z 528 -r- 60 zz 8 h. 48 m. 

for the Southing. For the readier working, the rule 

may be thus exprest : " Age into 4, hy 5 ; into 12 the re- 
mainder gives minutes." e.g. II X 4 rz: 44 -7-5 rz 8 h : 
remainder 4X1 2zz48 m. 

6 e.g. Apr. 15 (i7'57) the moon Souths at 8 h. 48 m. 
Then 9 h 48 m.+2 h.30 m,=:il h. 18 m. (N. B.) If the 
amounts to more than 12; the excess shows the hour. 


or Portions of the Zodiac, nam'd from Constella- 
tions once in them : their Names, Characters, 
and corresponding Months ; with a Key to\flnd 
the Sun's Place on any Dayi ; and on what day 
of the Week the \st Day of any Month hap- 
pens '. 

1 Ar 


ni iP' 

<y Aries 

2 Taur 



^ Taurus 

3 G6ml 


k s 

n Gemini 

4 Cance 


p e 

So Cancer 

5 L6 


P t' 

SI Leo 

6 V 


P P] 

W|i Virgo 

7 Lib 


p \ 

tct Libra 

8 So 


s ll 

iTi Scorpio 

9 S(? 


p a 

f Sagittarius 

10 Cit] 


k t 

Ttf" Capricornus 

11 Aqut? 


n s 

^ Aquarius 

12 Pi3c6 



K Pisces 

1 The method is this: To the day of the month (-f- 1 1 
for the old style) add the number signified by the numerals 
n, ou, &c. the Sun ( — 30, if above 30) is in the degree 
«f the sign corresponding to the day of the month. E. G. 


Feb. 10 +11 (for the old style) + 11 (for the numeral la) 
—32—30=zi°o{ H. 

2 Thus : Froia the day on which March 1st happens (V. 
March)- for any other month, count forward so many days 
as are signified by the numerals a, f, &c. E. G. Mar. 1st, 
1737, was tuesday : therefore Apr. 1st [counting (f) 4 on- 
wards, tuesday being one] is friday : and, consequently, the 
8th, 15th, aad, 29th, are fridays; whence may be known 
the rest. [N. B. Jan. and Feb. arc reckond from Mar. of 
the preceding year. 


f TKe Time of its rising each Day. 
1 Jan-o \ 7 Febr-ei. 6 Mar-by. 5 Apr-oM. M-asi. 
4 Jfil-p. 5 Aug-«f . 6 Sept-flrf. 7 O .. be. 8 N-tt/f. 
t JuN-d«, the Longest, t j^ ^.-^-.^the Shortest ei boi. 

For the intermediate Days. 
Sought, into 60, by All, gives Min. fewer 1st Vme, 
more 2d ^. 

The Time of its Setting, each Month, &c. 
Setting's the complemeut of rising to 12 ; aiMl, dou- 
bled, the day gives *. 

Cycle and Dominical Letter. 
Cycles the remainder of year-more-9 by ek ^ : if 0, 

ek cycle's A ; fy, B ; and so on ^ ; e'ery 4th lus 2 ^ 

after these ads : dE, au G, a-y B, bo I>, <^i F, 

de A, dau C> and 
Former is us'd till Yeh-do, in Leap-years; and, 
after, the Letter. 

Tojind tlie Sun's Place m the Zodiac, V. Signi. 
1. i. e. On Jan. 4, the Sun rises at 8. 
«. i. e. On Jan. 41, New style (which i$ the LongtU day) 
the Sun rises at 3 h. 43'* 

▲ KTIflClAL MEMORY. 383 

9. L e. The day sought (reckond from the day of the Sun's 
rising) multiplied into 60, and divided by the number of 
All the days between the day of the Sun's rising (specified) in 
any month, and ibe day of its lising in the next ; gives the 
Minutes /eu^er (or, to be subtracted from the hour speci- 
fied) in the 1st line ; more (or, to be added) in the <id line, 

e.g. Apr. 13, 1 would know when the Sunrises. By 

5 Apr-ou I find that the day sought (reckond from the day 
of the Sun's rising, viz. the 9th) is 4 [for 9+4:^ 13]. 
Then 4 x 60 3: 240 : and 240 -f- 36 (the number of All the 
days from 5 in Apr. ou to 4 M-as : i. e. from 9, the day the Sun 
rises at 5 in April ; to 16, the day the Sun rises at 4 in May) 
~6' [and 24-36th i. e. by reduction] 40" : — 5 h, (the day it 
rises on the 9th of April) rr 4 h. 53', 20", then, therefore 
the sun rises on that day, viz. Apr. 13. 

4 Thus, Dec. 21, New stile, the sun rises at sh. 17 m. 
tfie complement q/its rising to 12 is 3 h. 43' [far 8 h. 17 m. 
— 1 2 h. z: 3 h. 43 m.]. The sun therefore sets at 3 h. 43 m. 
and this, doubled, gives the length of the day, viz. 7 h. 26 m. 
shorter by 9 h. 8'. than the longest ; which (by the same 
calculation) will be found to be 16 h. 34'. 

5 e. g. 1737 + 9= 1746 -f- 28 iz: 62 the number of 
revolutions since Christ) remainder )o, for the number of 
the cycle, 

6 i. e. If there be no remainder, it will be (e/fc) the 26th, 
or last year of the cycle. 

7 i. e. The dominical letter answering to the year of the 
cycle 28 is.,^; to 27, Bi and so on (backwards) to G, the 
7th and last : after which returns A, B, &c. 

8 e. g. Every 4th (or Leap year ») has 2 dominical let- 
ters: the latter of which is us'd after Keb. 24, the interca- 
lary day ; which is therefore denoted by the same letter as 

the 23d. N. B. For the readier finding the dominical 

letter answering to any number of the cycle, I have given 
(in parenthesis) those of every third : thus Caei F) F an- 
swering to 18 (one of the 3ds there specified), 17 (the 
next 4th, reckoning backwards) will be G A ; 16, B; 15, 
C; &c. 

(a) For the readier finding Leap-year, the rule is this : 
" Year-sought divide by 4 ; what's left will he, for leap-year, 
0; for past, I. i, or 3." e.g. 1737 -i- 4 :;=: 434= remain- 
der 1 , for 1 St after leap-year. 


Roman Manner of Dating, 

(1) Kal Non. Id. (2) Pridie. (3) Tert. quart: (nb) 

The day sought subtiact from 
One more than Ide-None-days ; Two more than lh6 

month's, for th6 Kalends. 

I. i. e,) For the days on ^vhich the Kalends, Nones, Ides 
of any month happen (V. Months; write (e. g.) Kal. Dec. 
on the lialends of decen?,ber, viz. the Jst day of December. 
(2) On the day preceding each of them, write (e. g,) Pridie 
Kal, Dec. i. e. pridie kalendas decembris, on the day before 
the kalends of derember, viz, the 30th of november. (3) 
For the days backward, write Tertio, Quarto, ^-c. i, e. on the 
3, 4th, &c. 

II. To find any of the days, e. g, (i) lOth of decem- 

ber. What, in the Roman style ? Answ. JO — 14 (One more 
than the days the ides hufpen cnj ~ 4. i. e. 4to id. dec. 
Again (2) 4to id. dec. What, in the English style? Answ. 

4 — 14 IT 10. i. e. the ipth of december (l) 20th of 

november: Say 20 — 32 {Two more than the numhcr of th* 
days in the month) — 12. i.e. i2mo. kal. dec, (2) 12mo< 
kal. dec. say 12 — 32 — 20. 


Their Commencement in the Julian period. 

• S 2" ? ;2 2* £:>■ 2* 2- ? 8 8 S- "^ vS * 55.^ ?^ o "^ 

_ . g ^ ^ ^ g_ -.-.., I 

L L 


To find 
I The year of the Julian period corresponding to 

\ any year in any Mra. 

Any year of any Mm by the corresponding 
year of the Julian period. 

Jul for Jfter ad d Comm-les s- 1 -for 

Afore take from Comm. 

^. ( ^R^ After, Comm-less-1 take far Corr — 

"'''. I but Afore, Corr. from Comim. 

1. IVhat year of the Julian Period is the year 1737 (1) 

before Christ? (2) after Christ? Answ. (i) 1737 

(before Christ)— 4714 (the year of the cowTnencement of 
he Christian aera in the Julian period) rr: 2977. (2) 1737 
tafter Christ) -{■ 4713 (the commencement iess-i) rr 6450, 
Che year of the Julian period. 
*■ 2. JVhat year of the Christian ^ra is the year of the 

Julian period (1) 2977 ? (2) 6450? Answ. (1) 2977 

(the year of the Julian period corresponding to the year of 
the aera sought) — 4714 the commencement of the Christian 
sera) iz 1737. (2) 6450 the corresponding year) — 4713 
(the co>n»»enceraent-less-l) ^: 1737. 

* For the Number of Years from the Creation to the 
Birth of Christ. 

The Christian vulgar xra commences in 

the year of the world 4004, jan 1. [according to 

Helvicus, Isaacson, &c. 3.94S] The Jews 

place the creation of the world, Later by 242 years, 

viz. in 37()2, oct. 7. The Greek historians, 

on the authority of the septuagint, Sooner by about 
1490, or 1500 years, viz. the ecclesiastical, in 
5494 ; the civil, in 5509. 



* Holy-daps, Feasts^ ff«. 


Nat-de,rfM \ Circ-]a,&. Epiph-ja,s. Ldmm-au,ft. 
HoRood-se,6o. Transf-au,*. 

Ann-m^r,e!. Pur-feb,€. Nat-se,^. Vis-jul,e. Conc- 
de,A:. Ass-au,a/. 

AJl-ntiv,a. And-nov,J2. Bap-jun-f/". Bamaby-jun,c&. 
Barth-aug,^. George-apr,ef. Jame9-jul,rfM. Inn6- 

John-dec,c?o/. Luke-o,ak. Mtak-^pn,du. Marti- 

Mdtt-se,da. Faul-jan-du. Pet-jun,</oM. Phil 

Sim Jud-o,eA-. Ste-de,<7fl«. Tho-dec,«?a. Valentine- 

Royal Family, 1737. 
CoR-o.Ja. PFoCLAJun.rtft. BoRN,King-o,f^ ; seit. 

Quecn-mar,fl • seid. 
W^les-)a,fy ; pyp. -cess-n,oA:. AiAOr-o,de : p^n. 

Ame-nia,?2 : pab. 
C!ar-ma,/z: pat. Will-apr,a/ : peb. Mar-fe,efe : 
pnt. Loui-d,/* : pef. 

Terms, as in 1737- 

Terms hold weeks al : days Hilar-eJ. East ep. 
Tr'm-dy, Mich-tau. 

BiL from jaii-rf/ to feh-6e MiCH from 6c-do to 


East, w^d-e after,begins : ends, 6fter ascension, 

Trin, frtday ^fter, begins ; and ends 3d Wednes- 
day after. 

Vac. holds weeks tot : days Hilar-oi*. East-op. Tr- 
ab$. ' Mich-t^;. 




Lady-raar,e/, Midsura-jun-^. Mich-sep,«?OM. Chri- 

State Holidays. 

Fire-sep,e. Poud-no,^, Mi.xt-yA,ty. Restor-may,rfoM. 


1 Before and after Easter, 2 

f Sept-sf ^. Sex-Ms. Shrove-on. Qua;/)?. Lent-o*. 
I Vk\-p. Maund-i. Good-Fri-rf. 
Easter's the first Sunday after first Full-moon 
after March-rfia. 
C Low-oi -. R6ga-^M. Asc-in. Whits-on. Trin- 
\ lau. KA-eta. 

EMBER-rf«i/«. We Fri Sat, after Qua Whit Ho 
Rood \AiiCi-dee,at. 


Paschal full-moons for the Golden-numbers, with 
the Hebdomadal Letters. 






8 A 

9 A 
10 M 









15 A 

16 M 

17 A w a 

18 M -eou d 

19 A -boi h 

a g 
ea c 

Use of the Table. 
Sum from Hebdom to Domin (of the year sought) 
add to the Month's day. ^ 

Synonyms, S(C. 
Ash Wednesday, 1st day of lent. Candlemas, pu- 
rification of the virgin M. Crucifixion, good-fiiday. 
Holy-thursday, mauuday. Holy-week, last of lent. 
John the Baptist, midsummer. Parasceue, good- 


friday. Passion-week, last of lent. Pentecost, 
•Whitsuntide, wliitsontide. Processioning-day, as- 
cension day. Quinquagesima, shrove-sunday. 
Slior-(Sliur-)thurs-day, maunday-tliursday. Twelfth- 
day, epiphany. 

1 i. e^ The nativity of Christ is on dec, 25. and so of the 

2 i. e. ^p'ejBtuasresima-sunday is (st) 63 days before 

Easter [70 before the octave of easter] £,o2i; sunday is 

(oi) 7 days after Easter, and so of the rest. 

3 The Easter-lahle consists of 5 verses, each ending at a 
period mark ; and may be read thus : " One-aid, two-melg, 
^hTte-iH^'i e, (four Ac*, hve medd." dtrc. — Its Lse is to find 
Easter-sunday for ever. V. n. 4. 

4 e. g. A. D. 1/37, the golden number is 9, the dominical 
letter B. then, against 9 (in the table) the hebdomadal letter 
is F. from thence to the dominical B. are (gab) 3 : which 
added to apr. 7 (the day of the month, in the table) gives 

ap. 10, for easter-sunday. So A. D. 1736, golden-number 

8, 1st dominical-letter C : then from C Qn the table) to C 
(dominie.) 7 -\- apr. 18 n apr. 2^. 

In the following verses (which contain as raucli, 
1 think, as is necessary to charge the memory with 
by way of foundation) I have given the most general 
divisions of the several parts of the terraqueous 
globe ; beginning, in each, with the most northerly 
parts, and, in descending southwanls, proceed (to 
the right) from west to east : so that children, with 
a few hints and occasional helps, may be able to 
find them, by themselves ; and thereby tix them 
better in their memory ; after which they will easily 
get the verses by heart, and be well prepared to 
considt the gazetteer, or to go through any system, 
with pleasure, to good advantage. 

L L 3 



Continents, Isles, Peninsulas, Isthmus, Capes, 


Europe, Africa, Asia, and America. 
AF (8) Bar (fez mor a tun tripo biiic) Bi (dar) 

Egy (alex cair) 
Zaar (zu) Ne (tomb) Nubi (dang) Gui (ma why be 

lo cang) Ethi (mon eaf ) 
AM (23) Green Brit Wa La Can Acad Eng Jers 

Pen Mary Virg Car 
Geor Kent. Flor (ang pens) Mex (uad mi ta ju 

chi gaut hon ver) 4 

Firm (pa ca mar venez and gra po com dari) Per 

(quite liira chare) 
Am : Rrast (sal seba vin) Chil ( j^) Para (guai tucu 

plat) Mag 7_ 

AS (5) Tar (S sib che' thi) Tdrk (tn na curd sy di 

ar) Pe (der isp gomb) 
Ind (mog ag beng : vis go bi ni^l : pe to si co) Chi 

pek nank 
EUR (IS) ^ox-htrg. Swede-s^ocA:. (Scot-e<f'w. Ire- 

dublin. Yj'london) 
Den-C(5p. Hoi amst. Fland-Jrii**. Gt-vien. Vo-tvu. 

Russ-petre : France-par. 
^witz-basil. Hung-presb. Port-lisb. Spa.\n-mad. Ital- 

ro. Tu-constant. 

Barbary comprehends the kingdoms of Fez, Mo- 
rocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, Barca. Bildulgerid: 
Daara. Egypt: (ch. cit.) Alexandria, Cairo. Zaa- 
ra: (ch. prov.) Zuenziga. Negroland: Tombute. 
Nubia: Dangola. Guinea: Malaguette, Whydaw, 
Benin, Loango, Congo, Angola. Ethiopia : Mone- 
mugi, Monomotapa, CafFraria. 


Greenland, New-Britain, Neiv-Wales, Labrador, 


Canada, Acadia or Nova Scotia, Ntw-Englandf 
New Jersey, Pensylmnia, Maryland, Virginia, Ca- 
rolina, Georgia, Kentucky. Florida (ch. towns) 
St. Augustine, Pensacola. Mexico: (ch. prov.) 
Guadaiajarra, Mechuacan, Tabasco, Jucatau, 
Chiapa, Guatim^la, Honduras, Ver^gua. Terra- 
Firma: Panama, Carthagena, St. Martha, Vene- 
zuela, Andalusia, Granada, Popayan, Comana, 
Darien. Peru : Quito, Lima, Los-Charcos. Atna- 
zonia. Brazil: (ch. cit.) St. Salvador, St. Sebas- 
tian, St. Vincent. Chili : St. Jago. Paraguay : 
(ch. prov.) Guaira, Tucuman, Rio-de-la-PIata. Terra- 


Tartary : (ch. prov.) Astracban, Siberia, Chen- 
yang, Thibet. Turkey: THrcomania, Natolia, 
Curdistan, Syria including Palestine, Diarbec, Ey- 
raco-Arabic. Persia: (ch. cit.) Derbent, Ispahan, 
Gombroon. India: (ch. prov.) empire of the Great 
Mogul (Agra, Bengal) Visiapour, Golconda, Bisna- 
gur, Malabar, Pegu, Tonquin, Siam, ;^Cochinchina. 
China: (ch. cit.) Pekin, Nankin. 


Norway : (ch. cit.) Bergen. Sweden : Stock- 
holm. Scotland: Edinburgh. Ireland: Dublin. 
England: London. Denmark : Copenhagen. Hol- 
land: Amsterdam. Flanders: Brussels. Ger- 
many: Vienna. Poland: Warsaw. Russia: Pe- 
tersburgh. France: Paris. Switzerland: Basil. 
Hungary : Presburg. Portugal : Lisbon. Spain : 
Madrid. Italy : Rome. Turkey: Constantinople. 

Capes, lsla7ids, Penitisulas, and Mountains. 
CAPES : La Li St-e/j^. Fi W-spain. Bla Ve Good-ajn. 
C6m-malal'. Hoin-fueg. 


ISLES: 1^-den. Kz-pb. SaSicCuCy-med. Ma Ca- 

b(/rb. He-gui. Madefk. 
Maid Ceyl Sum Bo Su Jav Phi Mo Ladr-m</. Newf- 

la. So-soufh-seas. 
Bei-Jlo. BaCii Jam Hi Ric, Carib(antne mo barb) 

mex. Fue^-mao;. 
PEN : Jii-de. Mo-gre. Vie-tart, Afri. C^mb. Malac- 

ind. Me\-amer-mrrth. 
MOUNT: CheVi-scof. Vyr-spain. Alps-^f. Cauca- 

tdrt, Ap-dlavh- n-mn. 


Land's-eml, Lizard, Start-point (of) England. 
Finisterre, St. Vincent's, Spain. Blanco, Verd, 
Good-Hope, Africa, Comorin, Malabar. Horn, 


Zealand (in) Denmark. Azores (west of) Por- 
tugal. Sardinia, Sicily, Candia, Cyprus (in tbe) 
Mediterranean. Madeiras, Canaries (against) Bar- 
bary. St. Helena, Gvinea. Madagascar, Ethio- 
pia. Maldives, Ceylon, Sumatra, Borneo, Sunda, 
Java, Phillippines, Moluccas, Ladrones, East- 
Indies. Newfoundland, Labrador. Society-Isles 
(in the) South-Seas. Bermudas (against)"^ Florida. 
Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Porto-Rico : 
Caribbces (Antigua, Nevis, Montserrat, Barbadoes, 
Mexico. Fuego, Terra-Magellanica. 


Jutland (in) Denmark. Morea, Greece. Precop. 
Tartar}/. Africa. Canibaya, Malacca, East- 
Indies. Mexico, Korth^America. 


Cheviot (between) Scotland and England. Py- 
renees, Spain and France. Alps, Italy and France. 
Caucasus (in) Tartan/. "Apalachian, Norlh-Ame- 


Oceans, Seas, Gulphs, Straits, Rivers, and Lakes. 

OCEANS : Hyp. Ethi. East. Alt-West. Paci-South- 

del Zur. Ice. 
SEAS: hdde-Suiede. Chan-eng.Medeu,afr. Black 

eu,as. Casp-tartar. 
GULFS: ho Fistvtde. Ven-itdl. Red-arab. Pers. 

Ben^. Baff Hu-north-am. 
STRAITS: Sound-bait. Gi-med. Ilel-6/a. Ba-rerf. 

Sun-in. Hiid-bu. Da-baff. Mag. 
LAKES : Lad O-russ. Ne Lo scot. Ge Lu-switz, 

haha-pers. Bo-ne. Var-Jirm. 
RIV. \tS-ca. Dan-bla. Rhiger. Rh Eb Nil-wie T. 

'Eu-pers. Ga-6e. 'Mis-mex. 


Hyperborean or northern. Ethiopian. Eastern, 
Atlantic or western. Pacific or south, or mare del 
Zur. Icy near the South Pole. 


Baltic, east of Denmark and Sweden. Channel, 
south east of England. Mediterranean, between 
Europe and Africa and part of Asia. Black sea, 
between part of Europe and Asia. Caspian, in Great 


Of Bothnia and of Finland, in Sweden. Of Ve- 
nice, east of . talj/. Red-sea, between Arabia and 
Africa. Persian Gulf. Bay of Bengal in Asia. 
Batfin's and Hudson's Bays in North America. 


Sound (of the) Baltic. Gibraltar, Mediterra- 
nean, Hellespont, Black-sea. Babehnandel, Red- 
sea. Sunda, Indian-ocean. Hudson's, Button's- 
hay. Davis's, Bajffin'a-baj/. Magellan, South 



Ladoga and Onega, western part of Russia. 
Loch-Ness and Lomond (in) Scotland. Lakes of 
Geneva and Lucern, Switzerland. Babacombar, 
Persia. Bornou, Negroland. Parime, Terra 


Volga (falls into the) Caspian-sea. Danube* 
Black-sea. Rhine, German-ocean. Rhone, Ebro» 
Nile, Mediterranean. Tigris, Euphrates, Persian- 
gulf. Ganges, bay of Bengal. Missisippi, bay of 

A more particular Account 

of the several coimtries of Europe may be exhibi- 
ted, so as to give a precise idea of the situation of 
each sub-division, after the manner of the following 
specimen : in which (beside what was proposed in 
general, note 1.) such as are contiguous South- 
ward, are joind ; as in weLa- : such as are conti- 
guous Westward, are hyphend ; as in Che-De- &c. 


Its Forty Counties. 
Nor cum-dur : weLa-york ; che-de-not-linc : shrop" 

sta-le-rut norf : 
Her-wo-wa-northa : Bed-hunt-camb-suff : niourgl- 

Som-wilt-berk-middlesex : com~dev-dors-hdmp- 



On either Side cf Teneriffe. 
(East) London-Gs (West) Fer-rf. Jag-s. Nicol-o^. 
Coxyo-boi. Bras-6oM. 


Ferro. St. Jago. St. Nicholas, coast of Brasil. 

The Dutch placed the first Meridian at Teneriffe ; th« 
French, since 1634, at Ferro, two degrees w«t of Teneriffe: 
others variously, as in the memorial verse. In most of the 
French maps and those copied from them two degrees must 
be allow d on such as ate calculated on the Dutch plan to 
make them correspond ; as for example — Hamburgh is there 
said to be lone. 29 deg. 90 m. E. consequently in the French 
maps it will be found in 31 deg. 20 ra. and in similar manner 
are all the rest. Many modern geographers usually now 
calculate the first Meridian from the capital city of the state 
in which each resides : the English reckon from the Royal 
Observatory at Greenwich near London ; the North Ameri- 
cans from Philadelphia, situated 75 deg. 8 m. W. from Lon- 
don ; and several of the French from Paris 2 deg. 20 m. E. 
of London. 


The several Books of if, with the Time of their 


Its 39 Books. 

Elih-jSb ; a/>/_y ^ Mo-pent : bog. Josh: boli/.Sdiu- 

ju-ki : baz)/. 
Dav: bi/li/. Sal-pro-can-ecc : ath. M6rd-e : toz. 

E'z-chr: ety. Neh: eg. 


Jon: kse. Jo: eig. Am: peip. Hose; oieil. Is: 

p&uy. Nail : puk. 
Mic ; put. Jer: sta. Zeph : dutz. Haba : syn.'EjZi', 

loul. Oh-AAx-lkoi. 
Daniel: uU. Hag: Uz, Zechari: udx. Malachi ; 




Its 27 Books. 

Matt/fl.2 MdLX-ot. Thes-let. ?e-!o. Gal Cor 

R6ma-/oi. Luke-sa. 
Phil Col Eph^s Phile Janie-*e. Heb Act-si. Timothy 

Tim Peter-aup. Jude-pa. Revel-ow*. John-rnA.- — 

' dot in iau. 

1 i. e. Elih\i is most probably supposed to be the author 
of the book of job, about 17 30 years before the birth of 
Christ. So, Moses, the author of the p«itateuch, flourished 

in the year before Christ 1400. And so of the rest 

N. B Ezra, is thought by the Jewish doctors to have writ the 
chronicles [the 36th chapter of Genesis, the last of Joshua 
and Jeremiah ; and to have revised and settled the cannon of 
the old testament.] 

2 i. e. Mntlhew writ his gospel about the year of our Lord 
41. And so of the rest. 

3 i. c. 27 books (from the year 41 to 97) in 36 years. 


Its Kings, since the Conquest, with the Commence- 
ment of their Reigns. 

Will Conq-sau,^ Ruf-koi. Hen ist-ag. Steph-6i7. 

He sec-bt(f. 
Rich ist-Je/n. JoHN-fln«. HfiNSd-rfcs. Edward 

1 st-doid. 
Ed 2<i-t> p, 3dtep. Ri sec-ipp. Hen Uh-toun, 

5th Jut. 
6th fed. Fd ^thfaub, 5th, RY 3d feU. He 7th-/«7, 

Ed 6t\\-l6p. M AB.Y -lat. Els luk, Jame Ist-sj/t, Cii 

ist Sf^. 

Car 2d 6wi. jAMEse-«e^/. Will MA-wm. Ann- 
pyd. Geopaf, pep. 


I i. e. WiHiam the coTt^ueror began his reign (accounting 

the year to begin January i) A. D. 1066 N. B. 1000 is 

omitted throughout this list. 


The grand or universal ones, their Rise, Fall, 
and Continuance. 

ASS : Nrn(A.M><5'/>dA-. Sar-frf^ (BAB-j/an, Pers- 

t/ruboi, Grec iV/-T- 
Cass-ma-gre. Lys thrac-he-bos. Ptolem a6-lib-a- 

pal-sy. Seleue as.) 
BOM : iu\-ini/'d, }ov-otat -f- East, West : taken 

C6n-loze, Rom-otun : 
A'Iar(A.D)-o62, Atti-/.?. Gkns/ul. Od-ops. Tlieod- 

oni. Tot-lop. 

i. e. The Assyrian monarchy begun in Ninus (A. M.) 

1748, and ended with As^araddinu^ in 3^35; being swallowd 
up by the BABylonian, which ended i,with Nabonadius) in 
3419, (when Cyrus reignd over all Asia) so the kins^dom 
was translated to the PEBsians: from whom (by the con- 
quest of Darius Codomannus) in 3617, Alexander translated 
it to the GnEcians : after whose death, in 3(i-25, it was (-j-) 
divided (alter the confusion of a few years) among four of 
his followers. Cassdinder had wacedon and ^rfce : Lysi- 
machus had thrace, with those parts of Asia that border on 
the /lellespont and the /'Oiphorus : Ptolemy had irgypt, libya, 
arabia, palciUne, and ctrloiyf'a: ■Se/ei/nis, all the rest of 
as\a. The ►RoMan monarchy begun %vith Ju.l'i\js Cae- 
sar, in 3902; and ended in Jovian in 4313: after whose 
death it was (-f-) divided into the Eastern, and IVestcxn em- 
pires : the former of which ended by the taking of C'an- 
stantinoplc (under Constantine I'alseologus) in 5402 ; the 
latter by the taking of Romt (under Honorius) in 43f>9; 
A. D. 410; hy Alanc, king of the Goths: after whom it 
was overrun and ravagd by Alli\d, king of the Huns, in 4jl ; 
by Gen^eric, the Vandal, in 455; by Of/oacer, king of the 
Heruli, in 476; by Theudouc, king ot the Ostrogoths, ia 
493; by Talilas, the Ostrogoth, in 547. 

M M 


Bodies of Soldiers, 

R] Decbi/. Cen-az7/. Man-eg. Turm-ig". Cohor-dug, 

hegi-auth. Ph-eith. 
E] Comp uz,ag. Si[\idid-ag,eg. B-dlgfCig. Brigad- 

ath,hag. V\t^-ig,auth. 

1. The Roman L,eg-iow consisted of (at a medium) 6000 
men : though the nuniber was different, at different times, 
from 3o to 6666. And, in proportion, the other bodies, 
viz. Deairia, 10. Centuria, lOO. Manipulus, 200. Turma^ 
300. Cohors, 600. Phalanx, 8000. 

2. An English Regiment is. from 300 to 1000 men. 
And, in propor ion, the other bodies, viz. Company, 5o- 
100. Squadron, 100-200. Battalion, 500-800. Brigade^ 

Natural ^fjtlo^ojifjp* 



TTie Value, for several Ages of Life. 

K-hz,dei ^ Az-b',fo. '£.z-hf,pei. lzb^,pe. Oz-uz,iip. 

\]z-ou,€b. \]\-k,nb. Auz oi,^y. 'Aul-du,lo. Oizl,id. 

1. i. e- for (A) 1 year of age, the value of an annuity is 
^a,det) lo,'28 years purcliase. And so of the rest. V. Hal- 
iey, ap. Lowthorp, vol 3. p. 669. 


Of Noah, and of the Covenant Testimony, their 
Dimensions in Cubits. 

(Gov) L-e,re. V>v-A,re. Da, re. (Noah) L-ig. Br-wx. 
D-Jz ; for Biids-f«-, Qn-ag. 


i. e. The Ark of the Covenant was a sort of Chest in 

length, fireadth. Depth, 2|: 1^: l^. of Noah was a 

sort of Ship, 300 : 50 : 30 : sufficient to hold (with food, 
&c.) all kinds of Birds (viz.) JOo . Quadrupeds, lOO. V. Gen. 
6. 15. Exod. 25. 10. 


Its He'f^ht, Weight, Elasticity, SfC. 

Atmosphere (HiGU rai(es-o2 ') on a foot-square 

presses emuz pounds ; 
On 13 feet (for a man) tuns-a/: when least, tun fl,re 

less 2 ; 
Weighing as l to (water) eig to mercury) 

azth eig ^. 
C6mprest, on Earth, to atpaun * ; by Art, (JO times 

more, to kesboz. 

1 As appears by a calculation, made by M. de la Hire, from 
the crepuscula. 

2 As appears by calculations made from the Torricellian 
experiments. V. Jurin, ap Varen. 1. 6. ly. 7. 

3 i. e. The weight of air compard to that of water, is as 1 
to 800, &c. V. Hauksbee's exper. 

4 i. e. The common air we breathe, near the surface of the 
earth, is comprest, by the bare weight of the incumbent at- 
mosphere, into a 13769th part of the space it would take-up, 
were it at liberty. V. Boyle, ap. Wallis. hydrost. 13 Philos. 
trans, n. 181. 


Of Matter, actually great. 

By great Effluvia, in along time, bodies I6se but 

a small weight ^ 
Cnndle, an inch, convdxted to Light gives 

parts a nonillion. ♦ 


1 As is evident in perfumes, &c. 

2 At which rate there must fly out of it, as it burns, in 
the second of a minute, 418,660,0OO,000,0OO,000,0OO,OOO, 
000,000,000,000,000,000,000 particles : vastly more than a 
looo times a looo millions the number of sands the whele 
earth can contain; reckoning lo inches to 1 foot, and that 
100 sands are equal to i inch. V. Nieuwent. rel. phil. vol. S. 
p. 858. 


Of Bodies, veHy great* 

Microscopical Spiders ^ spin at-a-time, at least, 

Glass may be drawn ^ as a web, and knit to the 4th 

6f a line space \ 
Gold, on Silver-wire, is drawn * to the p^rt of an 


, 1 i. e. Such are not visible but b7 a microscope. 

2 ** As fine as a spider's web :" but not long enough to he 

3 i. e. So, that the space in the middle of the knot shall net 
exceed one 4th of a line, or one 48th of an inch. 

4 " To the 14-niillionth part of an inch, in thinness :" and 
yet is so perfect a cover to the silver, that there is not an. 
aperture to admit alcohol of wine (the subtilest fluid in n** 
ture) nor even light itself. Reaumur. 


Fram Water, its Quantity. ^ 

FooT-squSre, by h6at, in a day, evaporates h^lf of a 

wine pint ^. 
So, Medi tuns-udky'm ^ ; near a third more than's 

brought by tlie rivers ^. 

\ According to experiments made by Dr. Halley, ap. 
Miscell. curios, vol. 1. To which it may be added, that the 
winds do sometimes carry-ofFmore than rises by heat. 


2 Estimating the il/editerranean at 40 degrees long, and 4 

3 V. Rivers, and, consequently, from the whole watery 
surface abundantly enough to furnish all the dews, rains, 
springs, rivers. Sec. that are convey'd into the ocean. 


JLife, Marriage, Parts, Perspiration. 

LirE, out of dg, but — at Aii, so * — at Asji/ — at 

Es, bit — at /*, bau 
He at Os, dz at Us,au & at Aus, i — 

at Ois, a. 
Mark, a in uzf-: bir-/^ (to bur as a,au to a *) 

males-6o to fern at ^. 
BoNEs-e«/. MuscLEs-/f7i. TEETU-/rf Blood 

as ag to aauy ^. 
Beats, iu an hour, times-o^/t ; and an ounce, at a 

time, is discharged "^ : 
.52 feet in a minute; as sept-og- to 1 \n th6 ex- 
tremes ^. 
Perspire through pores ( belth-\\\\txtoi by one 

grain of sand may be coverd) 
5 parts of 8 (a day's food) from hours 5, after meals, 

to the 12th, 3'^ 

1 i. e. Of the children born, out of loo, there are living, 
at 6 years of age, but 64. And so of the rest. V. Halley, 
ap. Lowthorp. vol. 3. p. 699. N. B. On observa- 
tions of this nature, drawn from the bills of mortality, is 
computed the value of annuities for different ages of life. V. 

2 1. e. 1 in 104 Marry. King. 

3. i. e. Marriages, one with another, do each produce 4 
births. Derham. 

4 i.e. Births to Burials arc as 1, 6 to 1. Derham. 

5 i. e. Males, born, to Females, are as 14 to 13. Graunt. 

6 i.e. In a body, weighing 1 69 pound, loo thereof are 
Blood; understanding thereby not only the fluid containd in 
the veins and arteries ; but also that in the lymphae-ducts, 
nerves, and the other vessels, secreted from it, and returnd 
into it, Keil. 

M M 3 


7 i. c. 250 pounds in an hour , at the rate of the whole 
mass, in 24 minutes. 

s i. e. The blood is driven out of the heart into the great 
artery with a velocity, which would carry it 52 feet in a 
minute : a velocity to that of its motion in the remotest 
branches, as loo septillions [7th period] to 1. 

9 Within 5 hours after eating, there is perspird about 1 
pound; from the I2th to the 1 6th scarce half-a-oound. Sane- 
tori us. 

The Quantity of their Waters. 

At Kirngston-bridge, Thames (yards Broad-ae-, 

Dee}W) 2 mile an hour Runs ^ : 
tuns-em igih in a day ; rh e ti po ni do niest nieper 

akdoim 2. 

1. In a day, 48 miles, 84,480 yards; which multiplied by 
(3 times 100, the profile of water at the bridge, viz.) 
906 yards, gives 25,344,000 cubic yards of water, i. e. 
20,300,090 tuns. 

2 The most considerable rivers that fall into the Meditbr- 
FANEAH sea, are the Rhone, Ebro, Tiler, Po, Danube, Nile, 
Don,Niester, Nieper, Each of these is supposed to carry-down 
10 times as much water as the Thames (not that any of 
Owto is so great ; but so to allow for the other lesser rivers 
that fell into that sea). Now the water of the Thames 
tciftg computed, as above, at about 20,300,000 tuns ; the 3 
rivers aforesaid will amount, each, to 209,000,000 ; in »B, 
i,827,«oo,ooot«'ns. V. Evapofation. 


Solomon Lowe was a schoolmaster at 
Hammersmith, and author of the following 
works. — I. The Protestant Family Piece, or, a 
pictme of Popery, 8°. 17 16. — II. KOINA 
KAINHS : an appendix to Grammar, contain- 
ing Rhetoric and Prosody, with directions for 
Composing, Construing, Parsing, Writing ele* 
gantly, and gaining a Copia of Thoughts and 
Words. To which are added, very short, plain, 
and comprehensive rudiments of the French and 
Greek Tongues, 8^ 1719.-111. A Specimen 
of a Latin Grammar, 8". 1722. — IV. A Gram- 
mar of the Latin Tongue, with appendix and 
notes, 8°. 1724. — V. Italian Rudiments, 8". 
1728.— VI. Latin Rudiments, 8°. 1729.— VII. 
The Occasional Critique; containing, (1.) On 
the Dean of Rochester's Latin Grammar. (2.) 
On Dr. Busby's Latin Grammar, as improved 
by his successors. (3.) On Education, etc. (4.) 
A Proposal of a new scheme of Grammar, 
8°. 1736* — VIII. English Grammar reformed, 
8". 1737.— IX. Rhetoric delineated, 8°. 1737. 
Of the following publications we have not 
been enabled to ascertain the dates. — I. An easy 
method of initiating Children in the Latin 

• These tracts were published separately under dif- 
ferent titles and afterwards reprinted with the title of 
the Occasional Critique. No. 4, the last, was entitled 
^\}Z Mi^tsmt, etc. and publislied in 1732. 


Tongue, 8°. — II. A New System of English 
Examples to Latin Syntax, 8°. — III. A Voca- 
bulary Latin and English. — IV. Sententia pue- 
riles, Latin and English. — V. English Exam- 
ples to Latin Syntax. — VI. A Construing Book 
and Supplement, — VII. Greek Characters and 
Abbreviations, in a Table. 

QQ. Dan. Geo. 3IorhoJii Polyhistor 
Literarius Philosophicus et Prac' 
ticus, cum accessionihus virorum 
clarissimorum J oh. Frickii et J oh. 
Molleri Flenshurg. [Edit. Quart.] 
2 t07n. 4°. Luhecce, 1747. 

In this work there are two ingenious disserta- 
tions, 1. De Arte Liil/iana similibusque inven- 
tis. '2. D^ Memoria subsidiis. To these w€ 
confess some obligations ; although Morhof, 
from unavoidable circumstances, was not con- 
sulted till most of the collections were made for 
this account of the systems of Artificial Me- 

Daniel George Morhof, was born at 
Wismar, in the Dutchy of Mecklenburgh, in the 
year 1639. He studied at Stettin and Rostock, 
and visited Holland and Oxford ; and in lG65, 
was invited by the Duke of Holstein to become 
Professor of Poetry, Eloquence, and History, 
and Librarian in the University of Kiel, H« 


died in I69I. His principal work is the Poly- 
histor, a complete storehouse of miscellaDeous 

67. Cartas Eruditas y CuriosaSy por D. 
Fr, B. J. Feyjdo, 4°. 5 torn. Ma- 
drid, 1781. 

In this work* there is a dissertation on reme- 
dies for the memory, and one on the Art of Me- 
mory, in which several books on the subject are 
named. In another essay, the principles of the 
art are stated to consist in particular places and 
images, and a sphere or globe is divided into va*" 
rious compartments. In the tenth section of this 
essay, Feyjoo speaks of remembering certain 
words by the means of images, and, in the eleventh 
section, illustrates the application of the art to 
poetry, by two examples taken from a treatise 
on Artificial Memory, by Count de Nolegar, 
which may be seen in another part of this work.-l* 

Benedict Jerom Feyjoo was a Spanish 
Benedictine, and attempted by his writings and 
example to correct and reform the vitiated no- 
tions of his countrymen. His Theatro CriticOj 
in 9 vols, and the Cartas Eruditas, in 5 vols. 
4**. are works of considerable merit. Feyjoo 
censures, with great freedom and spirit, the igno- 

• Tom. I. pp. 200—228. t See p. 165. 


ranee aud licentiousness of the clergy, and ex- 
poses the futility of pilgrimages, pretended mi- 
racles, and superistitious exorcisms. Tbis con- 
duct rendered him obnoxious to the pains and 
penalties of the church, and Feyjoo was, with 
difficulty, saved from the horrors of the Inqui- 
sition. He died in 1765. 

We have not been enabled to procure the date 
of the following books ; the titles, therefore, 
could not be inserted in regular order. 

1. Anacardina a la Arte de Memoria. 

2. Joh. Aguilera de Arte Memories. 

3. Epiphaniide Muirans, Ars Memoria ad- 
mirabilis, omnium nescientium excedens captum. 

4. Franc. Conti de Arte Memoria, 

5. Hieronj/mus Megiserus de Arte Memoria. 

6. Aharo Ferreija de Vera, Trattaio de JVJc- 
moria artijiciosa. 





Statural iMemorp* 



115 TIoRTENSius, the celebrated Roman 
Orator, and contemporary of Cicero, was aided 
by uncomujon powers of memory. He was able 
to repeat a whole oration in the words he had 
previously conceived it, without committing it to 
writing ; and to go through all the arguments of 
an opponent in their proper order. As a proof 
of the degree in which he possessed this faculty, 
it is said that he once attended a whole day at a 
public sale, and at the end of it, recited, iu 
regular order, the names of all the buyers, the 
articles sold, and their prices, with perfect ex- 


65. A. D. — Seneca. "Age (says Seneca) 
has done me many injuries, and deprived me of 
many things I once had : it hath dulled the sight 
of my eyes, blunted the sense of my hearing, and 
slackened my nerves. Amongst the rest 1 have 
mentioned before is the memory, a thing that is 
the most tender and frail of all parts of the soul, 
and which is first sensible to the assaults of age : 
that heretofore this did so flourish in me, as not 
only served me for use, but might even pass for 
a miracle I cannot deny ; for I could repeat two 
thousand names in the same order as they were 
spoken, and when as many as were scholars 
to my master, brought each of them several 
verses to him, so that the number of them 
amounted to more than two hundred, beginning 
at the last, I could recite them orderly unto the 
first : nor was my memory only apt to receive 
such things as I would commit to it, but was 
also a faithful preserver of all that I had entrusted 
it with." 

980. A. D.— AvicENNA, or Ebn-Sina, an 
Arabian philosopher and physician, was born at 
Arsena, near Bocchara, and possessed a ready 
genius, and a wonderful memory. At the age 
of ten he made great progress in the languages, 
and could repeat the Koran by heart. He read 
over the books of Aristotle's Metaphysics forty 
times ; and by this means so fixed them in his 


memory, that he could repeat them with fa- 

1484. A. D. — Joseph Scaliger. The works 
of Homer, (says Waiiley) are his Iliads and Odys- 
8eys, the former consist of twenty- four books, and 
so also the latter. His Iliads have in it thirty-one 
thousand six hundred and seventy verses, and I 
suppose his Odysseys have no less ; and yet it is 
said of Joseph Scaliger, that in one-and-twenty 
days he committed alt Homer to his memory. 

1522. A. D. — Bishop Jewel had naturally 
a very strong meiwory, which he greatly improved 
by art ; so that he could readily repeat any thing 
that he had written after once reading it. His 
own sermons w ere chiefly extempore from heads 
which he had penned down, and on which he 
used to meditate while the bell was ringing to 
summon the congregation to church. He is said 
to have taught his method of artificial memory 
to his old tutor, Dr. Parkhnrst, while they 
were at Zurich ; who in the space of 28 days, 
with only one hour's application on each day, 
learned all the 28 chapters of St. Matthew's 
Gospel so perfectly, that he could readily repeat 
the whole, or any particular verse, knowing at 
the same time what went before, or what fol- 
lowed after, any verse that was mentioned to 

So firm was the memory of Bishop Jewel 

N N 


that he used to say, if he were to deliver a pre- 
meditated speech before a thousand auditors, 
shouting or fighting all the while, they would not 
put him out. John Hooper, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, who was burnt in the reign of Queen 
Mary, once, to try him, wrote about forty 
Welsh and Irish words. Mr. Jewel going a 
little while aside and recollecting them in his 
memory, and reading them twice or thrice over, 
said them by heart, backward and forward, ex- 
actly in the same order in which they were set 
down. And, at another time, he did the same 
by ten lines of Erasmus* paraphrase in English; 
the words of which being read sometimes con- 
fusedly without order, and sometimes in order 
by the Lord Keeper Bacon, Mr. Jewel thinking 
' awhile on them, presently repeated them again. 

1547- A. D. — Lipsius, an eminent philoso- 
pher and critic, born at Isch, near Brussels, was 
remarkable for the extent of his memory. He 
remembered th« whole history of Tacitus, and 
pledged himself to recite word for wordy any 
passage that might be required. So confident 
was he of having this book fixed in his memory, 
that he allowed a person to stand by him with a 
dagger, and to pUmge it into his body if he did 
not repeat, faitlifully, the words of the author. 

1585. A. D. — MuRET ill his Varite Lectiones 
has the following anecdote. In Padua, near 


unto me, dwelt a young man of Corsica, of good 
birth, and sent thither to study the civil law ; in 
the study of which he had spent some years with 
that diligence and attention, that there was now 
raised amongst us a great opinion of his learning. 
He came almost every day to my house, and there 
went a report, that he attained to an art of me- 
mory, by assistance of which he was able to 
perform that which another could not believe 
unless he beheld it ; when I heard this, I had a 
desire to behold these wonderful things, as one 
not very credulous of such matters as come by 
hearsay. I therefore desired him to give me 
some such kind of instance of his art as he should 
think fit. He told me he would do it when I 
pleased. " Immediately, then," said I ; and 
when he refused not, all we who were present 
went into the next room; there did I dictate 
Latin, Greek, and barbarous names, some signi- 
ficant, others not ; so many, and so different, 
having not the least dependance one upon the 
other, that I was weary with dictating, and the 
boy with writing what I dictated, and all the rest 
with hearing, and expectation of the issue. 
When we were thus diversely wearied, he alone 
called for more. But I myself said it was fit to 
observe some measure : and that I should be 
abundantly satisfied if he could but recite me the 
one half of those 1 had caused already to be set 


down. He fixing his e^es upon the ground 
(with great expectation on our part,) after a short 
pause oegaii to speak. In brief, to our amaze- 
ment, he repeated ali we had written in the very 
same order they were set down, without scarce 
a stop or any hesitation : and then beginning at 
the last, recited them all backwards to the first ; 
then so as that he would name only the first, 
third, fifth, and in that order repeat all ; and in- 
deed in what order we pleased, without the least 
error. Afterwards, when I was more familiar 
with him (having often tried him, and yet never 
found him speaking otherwise than the truth,) he 
told me once, and certainly he was no boaster,^ 
that he could repeat in that manner thirty-six 
thousand names, and which was yet the most 
strange, things stuck in his memory, that he 
would say, with little trouble, he could repeat 
any thing he had entrusted within a y«ar after. 
For my own part, I made trial of him after 
many days, and found he said true. He taught 
Franciscus Molinus, a young patrician of Venice^ 
and who had but a weak memory, in the com- 
pass of but seven days, wherein he had learned 
of him to repeat five hundred names with ease, 
and in what order he pleased. 

1649. A. D. — Famianus Stbada, in his 
first book of academical prolttsions, speaking of 
Frauciscus Suarez, says, J* he hath so strong 


a memory, that he hath St. Augustine (the most 
copious and various of the fathers) ready by 
heart, allegin<; every where, as occasion presents 
itself, fully and failhfully his sentences, and, 
which is very strange, his words ; nay, if he be 
demanded any thing touching any passage in 
any of his volumes (which of themselves are al- 
most enough to till a library,) I myself have seen 
him instantly showing and pointing with his finger 
to the place and page in which he disputed of 
that matter. 

1661. A. D. — Dr. Thomas Fuller, the 
author of the Worthies of England, had so great 
a memory, (says Wanley) that he could name in 
order all the signs on both sides the way from the 
beginning of Pater-noster-Row at Ave-Maria- 
Lane, to the bottom of Cheapside to Stocks- 
Market* And that he could dictate to five 
several writers at the same time, un as many 
different subjects. This gentleman making a 
visit to a committee of sequestrators sitting at 
Waltham in Essex, they soon fell into a dis- 
course and commendation of his great memory ; 

* The site of Stock-Market is now occiipiod by the 
Mansion-House, and many other adjacent buiUiings. The 
celebrated Heidegger it is said, could name all the signs 
from the Exchange to St. James's, on one side the street, 
after walking once to obsei-\'e them. 
N N .S 


to which Mr. Fuller replied, " 'Tis true, gen- 
tlemen, that fame has given me the report of a 
memorist, and if you please I will give you an 
experiment of it." They all accepted the mo- 
tion, and told him they sh uuld look upon it as an 
obligation, laid aside the business before them, 
and prayed him to begin. " Gentlemen, (says 
he) I will give you an instance of my good me- 
mory in that particular. Your worships have 
thought fit to sequester an honest poor but cava- 
lier parson, my neighbour, from his living, and 
committed him to prison ; he has a great charge 
of children, and his circumstances are but indif- 
ferent, if you please to release him out of prison, 
and restore him to his living, I will never forget 
the kindness while I live." 'Tis said the jest 
had such an influence upon the committee, that 
they immediately released and restored the poor 

1676. A. D. — ^HuMPHRY Burton, of Co- 
ventry, at the age of eighty-three, could (says 
Wanley) by the strength and firmness of his me- 
mory, give the sum of any chapter in the New 
Testament, and of the chapters in divers books 
of the Old Testament, in a Latin distich, with 
as much readiness, and as little hesitation, as if 
he had directly read them out of a book. I my- 
self have frequently put him to the trial ; wherein, 
though I have observed no order, but named 


here a chapter at the beginning, then one to- 
wards the end, then again returned to the mid- 
dle, and so on purpose prevented any assistance 
lie might have from an orderly succession and 
dependance ; yet could I no sooner name the 
chapter and book whereof I desired the account, 
but he was ready with liis distich. 

1684. A. D.— Dr. Wallis. In the Phi- 
losophical Transactions for the years 1686-7,* 
Dr. Wallis gives an account of his j>erforming 
arithmetical operations in great numbers, by 
night in the dark ; and conceives that we can 
use our memory with greater advantage at this 
time, that we can by day, when our thoughts 
are diverted by sights and noises. " Having had 
the curiosity (says Dr. Wallis) heretofore to try, 
how the strength of memory would suffice me, 
to perform some arithmetical operations (as Mul- 
tiplication, Division, Extraction of Roots, etc.) 
without the assistance of pen and ink, or ought 
equivalent thereunto ; and finding it to succeed 
well, (for instance) in extracting the square Root 
from numbers of 8, 10, 12, or more places : I 
proceeded to try it (with success) in numbers of 
20, 30, 40 places. But was not curious to keep 
memorials of the particular numbers which I had 
$0 considered, (as being but a curiosity, and not of 

• Vol. xr. p. U69. 


farther use,) till there happened an occasional 
discourse of it with a forraigner ( J ohaimes 
Georgius Pehhover, Regio-Montanus Borus- 
sus) who coming to see the University was 
pleased, as divers other forraigners often do) to 
give me a visit: Feb. 18, I6f" at a time when I 
was afflicted with a tedious and severe quartan 
ague, (which held me for a whole year from 
about Michaelmas then last past, till about the 
same time in the year following;) which caused 
me to pass my nights with little or no sleep. 

" He was desirous I would tell him some of 
those numbers which I had so considered. Which 
at the present, for the reason but now mentioned) 
1 could not do ; save only that, on Dec. 22, l669, 
I had (by night in the dark) extracted the square 
root of 3 (with ciphers adjoined) contained to the 
twentieth place of decimal fractions : finding it 
to be : 

1. 73205,08075,68877,y9353,/cre. 

Which is the square root of o, with forty ciphers 
adjoined ; 

3,00000. 00000. 00000. OOOOO. 00000. 00000. 00000. 00000- 

(which I had chanced to write down, because 
7 3 is a surd which I might after have occasion 
to make use of) but added, that I could at plea- 
sure perform the like at any time." 

1714. A. D — Antonio MAor.iABECHi 
was born at Florence, Oct. 2<), 1633. Such 


wsa the poverty of his parents, that they thought 
themselves happy in getting him into the service 
of a man who sold herbs and fruit. Here he 
took every opportunity, though he could not tell 
one letter from another, to pore on the leaves of 
some old books that served for waste paper, de- 
claring that he loved it of all things. A neigh- 
bouring bookseller, who observed this, took him 
into his service. Young Magliabechi soon 
learned to read ; and his inclination for reading 
became his ruling passion ; and a prodigious 
memory his distinguished talent. He read every 
book that came into his hands, and retained not 
only the sense of what he read, but often all the 
words, and the very manner of spelling, if sin- 
gular. To make trial of the force of his me- 
mory, a gentleman lent him a manuscript he was 
going to print. Some time after it was returned, 
the gentleman came to him, with a melancholy 
face, and pretended it was lost. Magliabechi 
being requested to recollect what he remembered 
of it, wrote the whole without missing a word, 
or varying the spelling. He was consulted by 
all the learned who proposed to write on any 
subject. If a priest, for instance, was going to 
compose a panegyric on a saint, Magliabechi 
would tell him every author, to the number of 
an hundred sometimes, who had said any thing 
of that saint, naming the book and the page, and 


the very words. He did this so often, and so 
readily, that he came at last to be looked upon 
as an oracle; and Cosmo III. Grand Duke of 
Florence, made him his librarian, the most suit- 
able office to Magliabechi's genius. In the latter 
part of his life, when a book came into his 
hands, he would read the title-page all over, dip 
here and there in the preface, dedication, and 
prefatory advertisements, if there were any ; and 
then cast his eyes on each of the divisions, sec- 
tions, or chapters. After this, he could tell at 
any time what the book contained. 

" Though Magliabechi must have lived a very 
sedentary life, yet he attained to the age of 81. 
He died July 14, 1714, in the midst of the pub- 
lic applause, after enjoying, during all the latter 
part of his life, such an affluence as very few 
persons have ever procured by their knowledge or 
learning. By his will he left a very line library 
collected by himself, for the use of the public, 
with a fund to maintain it ; and the overplus of 
the fund to the poor. It had been usual for 
every author and printer to make him a present 
of a copy of every thing they published. 

" Though he was not an ecclesiastic, he would 
never marry. He was quite slovenly in his 
dress. He received his friends, and those who 
came to consult him on any point of literature, 
in a civil and obliging manner; though in gene- 
ral he had almost the air of a savage, and even 


affected it ; together with a cynical or contemp- 
tuous smile. In his maimer of living, he affect- 
ed the character of Diogenes : three hard eggs, 
and a draught or two of water, were his u»ual 
repast. When any one went to see him, they 
most usually found him lolling in a sort of fixt 
wooden cradle in the middle of his study, with a 
multitude of books, some thrown in heaps, and 
others scattered about the floor, all around him ; 
and this his cradle or bed, was attached to the 
nearest pile of books by a number of cobwebs. 
At their entrance he commonly used to call out 
to them, ' Not to hurt his spiders.'*" 

1748. A. D. — William Lyon. In the 
Getitleman's Magazine for the year 1752,t there 
is the following singular anecdote. " William 
Jjyon, a strolling player, who performed at the 
theatre at Edinburgh, and who was excellent in 
the part of Gibby, the Highlander, gave a sur- 
prising instance of memory. One evening, over 
his bottle, he wagtr'd a crown bowl of punch, 
(a liquor of which he was very fond,) that next 
morning at the rehearsal, he would repeat a 
Daily yJdvertiser from beginning to end. At 
the rehearsal, his opponent n minded him of the 
wager, imaginmg as he was drunk the night 
before, that he must certainly have forgot it, and 

. * Spence's Paralkl of Hill and Magliabechi. 
t Vol. xxii. p. 411. 


rallied him on his ridiculous bragging of his me- 
mory. Jjifon pulled out the paper, desired him 
to look at it, and be judge himself whether he 
did or did not win his wager. Notwithstanding 
the unconnected matter of the paragraphs — the 
variety of atJvertisements — and the general chaos 
which goes to the composition of a newspaper, 
he repeated it from beginning to end, without the 
least hesitation or mistake. Lyon died about 
four years ago at Edinburgh, where he had 
played with great success."* 

1751. A. D. — Jedediah Buxton. A 
con espondent in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
February 1751,-i- gives the following account of 
this extraordinary man. *' It is necessary to 
premise first that he is no scholar, not being able 
to scrawl his own name ; and secondly that his 
attainments are of his own pure industry, for that 
he never had further help towards them, than his 
learning the multiplication table in his youth ; 
yet without the assistance of pen, ink, or chalk, 
or any other mark, he will nmltiply 5 or 6 figures 
by as many, or divide as large sums off hand, in a 
very short time, sooner than the most concise of 
your arithmeticians pretend to. 

* '< We have heard of this performance (says the editor) 
many years since, when th ■ Daily Advertiser, thongh larger 
than other papers, was not so large and crowded as it has 
been of late." t Vol. xxi. p. 61. 


" I met with him by accident last summer, 
and after hearing of his performances, I first 
proposed to him the following random question : 
In a body whose 3 sides are 23 1457S9 yards, 
5641733 yards, and 54965 yards, how many cu- 
bical glhs of an inch ? After once naming the 
several figures distinctly one after another, in or- 
der to assure himself of the several dimensions 
and fix them in his mind, without more ado he 
fell to work amidst more than a 100 of his fellow 
labourers, and after leaving him about 5 hours, 
on some necessary concerns (in which time I 
calculated it with the pen) at my return, he told 
me he was ready : Upon which taking out my 
pocket-book and pencil, to note down his answer, 
he asked me which end 1 would begin at, for he 
would direct me either way. I chose the regular 
method, and to my great suprize, found that in 
a line of 28 figures, he made no hesitation nor 
the least mistake. Many such questions did 
several other people give him, which he never 
failed to answer truly ; yea he often corrected 
those who wrought with the pen. What is more 
astonishing than this, he would suflTer two people 
to propose different questions, one immediately 
after the other, and give each their respective 
answers, without the least confusion. So reten- 
tive is his memory, that he will repeat his an- 
swers a month or two afterwards if you ask him. 
o o 


" He will stride over a piece of land or a field, 
and tell you the contents of it almost as exact as 
if you measured it by the chain. Some years 
ago he measured in this manner the whole lord- 
ship of Elmion, of some thousand acres, be- 
longing to Sir John Rhodes, and brought him 
the contents, not only in acres, roods, and 
perches, but even in square inches ; after this, 
for his own amusement, he reduced them into 
square hairs-breadths, computing (I think) 48 to 
each side of the inch, which produced such an 
incomprehensible number, that instead of enter- 
taining the mind w ith any sort of pleasure, serves 
more to amaze and distract it. 

" Millions, millions upon millions, tribes, 
cramps, and so on, (for in this manner he enu- 
merates his long series of numbers) are as plain 
and familiar to him, as pounds, shillings, and 
pence ; I may say more familiar, for he has sel- 
dom more than a week's wages before hand. Jt 
was but the other day, he set himself a voluntary 
question, to calculate how much one farthing 
doubled 140 times would amount to. This he 
desired me to set down in 39 places of pounds, 
and an odd 2s. Sd. When I asked him if he 
could multiply this immense sum into itself, he 
said he would undertake it, and the odd fraction 
likewise if I pleased; but I dismissed him with 
the whole numbers, and shall not be more amaz- 


ed at his bringing a true answer, than I have 
been already at lii^ surprising performances, 
some of which have cost him many days study ; 
but be the work long or short it is all one to him, 
because he reassumes the operation in the morn- 
ing at the same place he left it over night, and 
so continues till he has finished it. If at any 
time you find an error in his answer, he will 
overhaul, as he terms it, and find out his mistake 
himself, rather than be convicted by your pen." 

Another correspondent in the same Magazine 
for August 1751,* affords some farther informa- 
tion concerning Buxton. He says, " I perceive 
he has a good notion of the square, oblong, 
triangle, and circle. The first question I pro- 
posed was as follows : admit a field 423 yards 
long, and 383 wide, what was the area ? After I 
had read the figures to him distinctly, he gave 
me the true product, viz, 1 62009 yards, in t\vo 
minutes, for I observed by my watch how long 
every operation took him. 1 then asked him 
how many acres the aforesaid field measured ? In 
1 1 minutes he told me 33 acres, I rood, 35 
perches, 20 yards, and a quarter just. I then 
proposed to him, how many barley corns would 
reach 8 miles P In a minute and half he answered 
1520640 barley corns. He is the slowest in 

• Vol. xxi. p. 347. 


finding the area of a circle, but yet he finds it 
very near the truth, though he don't use the ma- 
thematical rules. Allowing the distance between 
York and London to be 204 miles, J asked him 
how many times a coach-wheel turned round in 
that distance, allowing the wheel's circumference 
to be six yards? In 13 minutes he answered 
59840 times. The next proposition was, a tub 
or bin 346 inches long, 256 inches wide, 94 
inches deep, how many gallons liquid measure 
and what corn will it hold ? Answer, 3,454,464 
solid inches, or 1,768,685,568 half quarters of 
solid inches, making 12,249,872 gallons liquid 
measure, or 12249 gallons, 3 quarts, and 34f 
inches; or it will hold 191 quarters, 3 bushels, 
3 quarterns, a half quartern, and 34^ inches re- 

" Again, suppose a canal was to be dug 426 
feet long, 203 wide, and 2 feet deep, how many 
cubical yards of earth to be removed ? After 
pausing a quarter of an hour he answered, 10373 
yards 24 feet. He will talk with you freely 
whilst he is doing his questions, it being na 
molestation or hindrance to him, but enough to 
confound a penn)an. His memory is so great, 
that he can leave off and reassume the operation 
again, at a week, month, or at several months 
end; he calls his figures all by their proper 
names, and is very ready at naming them either 


backwards or forwards. From May, 17, 10 h. 
A. D. 1725, he told me he was drunk (to make 
use of his expression) with reckoning by his me- 
naory till June \Q, following, and then slept 
somidly seven hours, but will never attem' t so 
much reckoning again, for fear of falling into the 
same dilemma. I suppose what he means by 
his being drunk, was his being so much stupified 
with thought, a5 rendered him incapable ol busi- 
ness ; when it may well be said neque pes, 7iegue 
mens satis suum officiumfacit, 

" But, to proceed further with this uncommon 
man, 1 was led by curiosity to know what ques- 
tion it was that caused his drunkenness ; to which 
he replied, in answering the following question. 
In 202,680,000,360 miles, and each mile reck- 
oned to be cubical, how many barley-corns, 
vetches, peas, wheat, oats, rye, beans, lintels, and 
how many hairs, each an inch long, would fill 
that space, reckoning 48 hairs in breadth to an 
inch on the flat, as he found ihem to be so. I 
shall here subjoin his table of measures, which 
he founded on experiment. 

200 Bailfy corns 

300 Wlieat corns 

51'^ Rye corns 

180 Oats 
40 Peas )>are contained io one 

25 Beans [ solid inch. 

80 Vetclies 

iOO Lintels 
2304 Hairs 1 inch long 

o o3 


From which he calculated the following result : 

14 thousand, 9'3 mill. 420 thous. 936 quarters, 

1 bushel, 1 peck, 1 quartern, 3 pints, and 5 and 

a quarter solid inches of one sort of grain, are 

contained in one solid mile; or 5 thousand, 431 

mill. 776 thousand yards in a cubical mile, being 

254 millions of millions, 358 thousand, 6I mill. 

and 56 thousand inches in a cubical mile ; and if 

every hair be an inch long, and 2304 hairs a 

cubical inch, then 586 thousand, 40 millions of 

millions, 972 thousand, 673 millions, and 24 

thousand, will fill the space of a cubical mile : 

but if a hair be no longer than it is broad, he 

then found that there would be 28 tribes, 129- 

thousand, 966 millions of millions, 688 thousand, 

305 millions, and 152 thousand hairs, to fill the 

space of a cubical mile. 

" As we are come to that notation where he 

introduces the word tribe, it will be proper to 

set down that prolix number, arising from 140 

nails, doubled at a farthing a nail, viz. 


which he reads thus : 

725 Tribes of tribes, 

958 Thous. of mill, of mill, of tribe 

238 Millions of millions of tribes, 

096 Thousand millions of tribes, 

074 Millions of tribes, 

907 Thousand tribes, 

868 Tribes,, 


531 Thousand millions of millions, 

656 Millions of millions, 

993 Thousand millions, 

638 Millions, 

851 Thousands, 

106 Pounds, 2 shillings, and 8 pence. 

For the truth of which I leave those gentlemen 
that have leisure and curiosity to try it. 

" I shall only mention one thing more with 
respect to this man's memory, and it shall be in 
squaring the above number. Now you see he is 
to nuiltiply 39^ figures by 39 figures, and all by 
the strength of his memory, without having re- 
course to human assistance, or pen, ink, and 
paper. What a prodigious task must this be to 
be operated by the head only, which he certainly 
did and after two months and a half, he brings the 
following answer, omitting the odd 2s. 8d, which 
he reads thus : 

527 Tribes of tribes of cramps, 

015 Thous. mill, of mill. trib. of cramps, 

363 Mill, of mill, tribes of cramps, 

459 Thous. mill, tribes of cramps, 

557 Mill, of tribes of cramps, 

385 Thousand tribes of cramps, 

673 Tribes of cramps, 

733 Thous, mill, of mill, of cramps, 

542 Million of miiiions of cramps, 

638 Tliousand millions of cramps , 

591 Millions of cramps, 

721 Thousand cramps, 

213 Cramps. 


298 Tribes of tribes, 

966 Thous. mi. of mill, of tribes, 

079 Millions of mill, of tribes, 

307 Thousand millions of tribes, 

524 Millions of tribes, 

904 Thousand tribes, 

381 Trities, 

389 Thousand millions of millions, 

499 Million of millions 

251 Thousands of millions, 

637 Millions, 

423 Thousands, 

£36 Pounds. 

Further particulars res{>ecting Jedediah, of an 
interesting nature, are found in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for December, 1753.* This corres- 
pondent observes, " I accidentally met him one 
afternoon last week, and was not much above 
two hours in his company. Tn the first half 
hour, several persons being present, some tri- 
fling things were started and talked of; but as 
he was very desirous that I should propose some 
higher questions to him, I complied, and the 
company were all witnesses of his prodigious 
readmess in answering the following questions. 


" In a field 351 yards long, and 261 yards wide, how 
many acres ? 

" After 11 minutes, he answered — 18 acres, 
3 roods, IS perches, and 14 remained. 

• Vol. xxiii. p. 557. 



" Suppose sound moves ll-iS feet in one second of time, 
how long then, after the firing of one of the cannons at 
Retford, may the same be heard at Haughton Park, taking 
the distance at five miles ? 

" After about a quarter of an hour he told 
me — in 23 seconds, 7 thirds, and 6 remained. 

" Admit I set 3584 brocoli plants in rows, 4 feet asun- 
der, and the plants 7 feet apart, in a rectangular plot of 
ground, how much land will these plants take up ? 

" [n near half an hour he said— 2 acres, I 
rood, 8 perches and half. 

" What dimensions must I give my joiner to make me 
a cubical corn bin, that shall hold me just a quarter of 
malt, Winchester measure ? 

" This question exercised all his faculties, and 
he declared it was the hardest he ever proposed ; 
by this I perceived he had never engaged himself 
about the cube root : however, though so diffi- 
cult it appeared to him, he was very desirous to 
answer it, before it was too late in the evening, 
and after some time, he said to himself there 
were nooks in it, hut he would sift them out: 
he never regarded our talking, but sat as one 
heedless of every thing about him, except his 
pot of beer, which he took notice of. I gave 
him no hints, help, or assistance, but left it en- 
tirely to him, as I did the others, nor had he any 
thing in his hand to make any marks (which I 



must repeat, because he makes all his computa- 
tions by his memory) after about an hour he 
told me, it would be a little more than £5| 
inches on a side, and 26 inches would be too 
much, all which is very true and very exact. 

" 1 shall here subjoin an account he gave me 
of the quantity of ale or strong beer that he has 
drank on free cost, since he was 12 years of age, 
and the gentlemen's names where ; and, as the 
account was a little particular, I asked him hue 
and illuc after 1 had committed it to paper, and 
he answered each demand as set down, at the 
houses of the following noblemen and gentle- 

men : 

Duke of Kingston 
Duke of Norfolk 
Duke of Leeds 
Duke of Devonshire 
Xady Oxford 
G. Heathcote, Esq. 
Sir G. Savile, Bart. 
J. Tho/uliagh, Esq. 
Sir L. Filkington, Bart. 
John Bnstowe, Esq. 
"W. ViUareal, Esq. 
Sir 11. Hnnlock, Bart, 
— — Burton, Esq. 

White, Esq. 

Dr. Burne 

Mr. Hocks 

Mr. West 

Mr. Vesey 

Rev. Mr. Hartshorn 

Mr. Flint 

Clarke, Esq. 

Hallows, Esq. 

Sir J. Jenkinson, Bart. 

Mr. Huncock 

Mr. Hall 

Mr. E. Sharpe of Elkesly 

Mr. Jh. Sharpe 

Rev. Mr. Boawre 

Mr. Willets 

Mr. Maj-or of Chesterfield 




Rev. Mr. Pegge 



Mr. Richardson 



Mr. Raynes 



Mr. Stevens 



Mr. Far 



Mr. Greenwood 



Mr. Shaw 



Mr. Barker 



Mr. Sisson 



Mr. Bfajor 



Mr. Brigs 



Mr. Pilkington 



Mr. J. Brigs 


1 , 

Mr. Beestings 



Gathering for his dead 

cow 72 


Rev. Mr. Hewet 






Mr. HaUhead 



Mr. Wright 



At Elniton Manor 



Mr. Sherwin 



Mr. Carteret 



Mr. Lane 



Mr. Whitehouse 



Mr. R. Parkin 



Mr.R. Greenwood 



Mr. Ih. Clarke 



Mr. Bulliv<int 



Mr. Fadley 


d 2 

At my own housr 



" The whole amounts to 5116 pints, or winds, 
38 he terras them, because he never uses above 
one wind to a pint, or two to a quart." 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for June, 
1754,* there is a portrait of Jedediah, in the 
forty-ninth year of his age, with this motto from 
Virgil, * Numeros Memini.'-f The editor of 
this Magazine having received many communi- 
cations questioning the authenticity of the cir- 
cumstances already related of Buxton, gave re- 
peated assurances of the certainty of the facts, 
and appealed to the known integrity of the gen- 
tlemen by whom they were communicated; and, 
as an additional testimony inserted a sketch of 

• Vol. xiv. p. 251. 

t In addition to this portrait there have been various 
others engraven at different times. (1.) A small etching, 
(at. 57, 1764,) by Miss Hartley, 1764. (2.) A whole 
length — an etching in large 4°. by Holme. (3.) A ditto, 
in mezzot. J. Spilsbnry. (4.) A ditto, an etching, 4°. by 
Topham, 1770. {Bromley.) 


the life of this extraordinary man. " With this 
print* (says the editor) it was greatly to be wished 

that some account of his life could be given : 
but the life of laborious poverty is necessarily 
uniform and obscure : the history of one day 
would almost include the events of all. Time, 

• The portrait of Jedcdiah from which the above wood- 
cut is taken. 


ith respect to Buxton, changed nothing but his 
age, nor did the seasons vary his employment, 
except that in winter he used a ^/iai/, and in 
•ummer a li/ig hook. 

" The grandfather of Jedediah, John Buxton, 
was vicar of Elmeton, in Derbyshire, and his 
father, William Buxton, was school-master of 
the same parish ; but Jedediah, notwithstanding 
the profession of his father, is extremely illite«> 
rate, having by whatever accident, been so 
much neglected in his youth as never to have 
been taught to write : how he came first to 
know the relative proportions of numbers, and 
their progressive denominations, he docs not re- 
member ; but to this he has applied the whole 
force of his mind, and upon this his attention is 
constantly fixed, so that he frequently takes no 
cognizance of external objects, and when he 
does it is only with respect to their numbers : 
the same attention of his mind appears as well 
by what he hears as by what he sees. If any 
space of time is mentioned, he will soon after 
say, that it is so many minutes, and if any dis- 
tance of way, he will assign the number of 
hair's breadths, without any cjuestiou having; 
been usked, or any calculatioji expected by the 

" By this method he has greatly increased the 
power of his nienjory, with respect to figures, 
P V 


and stored up several common products in his 
mind, to whicli he can have immediate recourse, 
as the number of minutes in a year, of hs^ir's 
breadths in a nnle, and many others. When he 
once comprehends a question, which is not 
without difficulty and time, he begins to work 
with amazing facility, and will leave a long 
question half wrought, and, at the end of se- 
veral months, resume it, beginnhig where he 
< left off, and proceeding regularly till it is com- 

" His memory would certainly, have been 
equally retentive, with respect to other objects, 
if he had attended to odier objects with equal 
diligence ; but his perpetual application to fi- 
gures has prevented the smallest acquisition of 
any other knowledge, and his mind seems to 
have retained fewer ideas than that of a boy of 
ten years old, in the same class of life. He 
has been sometimes asked, on his return from 
church, whether he remembered the ^ text, or 
any pari of the sermon, but it never appeared 
that he brought away one sentence : his mind, 
upon a closer examination, being found to have 
been busied, even during divine service in its 
favourite operation, either dividing some time or 
some sjjace into the smallest known parts, or 
resolving some question that had been given him 
as a test of his abilities. His power of abstrac- 


tion is so great that no noise interrupts hinni ; 
and, if he is asked any question, he immediately 
replies, and returns again to his calculation, 
without any confusion, or the loss of more time 
than his answer required. His method of work- 
ing is peculiar to himself, and by no means the 
shortest or the clearest, as will appear by the 
following example : 

" He was required to mutiply 456 by 378, 
which he had completed as soon as a person in 
company had produced the product in the com- 
mon way ; and upon being requested to work it 
audibly, that his method might be known, he 
multiplied 456 first by 5, which produced 2280, 
which he again multiplied by 20, and found the 
product 45600, which was the multiplicand mul- 
tiplied by 100; this product he again multiplied 
by S, which produced 136800, which was the 
sum of the multiplicand multiplied by 300 ; it 
remained therefore to multiply it by 78, which 
he eflfected, by multiplying 2280 (the product 
of the multiplicand multiplied by 5) by 15 ; 5 
times 15 being 75 ; this product being 34200, 
he added to the 136800, which was the multi- 
plicand multiplied by 300, and this produced 
171000, which was 375 times 456 ; to complete 
this operation therefore, he multiplied 456 by 3, 
which produced 1368, and having added this 


number to 171000, he found the product of 45t6 
multiplied by 378 to be 172368. 

" Thus it appears that his arithmetic is per- 
fectly his own, and that he is so little acquainted 
with the common rules as to multiply 456 first 
by 5, and the product by 20, to find what sum . 
it would produce multiplied by 100, whereas if 
he had added two noughts to the figures, he 
would have obtained it at once. 

" The only objects of Jedediah's curiosity, ex- 
cept figures, were the king and royal family, and 
his desire to see them was so strong, that, in the 
beginning of the spring, he walked to London 
on purpose, but at last returned disappointed, 
the king having just removed to Kensington as 
Jedediah came into London. He was however 
introduced to the Royal Society, whom he called 
the volk of the Siety Court : the gentlemen 
who were present asked him several questions in 
arithmetic, to prove his abilities, and dismissed 
him with a handsome gratuity. 

" During his residence in London he was car- 
ried to see King Richard IIL performed at 
Drury-laue playhouse, and it was expected ei- 
ther that the novelty and the splendour of the 
show would have fixed him in astonishment, or 
kept Tiis imagination in a continual hurry ; or 
that his passions would, in some degree have 
been touched by the power of action, if he had 


not perfectly understood the dialogue ; but Jede- 
diah's mind was employed in the playhouse just 
as it was employed at church. During the 
dance he fixed his attention upon the numb'-r of 
steps ; he declared after a fine piece of music, 
that the innumerable sounds produced by the in- 
struments had perplexed him beyond measure, 
and he attended even to Mr. Garrick only to 
coinU the zoords that he uttered; in which, he 
says, he perfectly succeeded. 

" Jedediah is now safely returned to the place 
of his birth, where, if his enjoyments are few, 
his wishes do not seem to be more : he applies 
to his labour, by which he subsists with cheer- 
fulness ; he regrets nothing that he left behind 
him in London, and it is still his opinion, that 
a slice of rusty bacon atfords the most delicious 

1312. A. D. — Zerah CoLBURN. Theap- 
pearance of this young American, and rival of 
Jedediah Buxton, having excited considerable at- 
tention, we shall present our readers with the fol- 
lowing interesting narrative, as drawn up by the 
ingenious and well known calculator, Mr. Fi< an- 
cis Baily. 

• Jedediah died about the your 1774, aged 70, aqd left 
several children, none of whom have inherited the rare ta- 
lents of their father. 


" London, Jug. 20, 1812. 

*' The attention of the philosophical world has 
been lately attracted by the most singular phaeno- 
menon in the history of the human mind that 
perhaps ever existed. It is the case of a child, 
under eight ^eats of age, who, without any pre- 
vious knowledge of the common rules of arith- 
metic, or even of the use and power of the Ara- 
bic numerals, and without having given any par- 
ticular attention to the subject, possesses (as if 
by intuition) the singular faculty of solving a 
great variety of arithmetical questions by the mere 
operation of the mind, and without the usual 
assistance of any visible symbol or contrivance. 

''Thenanieof this child is Zera Colburn, who 
was born at Cabut (a town lying at the head of 
Onion river, in Vermont, in the United States 
of America,) on the 1st of September 1804. 
About two years ago (August ISIO) although 
at that time not six ifenrs of age, \\e first began to 
show those wonderful powers of calculation 
which.have since so much attracted the attention 
and excited tiie astonishment of every person 
who has witnessed his extraordinary abilities. 
The discovery was made by accident. His fa- 
ther, who had not given him any other instruc- 
tion than such as was to be obtained at a small 
school established in that unfrequented and re- 
mote part of tlie country, (and which did not 


include either writing or ciphering,) was much 
surprised one day to hear him repeating the 
products of several numbers. Struck with 
amazement at the circumstance, he proposed a 
variety of arithmetical questions to him, all of 
which the child solved with remarkable facility 
and correctness. The news of this infant pro- 
digy soon circulated through the neighbourhood; 
and many persons came from distant parts to 
witness so singular a circumstance. The father, 
encouraged by the unanimous opinion of all 
w!io came to see him, was induced to undertake, 
with this child, the tour of the United States. 
They were every where received with the most 
flattering expressions ; and in the several towns 
which they visited, various plans were suggested 
to educate and bring up the child, free from all 
expense to his family. Yielding, however, to 
the pressing solicitations of his friends, and 
nrged by the most respectable and powerful re- 
commendations, as well as by a view to his son's 
more complete education, the father has brought 
the child to this coiftitry, where they arrived on 
the ICth of May last : and the inhabitants of this 
metropolis have for the last three months had an 
opportunity of seeing and examining this wonder- 
ful phiCnomcnon,* and of verifying the reports 
that have been circulated respecting him. 

• At the Exhibition Rooms, Spring Gardens. 


" Many persons of the first eminence for their 
knowledge in mathematics, and well known for 
their philosophical inquiries, have made a point 
of seeing and conversing with his extraordinary 
powers. It is correctly true, as stated of him, that 
— * He will not only determine, with the greatest 
facility and dispatch, the exact number oi minutes 
or seconds in any given period of time; but will 
also solve any other question of a similar kind. 
He will tell the exact product arising from the 
multiplication of any number, consisting of two, 
three, or fOur figures, by any other number consist- 
ing of the like number of figures. Or, any number, 
consisting of six, or seven places of figures, being ' 
proposed, he will determine, with equal expedi- 
tion and ease, all x\\e factors of which it is com- 
posed. Tiiis .singular faculty consequently ex- 
tends not only to the raising of powers, but also 
to the extraction of the square and cube roots of 
the number proposed ; and likewise to the means 
of determining whether it be aprime number (or 
a number incapable of division by any other num- 
ber) ; for which case there does not exist, at pre- 
sent, any general rule among mathematicians.' 
All these, and a variety of other questions con- 
nected therewith, are answered by this child with 
such promptness and accuracy (and in the midst 
of his Juvenile pursuits) as to astonish every per- 
son who has visited him. 


" At a meeting of his friends which was held 
for the purpose of concerting the best method of 
promoting the views of the father, tiiis child un- 
dertook, and completely succeeded in, raising 
the number 8 progressively up to the sixteenth 
power ! ! ! and in naming the last result, viz. 
28 1,474,976,7 10,65(5 he was right in every figure. 
He was then tried as to other numbers, consist- 
ing of one figure ; all of which he raised (by ac- 
tual multiplication and not by memory) as high 
as the tenth power, with so much facility and 
dispatch that the person appointed to take down 
the results, was obliged to enjoin him not to be 
so rapid i With respect to numbers consisting of 
two figures, he would raise some of them to the 
sixth, seventh, 2^^d eighth power; but not always 
with equal facility: for the larger the products 
became, the more difHculthe found it to proceed. 
He was asked the square root of 106929, and 
before the number could be written down, he 
immediately answered 327. He was then re- 
quired to name the cube root of 268,336,125, 
and with equal facility and promptness he re- 
plied 645. Various other questions of a similar 
nature, respecting the roots and powers of very 
high numbers, were proposed by several of the 
gentlemen present, to all of which he answer- 
ed in a similar manner. One of the party re- 
quested him to name the yac^o/\s which produced 


the number 247483, which he immediately did 
by mentioning the two numbers 941 and 263; 
which indeed are the only two numbers that will 
produce it. Another of them proposed 171395, 
and he named the following factors as the only 
ones that would produce it ; viz 5 < 34279, 
7 X 24485, 59 X 2905, 83 X 2065, 35 X 4897, 
295 X 58 ] , and 413x415. He yvhs then asked 
to give the factors of 36083 ; but he immediately 
replied that it had none, which in fact was the 
case, as 36083 is a prime number. Other num- 
bers were indiscriminately proposed to him, and 
he always succeeded in giving the correct factors, 
except in the case of prime nun)bers, which he 
discovered almost ais soon as proposed. One of 
the gentlemen asked him how miiny minutes 
there were in forty eight years ; and before the 
question could be written down he replied 
25,228,800 ; and instantly added, that the number 
of seconds in the same pt riod was 1,5 1 3,7'28,000. 
Various questions of the like kind were put to 
him ; and to all of them he answered with nearly 
equal facility and promptitude ; so as to asto- 
nish every one present, and to excite a desire 
that so extraordinary a faculty siiould (if possible) 
be rendered more extensive and useful. 

** It was the wish of the gentlemc nt present 
to oblani a knowledge of the method by which 
the child was enabled to answer, with so much 


facility and correctness, the questions thus put to 
him : but to all their inquiries upon this subject 
(and he was closely e^iamincd upon this point) he 
was unable to give them any information. He 
positively declared (and every observation that 
was made seemed to justify the assertion) that he 
did not know Aorc; the answers came into his 
mind. In the act of multiplying two numbers 
together, and in the raising of powers, it was evi- 
dent (not only from the motion of his lips, but 
also from some singular facts which will be here- 
after mentioned,) that some operation was going 
forward in his mind; yet that operation could 
not (from the rcadujess with which the answers 
were furnished) be at all allied to the usual mode 
of proceeding with such subjects Tand moreover, 
he is entirely ignorant of the common rules of 
arithmetic, atid cannot perform, upon paper, a 
simple sum in multiplication or division. But, 
in ihe extraction of roots and in mentioning the 
factors of high numbers it does not appear that 
any operation can take place ; since he \\ill give 
the answer immedi at ehj, or in u very few seconds, 
where it would require, according to the ordi- 
nary method of solution, a very difficult and la- 
borious calculation: and nvoreover, tlie know- 
ledge of a prime number cannot be obtained by 
any known rule. 

4i4 •' INSTANCliS OX- 

*i It has been already observed, that it was 
evident, from some singular facts, that the child 
operated by certain rules known only to him- 
self. This discovery was made in one or two 
instances, when he had been closely pressed 
upon that point. In one case he was asked 
to tell the square of 4395; he at first hesi- 
tated, fearful that lie should not be able 
. to answer it correctly ; but when he applied 
himself to it he said it was ]9?3lG,025. On 
being questioned as to the cause of his hesitation, 
he replied that he did not like to iiiultiply four 
figures by four figures ; but, said he, * 1 found 

* out another way; I multiplied 293 by 293, and 

* llien multiplied this product twice by the num- 
' ber 15; which produced the sanie result.' On 
another occasion, his highness the Duke of 
Gloucester asked him the product of 21,734 
multiplied by o43 ; he immediately replied 
11,801,502: but, upon son»e remark being 
made on the subject, the child said that he had, 
in his own mind, multiplied ()5302 by 181. 
Now, although in the first instance it must be 
evident to every mathematician that 4395 is 
equal to 393 X 15,(aod consequently that (4395) 
®=(«93)"x (15)^ ^nd further that in the se- 
cond case 543 is equal to 181x3, and conse- 
quently that 21734x(l3l xS)=(21734X3x 


181 ; yet, it is not the less remarkable that this 
combination should be immediately perceived by 
the child, and we cannot the less adu)ire his in- 
genuity in thus seizing histantly the easiest me- 
thod of solving the question proposed to him. 

" It must be evident, from whaihas here been 
stated, that the singular faculty which this child 
possesses is nit altogether dependent upon his 
memory. In the multiplication of numbers and 
in the raising of powers, he is doubtless consi- 
derably assisted by that remarkable quality of the 
mind : and in this respect he might be considered 
as bearing some resemblance (if the difference of 
age did not prevent the justness of the compa- 
rison) to the celebrated Jedediah Buxton, and 
other persons of similar note. But, in the ex- 
traction of the roots of numbers, and in deter- 
mining their factors (if any), it is clear, to all 
those who have witnessed the astonishing quick- 
ness and accuracy of this child, that the memory 
has little or nothing to do with the process. 
And in this particular pohit consists the remark- 
able difference between the present and all for- 
mer instances of an apparently similar kind. 

'* It has been recorded as an astonishing effort 
of memory that the celebrated Euler (who, in 
the science of analysis, might vie even with New- 
ton himself,) could remember the first six pow- 
ers of every number under 100. This, probably, 
9 9 


must be taken with some restrictious : but, if true 
to the fullest extent, it is not move astonishing 
than the efforts of this child; with this additional 
circumstance in favour t)f the latter, that he is 
capable of veryfying, in a very few seconds, 
every figure which he may have occasion for. It 
has been further remarked by the biographer of 
that eminent mathematician, that * he perceived, 

* almost at a simple glance, the factors of which 
*■ his formulae were composed ; the particular 

* system of factors belonging to the question un- 

* der consideration : the various artifices by 

* which that system may be simplified and redu- 

* ced ; and the relation of the several factors to 

* ihe conditions of the hypothesis. His expert- 
^ ness in this particular probably resulted, in a 
f great measure, from the ease with which he 

* performed mathematical investigations hy head. 

* He had always accustomed himself to that ex- 

* ercise ; and, having practised it with assiduity, 

* (even before the loss of sight, which afterwards 

* rendered it a matter of necessity,) he is an in- 

* stance to what an astonishing degree it may be 
' acquired, and how much it improves the intel- 

* lectual powers. No other discipline is so ef- 

* ft ctual in strengthening the faculty of attention : 

* it gives a facility of apprehension, an accuracy 

* and steadiness to the conceptions ; and (what is 
' a still more valuable acquisition) it habituates 


* the mind to arrangement in its reasonings and 

* reflections.' 

" It is not iijtended to draw a comparison be- 
tween the humble, though astonishing, efforts of 
this infant-prodigy and the gigantic powers of that 
illustrious character to whom a reference has 
just been made : yet we may be permitted to 
hope and expect that those wonderful talents, 
which are so conspicuous at this early age, may 
by a suitable education be considerably improved 
and extended: and that some netv light will even- 
tually be thrown upon those subjects, for the elu- 
cidation of which his mind appears to be pecu- 
liarly formed by nature, since he enters into the 
world with all those powers and faculties which 
are not even attainable by the most eminent at a 
more advanced period of life. Every mathemati- 
cian must be aware of the important advantages 
which have sometimes been derived from the 
most simple and trifling circumstances ; the full 
effect of which has not always been evident at 
first sight. To mention one singular instance of 
this kind. The very simple improvement of ex- 
pressing the powers and roots of quantities by 
means of indices, introduced a new and general 
arithmetic of exponents : and this algorithm of 
powers led the way to the invention of I ga- 
rithms, by means of which, all arithmetical com- 
jiutatioas are so much facilitated and abridged. 


Perhaps this child possesses a knowledge of some 
more important properties connected with this 
subject; and although he is incapable at present 
of giving any satisfactory account of the state of 
his mind, or of comnumicating to others the 
knowledge which it is so evident he doe& possess, 
yet there is every reason to believe that, wher) 
his mind is more cultivated and his ideas more 
expanded, he will be able not only to divulge the 
mode by which he at present operates, but also 
point out some new sources of information on 
this interesting subject, 

" The case is certainly one of great novelty 
and importance : and every literary character and 
every friend to science must be anxious to see 
the experiment fairly tried, as to the effect which 
a suitable education may produce on a mind 
constituted as his appears to be. With this view 
a number of gentlemen have taken the child un- 
der their patronage, and have formed themselves 
into a committee foi the purpose of superintend- 
ing his education. Application has been made 
to a gentleman of science, well known for his 
mathematical abilities, who has consented to 
take the child under his immediate tuition : the 
committee therefore propose to withdraw him, 
for the present, from public exhibition, in order 
that he may fully devote himself to his studies. 
But whether they shall be able wholly to accom 


plish the object they have in view, will depend 
upon the assistance which they may receive from 
the public."* 

Since this statement was printed, we have been 
favoured with some further account of this ex- 
traordinary child, which details an examination 
by Mr. Hase, the chief cashier of the Bank 
of England. The authenticity of this narrative 
may be relied on. 

Zerah Colhurn was introduced to Mr. Hase 
at the Bank accompanied by his father. The 
first question required the cube root of 
949,862,087 ; he answered in about one minute, 
983, which is correct ; the next question was 
the cube of 478 ; in less than two minutes 
he said it was, 109,215,352. The third ques- 
tion was to give the product of the two factors 
4973 and 3587 ; in about four minutes he stated 
a product wrong in two figures, namely 17,836,45 1 
then 17,828,481 : on being told that he was not 
correct, after a lapse of two minutes more he sta- 
ted the right product, 1 7,838, 151. He was then 
asked what two factors of four figures each 
would give 42,173,703 ; he hesitated for some 
time, and appeared unable to answer it ; his fa- 
ther then requested Mr. H. to mention one of the 
factors, which he did, namely, 8937, in about 

• Mr. BoNNYCASTLE, we understand, is the gentleman 
to whom the tuition ofZeraii Col burn is to be entrusted. 


three minutes he named the other correctly, 
4719. The last question was to name two fac- 
tors, one of four, the other of three figures, which 
would produce 1 ,734,433 ; he appeared unable 
to do this, saying, they were prime numbers, but 
his father persisted that he would solve the ques- 
tion; he, however, found the difficulty insur- 
mountable. His father then asked Mr. H. the 
first number of the jfac^or of three figures, which 
was named, viz. 7 ; still he could not accomplish 
it, then the second figure, 3, was told him ; still 
he failed, but when he was made acquainted with 
the last figure, 9> to the great astonishment of 
Mr. H. he immediately called out that the other 
factor was "2347, which is correct. 

Since the above accounthas been collected, we 
regret to find that this interesting youth is again 
exhibited to the public ; the money collected for his 
education, we suppose, not being found sufficient 
for the purpose. If his parents intend to appro- 
priate the sum gained by exhibiting him, in aid 
of the above fund, we heartily wish them success, 
and cannot, perhaps, do them a more essential 
service than by inserting the following notice, 
which appeared in the Chronicle of the 17th 
Dec. 18 12 



" To be seen at Wigle}''s Exhibition Rooms, 
Spring Gardens, a child only eight years of age, 
who, without any previous knowledge of the 
common rules of arithmetic, possesses the power 
of solving arithmetical questions by the intuition 
of his mind alone. He will instantly tell the 
number of minutes and seconds in any given time 
— multiply any two, three, or four figures by any 
others — find all the fractions in any number of 
six or seven places of figures — extract square 
and cube roots in the midst of his juvenile pur- 
suits. Many eminent mathematicians, and other 
learned persons have witnessed his extraordinary 
powers with astonishment. — Admission daily 
from 12 till 4 o'clock, and from 8 to 9. One 
shilling each person." 


J. Fawcett, Printer, 
Mtwcastle Street, Loudon. 

Books printed for Sherwood, Neeli/, and Jones. 

In Two Volumes, 8vo. embellished with an elegant Portrait, 
price 185. boards, 

1. THE LIFE OF FENELON, Archbishop of 
Carabrai ; compiled, from Original Manuscripts, by M. L. F. 
De Bausset, formerly Bishop of Alais, Sec, Translated 
from the French, 


''The utmost gentleness of manners, a temper which 
nothing could disturb, perfect ingenuousness, eminent at- 
tainments, a sublime genious, exalted virtue, and elevated 
piety, created the singular interest which belonged to Fe- 
nelon when livi ;g, and which still surrounds his memory. 

" The work before us will highly gratify all who delight 
to contemplate extraordiuary worth and excellence ; and, 
indeed, in interest and beneficial tendency, how few per- 
formances approach it!" — Monthly Review, March, 1811. 

of Fenelon. One large Volume, 12mo. 4s, 6d. boards. 


ev ry Day in the Month, Twelfth Edition, Price'ls. or 
utatly bound in English Morocco, gs, ; in calf, 2s. 6d. ; 
Morocco, 3s. 6d. 

" This excellent little manual is too well known to the 
public to require on our part any additional recommenda- 
tion ; and tlie Memoirs of the amiable Fenelon, prefixed to 
this edition, form a considerable improveraeut."~CrJ(ic«{ 

As a companion to the above, (the same size S^ price,) 

ceraing the Knowledge and Love of God. To which are 
subjoined, Directions for a Holy Life, and the attaining 
Christian Perfection ; also, the Closet Companion, or • 
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